InVivoMAb mouse IgG1 isotype control, unknown specificity

Catalog #BE0083
Product Citations:
239
Clone:
MOPC-21

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Product Details

The MOPC-21 monoclonal antibody is ideal for use as a non-reactive isotype-matched control for mouse IgG1 antibodies in most in vivo and in vitro applications.

Specifications

Isotype Mouse IgG1, κ
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 6.5 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Formulation PBS, pH 6.5
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107784
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
Faraco, G., et al. (2018). "Dietary salt promotes neurovascular and cognitive dysfunction through a gut-initiated TH17 response" Nat Neurosci 21(2): 240-249. PubMed

A diet rich in salt is linked to an increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases and dementia, but it remains unclear how dietary salt harms the brain. We report that, in mice, excess dietary salt suppresses resting cerebral blood flow and endothelial function, leading to cognitive impairment. The effect depends on expansion of TH17 cells in the small intestine, resulting in a marked increase in plasma interleukin-17 (IL-17). Circulating IL-17, in turn, promotes endothelial dysfunction and cognitive impairment by the Rho kinase-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and reduced nitric oxide production in cerebral endothelial cells. The findings reveal a new gut-brain axis linking dietary habits to cognitive impairment through a gut-initiated adaptive immune response compromising brain function via circulating IL-17. Thus, the TH17 cell-IL-17 pathway is a putative target to counter the deleterious brain effects induced by dietary salt and other diseases associated with TH17 polarization.

Macal, M., et al. (2018). "Self-Renewal and Toll-like Receptor Signaling Sustain Exhausted Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells during Chronic Viral Infection" Immunity 48(4): 730-744 e735. PubMed

Although characterization of T cell exhaustion has unlocked powerful immunotherapies, the mechanisms sustaining adaptations of short-lived innate cells to chronic inflammatory settings remain unknown. During murine chronic viral infection, we found that concerted events in bone marrow and spleen mediated by type I interferon (IFN-I) and Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) maintained a pool of functionally exhausted plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). In the bone marrow, IFN-I compromised the number and the developmental capacity of pDC progenitors, which generated dysfunctional pDCs. Concurrently, exhausted pDCs in the periphery were maintained by self-renewal via IFN-I- and TLR7-induced proliferation of CD4(-) subsets. On the other hand, pDC functional loss was mediated by TLR7, leading to compromised IFN-I production and resistance to secondary infection. These findings unveil the mechanisms sustaining a self-perpetuating pool of functionally exhausted pDCs and provide a framework for deciphering long-term exhaustion of other short-lived innate cells during chronic inflammation.

Manlove, L. S., et al. (2015). "Adaptive Immunity to Leukemia Is Inhibited by Cross-Reactive Induced Regulatory T Cells" J Immunol . PubMed

BCR-ABL+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients have transient responses to current therapies. However, the fusion of BCR to ABL generates a potential leukemia-specific Ag that could be a target for immunotherapy. We demonstrate that the immune system can limit BCR-ABL+ leukemia progression although ultimately this immune response fails. To address how BCR-ABL+ leukemia escapes immune surveillance, we developed a peptide: MHC class II tetramer that labels endogenous BCR-ABL-specific CD4+ T cells. Naive mice harbored a small population of BCR-ABL-specific T cells that proliferated modestly upon immunization. The small number of naive BCR-ABL-specific T cells was due to negative selection in the thymus, which depleted BCR-ABL-specific T cells. Consistent with this observation, we saw that BCR-ABL-specific T cells were cross-reactive with an endogenous peptide derived from ABL. Despite this cross-reactivity, the remaining population of BCR-ABL reactive T cells proliferated upon immunization with the BCR-ABL fusion peptide and adjuvant. In response to BCR-ABL+ leukemia, BCR-ABL-specific T cells proliferated and converted into regulatory T (Treg) cells, a process that was dependent on cross-reactivity with self-antigen, TGF-beta1, and MHC class II Ag presentation by leukemic cells. Treg cells were critical for leukemia progression in C57BL/6 mice, as transient Treg cell ablation led to extended survival of leukemic mice. Thus, BCR-ABL+ leukemia actively suppresses antileukemia immune responses by converting cross-reactive leukemia-specific T cells into Treg cells.

Sell, S., et al. (2015). "Control of murine cytomegalovirus infection by gammadelta T cells" PLoS Pathog 11(2): e1004481. PubMed

Infections with cytomegalovirus (CMV) can cause severe disease in immunosuppressed patients and infected newborns. Innate as well as cellular and humoral adaptive immune effector functions contribute to the control of CMV in immunocompetent individuals. None of the innate or adaptive immune functions are essential for virus control, however. Expansion of gammadelta T cells has been observed during human CMV (HCMV) infection in the fetus and in transplant patients with HCMV reactivation but the protective function of gammadelta T cells under these conditions remains unclear. Here we show for murine CMV (MCMV) infections that mice that lack CD8 and CD4 alphabeta-T cells as well as B lymphocytes can control a MCMV infection that is lethal in RAG-1(-/-) mice lacking any T- and B-cells. gammadelta T cells, isolated from infected mice can kill MCMV infected target cells in vitro and, importantly, provide long-term protection in infected RAG-1(-/-) mice after adoptive transfer. gammadelta T cells in MCMV infected hosts undergo a prominent and long-lasting phenotypic change most compatible with the view that the majority of the gammadelta T cell population persists in an effector/memory state even after resolution of the acute phase of the infection. A clonotypically focused Vgamma1 and Vgamma2 repertoire was observed at later stages of the infection in the organs where MCMV persists. These findings add gammadelta T cells as yet another protective component to the anti-CMV immune response. Our data provide clear evidence that gammadelta T cells can provide an effective control mechanism of acute CMV infections, particularly when conventional adaptive immune mechanisms are insufficient or absent, like in transplant patient or in the developing immune system in utero. The findings have implications in the stem cell transplant setting, as antigen recognition by gammadelta T cells is not MHC-restricted and dual reactivity against CMV and tumors has been described.

