InVivoMAb polyclonal Armenian hamster IgG

Catalog #BE0091
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Product Details

The polyclonal Armenian hamster IgG is purified from Armenian hamster serum. It is ideal for use as a non-reactive control IgG for Armenian hamster antibodies in most in vivo and in vitro applications.


Isotype Armenian hamster IgG
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from Armenian hamster serum
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107773
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Murine Pathogen Tests Ectromelia/Mousepox Virus: Negative
Hantavirus: Negative
K Virus: Negative
Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus: Negative
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus: Negative
Mouse Adenovirus: Negative
Mouse Cytomegalovirus: Negative
Mouse Hepatitis Virus: Negative
Mouse Minute Virus: Negative
Mouse Norovirus: Negative
Mouse Parvovirus: Negative
Mouse Rotavirus: Negative
Mycoplasma Pulmonis: Negative
Pneumonia Virus of Mice: Negative
Polyoma Virus: Negative
Reovirus Screen: Negative
Sendai Virus: Negative
Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis: Negative
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.

Additional Formats

Ariyan, C. E., et al. (2018). "Robust Antitumor Responses Result from Local Chemotherapy and CTLA-4 Blockade" Cancer Immunol Res 6(2): 189-200. PubMed

Clinical responses to immunotherapy have been associated with augmentation of preexisting immune responses, manifested by heightened inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. However, many tumors have a noninflamed microenvironment, and response rates to immunotherapy in melanoma have been <50%. We approached this problem by utilizing immunotherapy (CTLA-4 blockade) combined with chemotherapy to induce local inflammation. In murine models of melanoma and prostate cancer, the combination of chemotherapy and CTLA-4 blockade induced a shift in the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment, with infiltrating CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells increasing the CD8/Foxp3 T-cell ratio. These changes were associated with improved survival of the mice. To translate these findings into a clinical setting, 26 patients with advanced melanoma were treated locally by isolated limb infusion with the nitrogen mustard alkylating agent melphalan followed by systemic administration of CTLA-4 blocking antibody (ipilimumab) in a phase II trial. This combination of local chemotherapy with systemic checkpoint blockade inhibitor resulted in a response rate of 85% at 3 months (62% complete and 23% partial response rate) and a 58% progression-free survival at 1 year. The clinical response was associated with increased T-cell infiltration, similar to that seen in the murine models. Together, our findings suggest that local chemotherapy combined with checkpoint blockade-based immunotherapy results in a durable response to cancer therapy.

Li, C., et al. (2015). "ADAP and SKAP55 deficiency suppresses PD-1 expression in CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes for enhanced anti-tumor immunotherapy" EMBO Mol Med 7(6): 754-769. PubMed

PD-1 negatively regulates CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) cytotoxicity and anti-tumor immunity. However, it is not fully understood how PD-1 expression on CD8(+) CTL is regulated during anti-tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we have identified that the ADAP-SKAP55 signaling module reduced CD8(+) CTL cytotoxicity and enhanced PD-1 expression in a Fyn-, Ca(2+)-, and NFATc1-dependent manner. In DC vaccine-based tumor prevention and therapeutic models, knockout of SKAP55 or ADAP showed a heightened protection from tumor formation or metastases in mice and reduced PD-1 expression in CD8(+) effector cells. Interestingly, CTLA-4 levels and the percentages of tumor infiltrating CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs remained unchanged. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of SKAP55-deficient or ADAP-deficient CD8(+) CTLs significantly blocked tumor growth and increased anti-tumor immunity. Pretreatment of wild-type CD8(+) CTLs with the NFATc1 inhibitor CsA could also downregulate PD-1 expression and enhance anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy. Together, we propose that targeting the unrecognized ADAP-SKAP55-NFATc1-PD-1 pathway might increase efficacy of anti-tumor immunotherapy.

Imai, Y., et al. (2015). "Cutting Edge: PD-1 Regulates Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasiform Dermatitis through Inhibition of IL-17A Expression by Innate gammadelta-Low T Cells" J Immunol 195(2): 421-425. PubMed

Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is a key regulatory molecule that has been targeted in human cancers, including melanoma. In clinical testing, Abs against PD-1 have resulted in psoriasiform dermatitis (PsD). To determine whether PD-1 regulates PsD, we compared skin responses of PD-1-deficient (PD-1KO) mice and wild-type (WT) controls in an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced murine model of psoriasis. PD-1KO mice showed severe epidermal hyperplasia, greater neutrophilic infiltration, and higher expression of Th17 cytokines (versus WT mice). IMQ exposure increased PD-1 expression by skin gammadelta-low (GDL) T cells and enhanced expression of PD-L1 by keratinocytes. Three-fold increases in the percentage of IL-17A(+) GDL T cells were observed in skin cell suspensions derived from IMQ-treated PD-1KO mice (versus WT controls), suggesting that the lack of PD-1 has a functional effect not only on alphabeta T cells, but also on GDL T cells, and that PD-1 may play a regulatory role in PsD.

Awe, O., et al. (2015). "PU.1 Expression in T Follicular Helper Cells Limits CD40L-Dependent Germinal Center B Cell Development" J Immunol . PubMed

PU.1 is an ETS family transcription factor that is important for the development of multiple hematopoietic cell lineages. Previous work demonstrated a critical role for PU.1 in promoting Th9 development and in limiting Th2 cytokine production. Whether PU.1 has functions in other Th lineages is not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of ectopic expression of PU.1 in CD4+ T cells and observed decreased expression of genes involved with the function of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, including Il21 and Tnfsf5 (encoding CD40L). T cells from conditional mutant mice that lack expression of PU.1 in T cells (Sfpi1lck-/-) demonstrated increased production of CD40L and IL-21 in vitro. Following adjuvant-dependent or adjuvant-independent immunization, we observed that Sfpi1lck-/- mice had increased numbers of Tfh cells, increased germinal center B cells (GCB cells), and increased Ab production in vivo. This correlated with increased expression of IL-21 and CD40L in Tfh cells from Sfpi1lck-/- mice compared with control mice. Finally, although blockade of IL-21 did not affect GCB cells in Sfpi1lck-/- mice, anti-CD40L treatment of immunized Sfpi1lck-/- mice decreased GCB cell numbers and Ag-specific Ig concentrations. Together, these data indicate an inhibitory role for PU.1 in the function of Tfh cells, germinal centers, and Tfh-dependent humoral immunity.

Ozdemir, B. C., et al. (2014). "Depletion of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts and fibrosis induces immunosuppression and accelerates pancreas cancer with reduced survival" Cancer Cell 25(6): 719-734. PubMed

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with marked fibrosis and stromal myofibroblasts, but their functional contribution remains unknown. Transgenic mice with the ability to delete alphaSMA(+) myofibroblasts in pancreatic cancer were generated. Depletion starting at either noninvasive precursor (pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia) or the PDAC stage led to invasive, undifferentiated tumors with enhanced hypoxia, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cells, with diminished animal survival. In PDAC patients, fewer myofibroblasts in their tumors also correlated with reduced survival. Suppressed immune surveillance with increased CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs was observed in myofibroblast-depleted mouse tumors. Although myofibroblast-depleted tumors did not respond to gemcitabine, anti-CTLA4 immunotherapy reversed disease acceleration and prolonged animal survival. This study underscores the need for caution in targeting carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in PDAC.