Leon, B., et al. (2014). "FoxP3+ regulatory T cells promote influenza-specific Tfh responses by controlling IL-2 availability" Nat Commun 5: 3495. PubMed

Here, we test the role of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in controlling T follicular helper (Tfh) and germinal centre (GC) B-cell responses to influenza. In contrast to the idea that Tregs suppress T-cell responses, we find that Treg depletion severely reduces the Tfh cell response to influenza virus. Furthermore, Treg depletion prevents the accumulation of influenza-specific GCs. These effects are not due to alterations in TGFbeta availability or a precursor-progeny relationship between Tregs and Tfh cells, but are instead mediated by increased availability of IL-2, which suppresses the differentiation of Tfh cells and as a consequence, compromises the GC B response. Thus, Tregs promote influenza-specific GC responses by preventing excessive IL-2 signalling, which suppresses Tfh cell differentiation.

Beug, S. T., et al. (2014). "Smac mimetics and innate immune stimuli synergize to promote tumor death" Nat Biotechnol 32(2): 182-190. PubMed

Smac mimetic compounds (SMC), a class of drugs that sensitize cells to apoptosis by counteracting the activity of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, have proven safe in phase 1 clinical trials in cancer patients. However, because SMCs act by enabling transduction of pro-apoptotic signals, SMC monotherapy may be efficacious only in the subset of patients whose tumors produce large quantities of death-inducing proteins such as inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we reasoned that SMCs would synergize with agents that stimulate a potent yet safe “cytokine storm.” Here we show that oncolytic viruses and adjuvants such as poly(I:C) and CpG induce bystander death of cancer cells treated with SMCs that is mediated by interferon beta (IFN-beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and/or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). This combinatorial treatment resulted in tumor regression and extended survival in two mouse models of cancer. As these and other adjuvants have been proven safe in clinical trials, it may be worthwhile to explore their clinical efficacy in combination with SMCs.

Perng, O. A., et al. (2014). "The degree of CD4+ T cell autoreactivity determines cellular pathways underlying inflammatory arthritis" J Immunol 192(7): 3043-3056. PubMed

Although therapies targeting distinct cellular pathways (e.g., anticytokine versus anti-B cell therapy) have been found to be an effective strategy for at least some patients with inflammatory arthritis, the mechanisms that determine which pathways promote arthritis development are poorly understood. We have used a transgenic mouse model to examine how variations in the CD4(+) T cell response to a surrogate self-peptide can affect the cellular pathways that are required for arthritis development. CD4(+) T cells that are highly reactive with the self-peptide induce inflammatory arthritis that affects male and female mice equally. Arthritis develops by a B cell-independent mechanism, although it can be suppressed by an anti-TNF treatment, which prevented the accumulation of effector CD4(+) Th17 cells in the joints of treated mice. By contrast, arthritis develops with a significant female bias in the context of a more weakly autoreactive CD4(+) T cell response, and B cells play a prominent role in disease pathogenesis. In this setting of lower CD4(+) T cell autoreactivity, B cells promote the formation of autoreactive CD4(+) effector T cells (including Th17 cells), and IL-17 is required for arthritis development. These studies show that the degree of CD4(+) T cell reactivity for a self-peptide can play a prominent role in determining whether distinct cellular pathways can be targeted to prevent the development of inflammatory arthritis.

Vokaer, B., et al. (2013). "IL-17A and IL-2-expanded regulatory T cells cooperate to inhibit Th1-mediated rejection of MHC II disparate skin grafts" PLoS One 8(10): e76040. PubMed

Several evidences suggest that regulatory T cells (Treg) promote Th17 differentiation. Based on this hypothesis, we tested the effect of IL-17A neutralization in a model of skin transplantation in which long-term graft survival depends on a strong in vivo Treg expansion induced by transient exogenous IL-2 administration. As expected, IL-2 supplementation prevented rejection of MHC class II disparate skin allografts but, surprisingly, not in IL-17A-deficient recipients. We attested that IL-17A was not required for IL-2-mediated Treg expansion, intragraft recruitment or suppressive capacities. Instead, IL-17A prevented allograft rejection by inhibiting Th1 alloreactivity independently of Tregs. Indeed, T-bet expression of naive alloreactive CD4+ T cells and the subsequent Th1 immune response was significantly enhanced in IL-17A deficient mice. Our results illustrate for the first time a protective role of IL-17A in CD4+-mediated allograft rejection process.

Kerzerho, J., et al. (2013). "Programmed cell death ligand 2 regulates TH9 differentiation and induction of chronic airway hyperreactivity" J Allergy Clin Immunol 131(4): 1048-1057, 1057 e1041-1042. PubMed

BACKGROUND: Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways; however, the underlying physiologic and immunologic processes are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether TH9 cells develop in vivo in a model of chronic airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and what factors control this development. METHOD: We have developed a novel chronic allergen exposure model using the clinically relevant antigen Aspergillus fumigatus to determine the time kinetics of TH9 development in vivo. RESULTS: TH9 cells were detectable in the lungs after chronic allergen exposure. The number of TH9 cells directly correlated with the severity of AHR, and anti-IL-9 treatment decreased airway inflammation. Moreover, we have identified programmed cell death ligand (PD-L) 2 as a negative regulator of TH9 cell differentiation. Lack of PD-L2 was associated with significantly increased TGF-beta and IL-1alpha levels in the lungs, enhanced pulmonary TH9 differentiation, and higher morbidity in the sensitized mice. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that PD-L2 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of TH9 cell development in chronic AHR, providing novel strategies for modulating adaptive immunity during chronic allergic responses.

Myles, I. A., et al. (2013). "Signaling via the IL-20 receptor inhibits cutaneous production of IL-1beta and IL-17A to promote infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus" Nat Immunol 14(8): 804-811. PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus causes most infections of human skin and soft tissue and is a major infectious cause of mortality. Host defense mechanisms against S. aureus are incompletely understood. Interleukin 19 (IL-19), IL-20 and IL-24 signal through type I and type II IL-20 receptors and are associated with inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. We found here that those cytokines promoted cutaneous infection with S. aureus in mice by downregulating IL-1beta- and IL-17A-dependent pathways. We noted similar effects of those cytokines in human keratinocytes after exposure to S. aureus, and antibody blockade of the IL-20 receptor improved outcomes in infected mice. Our findings identify an immunosuppressive role for IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24 during infection that could be therapeutically targeted to alter susceptibility to infection.

Lamere, M. W., et al. (2011). "Regulation of antinucleoprotein IgG by systemic vaccination and its effect on influenza virus clearance" J Virol 85(10): 5027-5035. PubMed

Seasonal influenza epidemics recur due to antigenic drift of envelope glycoprotein antigens and immune evasion of circulating viruses. Additionally, antigenic shift can lead to influenza pandemics. Thus, a universal vaccine that protects against multiple influenza virus strains could alleviate the continuing impact of this virus on human health. In mice, accelerated clearance of a new viral strain (cross-protection) can be elicited by prior infection (heterosubtypic immunity) or by immunization with the highly conserved internal nucleoprotein (NP). Both heterosubtypic immunity and NP-immune protection require antibody production. Here, we show that systemic immunization with NP readily accelerated clearance of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus isolate in an antibody-dependent manner. However, human immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine (TIV) only rarely and modestly boosted existing levels of anti-NP IgG. Similar results were observed in mice, although the reaction could be enhanced with adjuvants, by adjusting the stoichiometry among NP and other vaccine components, and by increasing the interval between TIV prime and boost. Importantly, mouse heterosubtypic immunity that had waned over several months could be enhanced by injecting purified anti-NP IgG or by boosting with NP protein, correlating with a long-lived increase in anti-NP antibody titers. Thus, current immunization strategies poorly induce NP-immune antibody that is nonetheless capable of contributing to long-lived cross-protection. The high conservation of NP antigen and the known longevity of antibody responses suggest that the antiviral activity of anti-NP IgG may provide a critically needed component of a universal influenza vaccine.

    • Endocrinology and Physiology
    • ,
    A negative feedback loop between TET2 and leptin in adipocyte regulates body weight.

    In Nature Communications on 1 April 2024 by Zeng, Q., Song, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Ten-eleven translocation (TET) 2 is an enzyme that catalyzes DNA demethylation to regulate gene expression by oxidizing 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, functioning as an essential epigenetic regulator in various biological processes. However, the regulation and function of TET2 in adipocytes during obesity are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that leptin, a key adipokine in mammalian energy homeostasis regulation, suppresses adipocyte TET2 levels via JAK2-STAT3 signaling. Adipocyte Tet2 deficiency protects against high-fat diet-induced weight gain by reducing leptin levels and further improving leptin sensitivity in obese male mice. By interacting with C/EBPα, adipocyte TET2 increases the hydroxymethylcytosine levels of the leptin gene promoter, thereby promoting leptin gene expression. A decrease in adipose TET2 is associated with obesity-related hyperleptinemia in humans. Inhibition of TET2 suppresses the production of leptin in mature human adipocytes. Our findings support the existence of a negative feedback loop between TET2 and leptin in adipocytes and reveal a compensatory mechanism for the body to counteract the metabolic dysfunction caused by obesity. © 2024. The Author(s).

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Elimination of Chlamydia muridarum from the female reproductive tract is IL-12p40 dependent, but independent of Th1 and Th2 cells.

    In PLoS Pathogens on 1 January 2024 by Rixon, J. A., Fong, K. D., et al.

    PubMed

    Chlamydia vaccine approaches aspire to induce Th1 cells for optimal protection, despite the fact that there is no direct evidence demonstrating Th1-mediated Chlamydia clearance from the female reproductive tract (FRT). We recently reported that T-bet-deficient mice can resolve primary Chlamydia infection normally, undermining the potentially protective role of Th1 cells in Chlamydia immunity. Here, we show that T-bet-deficient mice develop robust Th17 responses and that mice deficient in Th17 cells exhibit delayed bacterial clearance, demonstrating that Chlamydia-specific Th17 cells represent an underappreciated protective population. Additionally, Th2-deficient mice competently clear cervicovaginal infection. Furthermore, we show that sensing of IFN-γ by non-hematopoietic cells is essential for Chlamydia immunity, yet bacterial clearance in the FRT does not require IFN-γ secretion by CD4 T cells. Despite the fact that Th1 cells are not necessary for Chlamydia clearance, protective immunity to Chlamydia is still dependent on MHC class-II-restricted CD4 T cells and IL-12p40. Together, these data point to IL-12p40-dependent CD4 effector maturation as essential for Chlamydia immunity, and Th17 cells to a lesser extent, yet neither Th1 nor Th2 cell development is critical. Future Chlamydia vaccination efforts will be more effective if they focus on induction of this protective CD4 T cell population. Copyright: © 2024 Rixon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    CD8 T cell response and its released cytokine IFN-γ are necessary for lung alveolar epithelial repair during bacterial pneumonia.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 13 November 2023 by Zhang, X., Ali, M., et al.