Ballesteros-Tato, A., et al. (2014). "Epitope-specific regulation of memory programming by differential duration of antigen presentation to influenza-specific CD8(+) T cells" Immunity 41(1): 127-140. PubMed

Memory CD8(+) T cells are programmed during the primary response for robust secondary responsiveness. Here we show that CD8(+) T cells responding to different epitopes of influenza virus received qualitatively different signals during the primary response that altered their secondary responsiveness. Nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8(+) T cells encountered antigen on CD40-licensed, CD70-expressing, CD103(-)CD11b(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) at later times in the primary response. As a consequence, they maintained CD25 expression and responded to interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD27, which together programmed their robust secondary proliferative capacity and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing ability. In contrast, polymerase (PA)-specific CD8(+) T cells did not encounter antigen-bearing, CD40-activated DCs at later times in the primary response, did not receive CD27 and CD25 signals, and were not programmed to become memory CD8(+) T cells with strong proliferative and cytokine-producing ability. As a result, CD8(+) T cells responding to abundant antigens, like NP, dominated the secondary response.

Van der Jeught, K., et al. (2014). "Intratumoral administration of mRNA encoding a fusokine consisting of IFN-beta and the ectodomain of the TGF-beta receptor II potentiates antitumor immunity" Oncotarget 5(20): 10100-10113. PubMed

It is generally accepted that the success of immunotherapy depends on the presence of tumor-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells and the modulation of the tumor environment. In this study, we validated mRNA encoding soluble factors as a tool to modulate the tumor microenvironment to potentiate infiltration of tumor-specific T cells. Intratumoral delivery of mRNA encoding a fusion protein consisting of interferon-beta and the ectodomain of the transforming growth factor-beta receptor II, referred to as Fbeta(2), showed therapeutic potential. The treatment efficacy was dependent on CD8(+) T cells and could be improved through blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions. In vitro studies revealed that administration of Fbeta(2) to tumor cells resulted in a reduced proliferation and increased expression of MHC I but also PD-L1. Importantly, Fbeta(2) enhanced the antigen presenting capacity of dendritic cells, whilst reducing the suppressive activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that intratumoral delivery of mRNA encoding soluble proteins, such as Fbeta(2), can modulate the tumor microenvironment, leading to effective antitumor T cell responses, which can be further potentiated through combination therapy.

Khmaladze, I., et al. (2014). "Mannan induces ROS-regulated, IL-17A-dependent psoriasis arthritis-like disease in mice" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(35): E3669-3678. PubMed

Psoriasis (Ps) and psoriasis arthritis (PsA) are poorly understood common diseases, induced by unknown environmental factors, affecting skin and articular joints. A single i.p. exposure to mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced an acute inflammation in inbred mouse strains resembling human Ps and PsA-like disease, whereas multiple injections induced a relapsing disease. Exacerbation of disease severity was observed in mice deficient for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, restoration of ROS production, specifically in macrophages, ameliorated both skin and joint disease. Neutralization of IL-17A, mainly produced by gammadelta T cells, completely blocked disease symptoms. Furthermore, mice depleted of granulocytes were resistant to disease development. In contrast, certain acute inflammatory mediators (C5, Fcgamma receptor III, mast cells, and histamine) and adaptive immune players (alphabeta T and B cells) were redundant in disease induction. Hence, we propose that mannan-induced activation of macrophages leads to TNF-alpha secretion and stimulation of local gammadelta T cells secreting IL-17A. The combined action of activated macrophages and IL-17A produced in situ drives neutrophil infiltration in the epidermis and dermis of the skin, leading to disease manifestations. Thus, our finding suggests a new mechanism triggered by exposure to exogenous microbial components, such as mannan, that can induce and exacerbate Ps and PsA.

Gopinath, S., et al. (2014). "Role of disease-associated tolerance in infectious superspreaders" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(44): 15780-15785. PubMed