    PubMed

    Alveolar epithelial regeneration depends on the activity of resident quiescent progenitor cells. Alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells are known as the alveolar epithelial progenitor cells. They exit quiescent state, proliferate rapidly in response to injury and differentiate into alveolar epithelial type I (AT1) cells to regenerate the damaged alveolar epithelium. Although AT2 cell plasticity has been a very intense field of research, the role of CD8 T cell response and their released cytokine IFN-γ, in regulating AT2 cell plasticity and alveolar epithelial repair and regeneration after injury remains largely unknown. We used flow cytometry to quantify the amount of CD8 T cells in mouse lungs after bacterial pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. To determine whether CD8 T cells and their released cytokine IFN-γ are necessary for AT2 cell activity during alveolar epithelial regeneration, we performed loss of function studies using anti-CD8 or anti-IFN-γ monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment in vivo. We assessed the effects of CD8 T cells and cytokine IFN-γ on AT2 cell differentiation capacity using the AT2- CD8 T cell co-culture system in vitro. We detected a transient wave of accumulation of CD8 T cells in mouse lungs, which coincided with the burst of AT2 cell proliferation during alveolar epithelial repair and regeneration in mice following bacterial pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Depletion of CD8 T cells or neutralization of cytokine IFN-γ using anti-CD8 or anti-IFN-γ monoclonal antibody significantly reduced AT2 cell proliferation and differentiation into AT1 cells in mice after bacterial pneumonia. Furthermore, co-culture of CD8 T cells or cytokine IFN-γ with AT2 cells promoted AT2-to-AT1 cell differentiation in both murine and human systems. Conversely, blockade of IFN-γ signaling abrogated the increase in AT2-to-AT1 cell differentiation in the AT2- CD8 T cell co-culture system. Our data demonstrate that CD8 T-cell response and cytokine IFN-γ are necessary for promoting AT2 cell activity during alveolar epithelial repair and regeneration after acute lung injury caused by bacterial pneumonia. Copyright © 2023 Zhang, Ali, Pantuck, Yang, Lin, Bahmed, Kosmider and Tian.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    BCL2 Inhibition Reveals a Dendritic Cell-Specific Immune Checkpoint That Controls Tumor Immunosurveillance.

    In Cancer Discovery on 1 November 2023 by Zhao, L., Liu, P., et al.

    PubMed

    We developed a phenotypic screening platform for the functional exploration of dendritic cells (DC). Here, we report a genome-wide CRISPR screen that revealed BCL2 as an endogenous inhibitor of DC function. Knockout of BCL2 enhanced DC antigen presentation and activation as well as the capacity of DCs to control tumors and to synergize with PD-1 blockade. The pharmacologic BCL2 inhibitors venetoclax and navitoclax phenocopied these effects and caused a cDC1-dependent regression of orthotopic lung cancers and fibrosarcomas. Thus, solid tumors failed to respond to BCL2 inhibition in mice constitutively devoid of cDC1, and this was reversed by the infusion of DCs. Moreover, cDC1 depletion reduced the therapeutic efficacy of BCL2 inhibitors alone or in combination with PD-1 blockade and treatment with venetoclax caused cDC1 activation, both in mice and in patients. In conclusion, genetic and pharmacologic BCL2 inhibition unveils a DC-specific immune checkpoint that restrains tumor immunosurveillance. BCL2 inhibition improves the capacity of DCs to stimulate anticancer immunity and restrain cancer growth in an immunocompetent context but not in mice lacking cDC1 or mature T cells. This study indicates that BCL2 blockade can be used to sensitize solid cancers to PD-1/PD-L1-targeting immunotherapy. This article is featured in Selected Articles from This Issue, p. 2293. ©2023 American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Neuroscience
    Microglia and complement mediate early corticostriatal synapse loss and cognitive dysfunction in Huntington's disease.

    In Nature Medicine on 1 November 2023 by Wilton, D. K., Mastro, K., et al.

    PubMed

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating monogenic neurodegenerative disease characterized by early, selective pathology in the basal ganglia despite the ubiquitous expression of mutant huntingtin. The molecular mechanisms underlying this region-specific neuronal degeneration and how these relate to the development of early cognitive phenotypes are poorly understood. Here we show that there is selective loss of synaptic connections between the cortex and striatum in postmortem tissue from patients with HD that is associated with the increased activation and localization of complement proteins, innate immune molecules, to these synaptic elements. We also found that levels of these secreted innate immune molecules are elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of premanifest HD patients and correlate with established measures of disease burden.In preclinical genetic models of HD, we show that complement proteins mediate the selective elimination of corticostriatal synapses at an early stage in disease pathogenesis, marking them for removal by microglia, the brain's resident macrophage population. This process requires mutant huntingtin to be expressed in both cortical and striatal neurons. Inhibition of this complement-dependent elimination mechanism through administration of a therapeutically relevant C1q function-blocking antibody or genetic ablation of a complement receptor on microglia prevented synapse loss, increased excitatory input to the striatum and rescued the early development of visual discrimination learning and cognitive flexibility deficits in these models. Together, our findings implicate microglia and the complement cascade in the selective, early degeneration of corticostriatal synapses and the development of cognitive deficits in presymptomatic HD; they also provide new preclinical data to support complement as a therapeutic target for early intervention. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • IP
    • ,
    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    PKN1 Exerts Neurodegenerative Effects in an In Vitro Model of Cerebellar Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy via Inhibition of AKT/GSK3β Signaling.

    In Biomolecules on 31 October 2023 by zur Nedden, S., Safari, M. S., et al.

    PubMed

    We recently identified protein kinase N1 (PKN1) as a negative gatekeeper of neuronal AKT protein kinase activity during postnatal cerebellar development. The developing cerebellum is specifically vulnerable to hypoxia-ischemia (HI), as it occurs during hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, a condition typically caused by oxygen deprivation during or shortly after birth. In that context, activation of the AKT cell survival pathway has emerged as a promising new target for neuroprotective interventions. Here, we investigated the role of PKN1 in an in vitro model of HI, using postnatal cerebellar granule cells (Cgc) derived from Pkn1 wildtype and Pkn1-/- mice. Pkn1-/- Cgc showed significantly higher AKT phosphorylation, resulting in reduced caspase-3 activation and improved survival after HI. Pkn1-/- Cgc also showed enhanced axonal outgrowth on growth-inhibitory glial scar substrates, further pointing towards a protective phenotype of Pkn1 knockout after HI. The specific PKN1 phosphorylation site S374 was functionally relevant for the enhanced axonal outgrowth and AKT interaction. Additionally, PKN1pS374 shows a steep decrease during cerebellar development. In summary, we demonstrate the pathological relevance of the PKN1-AKT interaction in an in vitro HI model and establish the relevant PKN1 phosphorylation sites, contributing important information towards the development of specific PKN1 inhibitors.

    • FC/FACS
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Phagocytosis-initiated tumor hybrid cells acquire a c-Myc-mediated quasi-polarization state for immunoevasion and distant dissemination.

    In Nature Communications on 17 October 2023 by Chou, C. W., Hung, C. N., et al.

    PubMed

    While macrophage phagocytosis is an immune defense mechanism against invading cellular organisms, cancer cells expressing the CD47 ligand send forward signals to repel this engulfment. Here we report that the reverse signaling using CD47 as a receptor additionally enhances a pro-survival function of prostate cancer cells under phagocytic attack. Although low CD47-expressing cancer cells still allow phagocytosis, the reverse signaling delays the process, leading to incomplete digestion of the entrapped cells and subsequent tumor hybrid cell (THC) formation. Viable THCs acquire c-Myc from parental cancer cells to upregulate both M1- and M2-like macrophage polarization genes. Consequently, THCs imitating dual macrophage features can confound immunosurveillance, gaining survival advantage in the host. Furthermore, these cells intrinsically express low levels of androgen receptor and its targets, resembling an adenocarcinoma-immune subtype of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Therefore, phagocytosis-generated THCs may represent a potential target for treating the disease. © 2023. Springer Nature Limited.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    The CX3CL1-CX3CR1 chemokine axis can contribute to tumor immune evasion and blockade with a novel CX3CR1 monoclonal antibody enhances response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 29 September 2023 by Chaudhri, A., Bu, X., et al.

    PubMed

    CX3CL1 secreted in the tumor microenvironment serves as a chemoattractant playing a critical role in metastasis of CX3CR1 expressing cancer cells. CX3CR1 can be expressed in both cancer and immune-inhibitory myeloid cells to facilitate their migration. We generated a novel monoclonal antibody against mouse CX3CR1 that binds to CX3CR1 and blocks the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 interaction. We next explored the immune evasion strategies implemented by the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis and find that it initiates a resistance program in cancer cells that results in 1) facilitation of tumor cell migration, 2) secretion of soluble mediators to generate a pro-metastatic niche, 3) secretion of soluble mediators to attract myeloid populations, and 4) generation of tumor-inflammasome. The CX3CR1 monoclonal antibody reduces migration of tumor cells and decreases secretion of immune suppressive soluble mediators by tumor cells. In combination with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, this CX3CR1 monoclonal antibody enhances survival in an immunocompetent mouse colon carcinoma model through a decrease in tumor-promoting myeloid populations. Thus, this axis is involved in the mechanisms of resistance to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy and the combination therapy can overcome a portion of the resistance mechanisms to anti-PD-1. Copyright © 2023 Chaudhri, Bu, Wang, Gomez, Torchia, Hua, Hung, Davies, Lizee, Andrian, Hwu and Freeman.

    • Homo sapiens (Human)
    Laser microdissection, proteomics, and multiplex immunohistochemistry: a bumpy ride into the study of paraffin-embedded fetal and pediatric lung tissues.