Natural populations show striking heterogeneity in their ability to transmit disease. For example, a minority of infected individuals known as superspreaders carries out the majority of pathogen transmission events. In a mouse model of Salmonella infection, a subset of infected hosts becomes superspreaders, shedding high levels of bacteria (>10(8) cfu per g of feces) but remain asymptomatic with a dampened systemic immune state. Here we show that superspreader hosts remain asymptomatic when they are treated with oral antibiotics. In contrast, nonsuperspreader Salmonella-infected hosts that are treated with oral antibiotics rapidly shed superspreader levels of the pathogen but display signs of morbidity. This morbidity is linked to an increase in inflammatory myeloid cells in the spleen followed by increased production of acute-phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. The degree of colonic inflammation is similar in antibiotic-treated superspreader and nonsuperspreader hosts, indicating that the superspreader hosts are tolerant of antibiotic-mediated perturbations in the intestinal tract. Importantly, neutralization of acute-phase proinflammatory cytokines in antibiotic-induced superspreaders suppresses the expansion of inflammatory myeloid cells and reduces morbidity. We describe a unique disease-associated tolerance to oral antibiotics in superspreaders that facilitates continued transmission of the pathogen.

Church, S. E., et al. (2014). "Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells maintain effector and memory tumor-specific CD8+ T cells" Eur J Immunol 44(1): 69-79. PubMed

Immunotherapies that augment antitumor T cells have had recent success for treating patients with cancer. Here we examined whether tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells enhance CD8(+) T-cell adoptive immunotherapy in a lymphopenic environment. Our model employed physiological doses of tyrosinase-related protein 1-specific CD4(+) transgenic T cells-CD4(+) T cells and pmel-CD8(+) T cells that when transferred individually were subtherapeutic; however, when transferred together provided significant (p = 0.001) therapeutic efficacy. Therapeutic efficacy correlated with increased numbers of effector and memory CD8(+) T cells with tumor-specific cytokine expression. When combined with CD4(+) T cells, transfer of total (naive and effector) or effector CD8(+) T cells were highly effective, suggesting CD4(+) T cells can help mediate therapeutic effects by maintaining function of activated CD8(+) T cells. In addition, CD4(+) T cells had a pronounced effect in the early posttransfer period, as their elimination within the first 3 days significantly (p < 0.001) reduced therapeutic efficacy. The CD8(+) T cells recovered from mice treated with both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells had decreased expression of PD-1 and PD-1-blockade enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of pmel-CD8 alone, suggesting that CD4(+) T cells help reduce CD8(+) T-cell exhaustion. These data support combining immunotherapies that elicit both tumor-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells for treatment of patients with cancer.

Youlin, K., et al. (2012). "Combination immunotherapy with 4-1BBL and CTLA-4 blockade for the treatment of prostate cancer" Clin Dev Immunol 2012: 439235. PubMed

Immune regulation has been shown to be involved in the progressive growth of some murine tumours. Interruption of immune regulatory pathways via activation of 4-1BB or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) blockade appears to be a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of 4-1BBL-expressing tumor cell vaccine in combination with CTLA-4 blockade on rejection of murine prostate cancer RM-1. We found that the combination of both a vaccine consisting of 4-1BBL-expressing RM-1 cells and CTLA-4 blockade resulted in regression of RM-1 tumors and a significant increase in survival of the tumour cell recipients, compared to that of either treatment alone. The combined vaccination resulted in higher CTL against RM-1 cells and increased secretion of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-2 in the mix-cultured supernatant. These results suggest that combining activation of 4-1BB and blockade of CTLA-4 may offer a new strategy for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

Bortnick, A., et al. (2012). "Long-lived bone marrow plasma cells are induced early in response to T cell-independent or T cell-dependent antigens" J Immunol 188(11): 5389-5396. PubMed

The signals required to generate long-lived plasma cells remain unresolved. One widely cited model posits that long-lived plasma cells derive from germinal centers (GCs) in response to T cell-dependent (TD) Ags. Thus, T cell-independent (TI) Ags, which fail to sustain GCs, are considered ineffective at generating long-lived plasma cells. However, we show that long-lived hapten-specific plasma cells are readily induced without formation of GCs. Long-lived plasma cells developed in T cell-deficient mice after a single immunization with haptenated LPS, a widely used TI Ag. Long-lived plasma cells also formed in response to TD Ag when the GC response was experimentally prevented. These observations establish that long-lived plasma cells are induced in both TI and TD responses, and can arise independently of B cell maturation in GCs.