    In Frontiers in Medicine on 14 September 2023 by Cardoso Dos Santos, L. M., Avila, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Knowledge about lung development or lung disease is mainly derived from data extrapolated from mouse models. This has obvious drawbacks in developmental diseases, particularly due to species differences. Our objective is to describe the development of complementary analysis methods that will allow a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of rare congenital diseases. Paraffin-embedded human pediatric and fetal lung samples were laser microdissected to enrich different lung regions, namely, bronchioli or alveoli. These samples were analyzed by data-independent acquisition-based quantitative proteomics, and the lung structures were subsequently compared. To confirm the proteomic data, we employed an optimized Sequential ImmunoPeroxidase Labeling and Erasing (SIMPLE) staining for specific proteins of interest. By quantitative proteomics, we identified typical pulmonary proteins from being differentially expressed in different regions. While the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and the surfactant protein C (SFTPC) were downregulated, tubulin beta 4B (TUBB4B) was upregulated in bronchioli, compared to alveoli. In fetal tissues, CD31 was downregulated in fetal bronchioli compared to canaliculi. Moreover, we confirmed their presence using SIMPLE staining. Some expected proteins did not show up in the proteomic data, such as SOX-9, which was only detected by means of immunohistochemistry in the SIMPLE analysis. Our data underline the robustness and applicability of this type of experimental approach, especially for rare paraffin-embedded tissue samples. It also strengthens the importance of these methods for future studies, particularly when considering developmental lung diseases, such as congenital lung anomalies. Copyright © 2023 Cardoso dos Santos, Avila, Schvartz, Rougemont, Bochaton-Piallat and Ruchonnet-Metrailler.

    • Cancer Research
    KLF12 overcomes anti-PD-1 resistance by reducing galectin-1 in cancer cells.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 1 August 2023 by Zheng, Y., Zhang, H., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune checkpoint blockade has revolutionized cancer treatment and has improved the survival of a subset of patients with cancer. However, numerous patients do not benefit from immunotherapy, and treatment resistance is a major challenge. Krüppel-like factor 12 (KLF12) is a transcriptional inhibitor whose role in tumor immunity is unclear. We demonstrated a relationship between KLF12 and CD8+ T cells in vivo and in vitro by flow cytometry. The role and underlying mechanism that KLF12 regulates CD8+ T cells were investigated using reverse transcription and quantitative PCR, western blot FACS, chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR and Dual-Luciferase reporter assays, etc, and employing small interfering RNA (siRNA) and inhibitors. In vivo efficacy studies were conducted with multiple mouse tumor models, employing anti-programmed cell death protein 1 combined with KLF12 or galectin-1 (Gal-1) inhibitor. Here, we found that the expression of tumor KLF12 correlates with immunotherapy resistance. KLF12 suppresses CD8+ T cells infiltration and function in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, KLF12 inhibits the expression of Gal-1 by binding with its promoter, thereby improving the infiltration and function of CD8+ T cells, which plays a vital role in cancer immunotherapy. This work identifies a novel pathway regulating CD8+ T-cell intratumoral infiltration, and targeting the KLF12/Gal-1 axis may serve as a novel therapeutic target for patients with immunotherapy resistance. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    Laser microdissection, proteomics and multiplex immunohistochemistry: a bumpy ride into the study of paraffin-embedded fetal and pediatric lung tissues

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 27 July 2023 by Cardoso dos Santos, L., Avila, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Background Knowledge about lung development or lung disease is mainly derived from data extrapolated from mouse models. This comes with obvious drawbacks in developmental diseases, particularly due to species differences. Our objective is to describe the development of complementary analysis methods that will allow a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of rare congenital diseases. Methods Paraffin-embedded human pediatric and fetal lung samples were laser microdissected to enrich different lung regions, namely bronchioli or alveoli. These samples were analyzed by data independent acquisition-based quantitative proteomics and lung structures were subsequently compared. To confirm the proteomic data, we employed and optimized S equential IM muno P eroxidase L abeling and E rasing (SIMPLE) staining for specific proteins of interest. Results By quantitative proteomics, we identified typical pulmonary proteins from being differentially expressed in the different regions. While the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), surfactant protein C (SFTPC) were downregulated, tubulin beta 4B (TUBB4B) was upregulated in bronchioli, compared to alveoli. In fetal tissue, CD31 was downregulated in fetal bronchioli, compared to canaliculi. Moreover, we confirmed their presence using SIMPLE staining. Some expected proteins did not show up in the proteomic data, like SOX-9 that was only detected by means of immunohistochemistry in the SIMPLE analysis. Conclusion Our data underlines the robustness and applicability of this type of experimental approach, especially for rare paraffin-embedded tissue samples. It also strengthens the importance of these methods for future studies, in particular, when considering developmental lung diseases, such as congenital lung anomalies.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Low-dose radiation therapy suppresses viral pneumonia by enhancing broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory responses via transforming growth factor-β production.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 12 June 2023 by Song, H. Y., Chen, F., et al.

    PubMed

    Low-dose radiation therapy (LDRT) can suppress intractable inflammation, such as that in rheumatoid arthritis, and is used for treating more than 10,000 rheumatoid arthritis patients annually in Europe. Several recent clinical trials have reported that LDRT can effectively reduce the severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and other cases of viral pneumonia. However, the therapeutic mechanism of LDRT remains unelucidated. Therefore, in the current study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying immunological alterations in influenza pneumonia after LDRT. Mice were irradiated to the whole lung 1 day post-infection. The changes in levels of inflammatory mediators (cytokines and chemokines) and immune cell populations in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF), lungs, and serum were examined. LDRT-treated mice displayed markedly increased survival rates and reduced lung edema and airway and vascular inflammation in the lung; however, the viral titers in the lungs were unaffected. Levels of primary inflammatory cytokines were reduced after LDRT, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) levels increased significantly on day 1 following LDRT. Levels of chemokines increased from day 3 following LDRT. Additionally, M2 macrophage polarization or recruitment was increased following LDRT. We found that LDRT-induced TGF-β reduced the levels of cytokines and polarized M2 cells and blocked immune cell infiltration, including neutrophils, in BALF. LDRT-induced early TGF-β production was shown to be a key regulator involved in broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory activity in virus-infected lungs. Therefore, LDRT or TGF-β may be an alternative therapy for viral pneumonia. Copyright © 2023 Song, Chen, Park, Han, Ji, Byun, Kwon, Kim, Ahn and Seo.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Soluble CTLA-4 raises the threshold for T-cell activation and modulates anti-tumour immunity

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 7 June 2023 by Kennedy, P. T., Saulters, E. L., et al.

    PubMed

    CTLA-4 is a crucial immune checkpoint receptor involved in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, tolerance, and tumour control. Antibodies targeting CTLA-4 have been promising treatment for numerous cancers, but the mechanistic basis of their anti-tumoral immune boosting effects are poorly understood. Although the ctla4 gene also encodes an alternatively-spliced soluble variant (sCTLA-4), preclinical/clinical evaluation of anti-CTLA-4-based immunotherapies have not considered the contribution of this isoform. Here, we explore the functional properties of sCTLA-4 and evaluate the efficacy of isoform-specific anti-sCTLA-4 antibody targeting in murine cancer model. We show that expression of sCTLA-4 in tumour cells suppresses CD8 + T-cells in vitro , and accelerates growth and experimental metastasis of murine tumours in vivo . These effects were accompanied by modification of the immune infiltrate, notably restraining CD8 + T-cells in a non-effector state. sCTLA-4 blockade with isoform-specific antibody reversed this restraint, enhancing intratumoural CD8 + T-cell activation and cytolytic potential, correlating with therapeutic efficacy and tumour control. This previously unappreciated role of sCTLA-4 suggests that better understanding of the biology and function of multi-gene products of immune checkpoint receptors needs to be fully elucidated for improved cancer immunotherapy.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Robust IL-2-dependent antitumor immunotherapy requires targeting the high-affinity IL-2R on tumor-specific CD8+ T cells.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 1 June 2023 by LaPorte, K. M., Hernandez, R., et al.

    PubMed

    Development of interleukin (IL)-2-dependent antitumor responses focus on targeting the intermediate affinity IL-2R to stimulate memory-phenotypic CD8+ T and natural killer (NK) cells while minimizing regulatory T cell (Treg) expansion. However, this approach may not effectively engage tumor-specific T effector cells. Since tumor-antigen specific T cells upregulate the high-affinity IL-2R, we tested an IL-2 biologic, mouse IL-2/CD25, with selectivity toward the high-affinity IL-2R to support antitumor responses to tumors that vary in their immunogenicity. Mice were first implanted with either CT26, MC38, B16.F10, or 4T1 and after a tumor mass developed, they were treated with high-dose (HD) mouse (m)IL-2/CD25 alone or in combination with anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) checkpoint blockade. Tumor growth was monitored and in parallel the immune signature in the tumor microenvironment (TME) was determined by a combination of multiparameter flow cytometry, functional assays, and enumeration of tumor-reactive T cells. We show that HD mIL-2/CD25, which preferentially stimulates the high-affinity IL-2R, but not IL-2/anti-IL-2 complexes with preferential activity toward the intermediate-affinity IL-2R, supports vigorous antitumor responses to immunogenic tumors as a monotherapy that were enhanced when combined with anti-PD-1. Treatment of CT26-bearing mice with HD mIL-2/CD25 led to a high CD8+:Treg ratio in the TME, increased frequency and function of tumor-specific CD8+ T effector cells with a less exhausted phenotype, and antitumor memory responses. Targeting the high-affinity IL-2R on tumor-specific T cells with HD mIL-2/CD25 alone or with PD-1 blockade supports antitumor responses, where the resulting memory response may afford long-term protection against tumor re-emergence. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    Targeting lymphoid-derived IL-17 signaling to delay skin aging.

    In Nature Aging on 1 June 2023 by Sola-Castrillo, P., Mereu, E., et al.

    PubMed

    Skin aging is characterized by structural and functional changes that contribute to age-associated frailty. This probably depends on synergy between alterations in the local niche and stem cell-intrinsic changes, underscored by proinflammatory microenvironments that drive pleotropic changes. The nature of these age-associated inflammatory cues, or how they affect tissue aging, is unknown. Based on single-cell RNA sequencing of the dermal compartment of mouse skin, we show a skew towards an IL-17-expressing phenotype of T helper cells, γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells in aged skin. Importantly, in vivo blockade of IL-17 signaling during aging reduces the proinflammatory state of the skin, delaying the appearance of age-related traits. Mechanistically, aberrant IL-17 signals through NF-κB in epidermal cells to impair homeostatic functions while promoting an inflammatory state. Our results indicate that aged skin shows signs of chronic inflammation and that increased IL-17 signaling could be targeted to prevent age-associated skin ailments. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Endocrinology and Physiology
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    Schwann cell insulin-like growth factor receptor type-1 mediates metastatic bone cancer pain in mice.

    In Brain, Behavior, and Immunity on 1 May 2023 by Landini, L., Marini, M., et al.

    PubMed

    Insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), an osteoclast-dependent osteolysis biomarker, contributes to metastatic bone cancer pain (MBCP), but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In mice, the femur metastasis caused by intramammary inoculation of breast cancer cells resulted in IGF-1 increase in femur and sciatic nerve, and IGF-1-dependent stimulus/non-stimulus-evoked pain-like behaviors. Adeno-associated virus-based shRNA selective silencing of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in Schwann cells, but not in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, attenuated pain-like behaviors. Intraplantar IGF-1 evoked acute nociception and mechanical/cold allodynia, which were reduced by selective IGF-1R silencing in DRG neurons and Schwann cells, respectively. Schwann cell IGF-1R signaling promoted an endothelial nitric oxide synthase-mediated transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) activation and release of reactive oxygen species that, via macrophage-colony stimulating factor-dependent endoneurial macrophage expansion, sustained pain-like behaviors. Osteoclast derived IGF-1 initiates a Schwann cell-dependent neuroinflammatory response that sustains a proalgesic pathway that provides new options for MBCP treatment. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Brief report: STING expressed in tumor and non-tumor compartments has distinct roles in regulating anti-tumor immunity.

    In Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy : CII on 1 May 2023 by Kim, J. C., Liu, X., et al.

    PubMed

    Type I interferon-mediated activation of immune cells can facilitate the generation of productive tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in solid tumors. The cGAS/STING DNA sensing pathway is a critical upstream mediator of type I interferon production and is an important regulator of anti-tumor immunity. Numerous STING pathway agonists are now being tested in clinical trials, but the effectiveness of this approach is not yet clear and a better understanding of the relative importance of this pathway in various tumor settings is needed. We have evaluated syngeneic tumor models with different baseline inflammatory states to determine the contributions of STING activity in both tumor and non-tumor cellular compartments to anti-tumor immune responses. We find that productive anti-tumor immune responses in the poorly immunogenic B16F10 model show a strong dependence on STING expression in non-tumor cells. In the immunogenic MC38 model, constitutive STING activation in tumor cells can partially bypass the requirement for STING-dependent activity from immune cells. Our findings reveal multiple, context-dependent roles for STING activity in the regulation of anti-tumor immunity and the response to immunotherapy. In preclinical models where STING is basally active, checkpoint inhibition is more likely to have a therapeutic effect and removal of STING signaling from either the tumor or the non-tumor compartment has a minimal effect. Removal of STING signaling in both, however, diminishes the efficacy derived from checkpoint therapy. Further work is needed to understand the heterogeneity of STING signaling in patients, both in tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment, and the best means of harnessing this pathway to generate anti-tumor immunity and improve therapeutic outcomes. © 2022. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    CYP1B1 inhibits ferroptosis and induces anti-PD-1 resistance by degrading ACSL4 in colorectal cancer.

    In Cell Death & Disease on 14 April 2023 by Chen, C., Yang, Y. B., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is a promising treatment strategy for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, most CRC patients do not response well to ICB therapy. Increasing evidence indicates that ferroptosis plays a critical role in immunotherapy. ICB efficacy may be enhanced by inducing tumor ferroptosis. Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a metabolic enzyme that participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. However, the role of CYP1B1 in ferroptosis remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that CYP1B1 derived 20-HETE activated the protein kinase C pathway to increase FBXO10 expression, which in turn promoted the ubiquitination and degradation of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4), ultimately inducing tumor cells resistance to ferroptosis. Furthermore, inhibiting CYP1B1 sensitized tumor cells to anti-PD-1 antibody in a mouce model. In addition, CYP1B1 expression was negatively correlated with ACSL4 expression, and high expression indicates poor prognosis in CRC. Taken together, our work identified CYP1B1 as a potential biomarker for enhancing anti-PD-1 therapy in CRC. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    A bacterial autotransporter impairs innate immune responses by targeting the transcription factor TFE3.

    In Nature Communications on 11 April 2023 by Ta, A., Ricci-Azevedo, R., et al.

    PubMed

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are consequential cytokines in antibacterial defense. Whether and how bacterial pathogens inhibit innate immune receptor-driven type I IFN expression remains mostly unknown. By screening a library of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) mutants, we uncovered EhaF, an uncharacterized protein, as an inhibitor of innate immune responses including IFNs. Further analyses identified EhaF as a secreted autotransporter-a type of bacterial secretion system with no known innate immune-modulatory function-that translocates into host cell cytosol and inhibit IFN response to EHEC. Mechanistically, EhaF interacts with and inhibits the MiT/TFE family transcription factor TFE3 resulting in impaired TANK phosphorylation and consequently, reduced IRF3 activation and type I IFN expression. Notably, EhaF-mediated innate immune suppression promotes EHEC colonization and pathogenesis in vivo. Overall, this study has uncovered a previously unknown autotransporter-based bacterial strategy that targets a specific transcription factor to subvert innate host defense. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Functional
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Neutrophil extracellular traps formed during chemotherapy confer treatment resistance via TGF-β activation.

    In Cancer Cell on 10 April 2023 by Mousset, A., Lecorgne, E., et al.

    PubMed

    Metastasis is the major cause of cancer death, and the development of therapy resistance is common. The tumor microenvironment can confer chemotherapy resistance (chemoresistance), but little is known about how specific host cells influence therapy outcome. We show that chemotherapy induces neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, which reduces therapy response in mouse models of breast cancer lung metastasis. We reveal that chemotherapy-treated cancer cells secrete IL-1β, which in turn triggers NET formation. Two NET-associated proteins are required to induce chemoresistance: integrin-αvβ1, which traps latent TGF-β, and matrix metalloproteinase 9, which cleaves and activates the trapped latent TGF-β. TGF-β activation causes cancer cells to undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and correlates with chemoresistance. Our work demonstrates that NETs regulate the activities of neighboring cells by trapping and activating cytokines and suggests that chemoresistance in the metastatic setting can be reduced or prevented by targeting the IL-1β-NET-TGF-β axis. Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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