Waitz, R., et al. (2012). "Potent induction of tumor immunity by combining tumor cryoablation with anti-CTLA-4 therapy" Cancer Res 72(2): 430-439. PubMed

Thermal ablation to destroy tumor tissue may help activate tumor-specific T cells by elevating the presentation of tumor antigens to the immune system. However, the antitumor activity of these T cells may be restrained by their expression of the inhibitory T-cell coreceptor CTLA-4, the target of the recently U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved antibody drug ipilumimab. By relieving this restraint, CTLA-4-blocking antibodies such as ipilumimab can promote tumor rejection, but the full scope of their most suitable applications has yet to be fully determined. In this study, we offer a preclinical proof-of-concept in the TRAMP C2 mouse model of prostate cancer that CTLA-4 blockade cooperates with cryoablation of a primary tumor to prevent the outgrowth of secondary tumors seeded by challenge at a distant site. Although growth of secondary tumors was unaffected by cryoablation alone, the combination treatment was sufficient to slow growth or trigger rejection. In addition, secondary tumors were highly infiltrated by CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells, and there was a significant increase in the ratio of intratumoral T effector cells to CD4(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells, compared with monotherapy. These findings documented for the first time an effect of this immunotherapeutic intervention on the intratumoral accumulation and systemic expansion of CD8(+) T cells specific for the TRAMP C2-specific antigen SPAS-1. Although cryoablation is currently used to treat a targeted tumor nodule, our results suggest that combination therapy with CTLA-4 blockade will augment antitumor immunity and rejection of tumor metastases in this setting.

Coley, S. M., et al. (2009). "IFN-gamma dictates allograft fate via opposing effects on the graft and on recipient CD8 T cell responses" J Immunol 182(1): 225-233. PubMed

CD8 T cells are necessary for costimulation blockade-resistant rejection. However, the mechanism by which CD8 T cells mediate rejection in the absence of major costimulatory signals is poorly understood. IFN-gamma promotes CD8 T cell-mediated immune responses, but IFN-gamma-deficient mice show early graft loss despite costimulation blockade. In contrast, we found that IFN-gamma receptor knockout mice show dramatically prolonged graft survival under costimulation blockade. To investigate this paradox, we addressed the effects of IFN-gamma on T cell alloresponses in vivo independent of the effects of IFN-gamma on graft survival. We identified a donor-specific CD8 T cell breakthrough response temporally correlated with costimulation blockade-resistant rejection. Neither IFN-gamma receptor knockout recipients nor IFN-gamma-deficient recipients showed a CD8 breakthrough response. Graft death on IFN-gamma-deficient recipients despite costimulation blockade could be explained by the lack of IFN-gamma available to act on the graft. Indeed, the presence of IFN-gamma was necessary for graft survival on IFN-gamma receptor knockout recipients, as either IFN-gamma neutralization or the lack of the IFN-gamma receptor on the graft precipitated early graft loss. Thus, IFN-gamma is required both for the recipient to mount a donor-specific CD8 T cell response under costimulation blockade as well as for the graft to survive after allotransplantation.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    Combining toll-like receptor agonists with immune checkpoint blockade affects antitumor vaccine efficacy.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 3 May 2024 by Jeon, D., Hill, E., et al.


    T cell checkpoint receptors are expressed when T cells are activated, and modulation of the expression or signaling of these receptors can alter the function of T cells and their antitumor efficacy. We previously found that T cells activated with cognate antigen had increases in the expression of PD-1, and this was attenuated in the presence of multiple toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, notably TLR3 plus TLR9. In the current report, we sought to investigate whether combining TLR agonists with immune checkpoint blockade can further augment vaccine-mediated T cell antitumor immunity in murine tumor models. TLR agonists (TLR3 plus TLR9) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (antibodies targeting PD-1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, TIM-3 or VISTA) were combined and delivered with vaccines or vaccine-activated CD8+T cells to E.G7-OVA or MyC-CaP tumor-bearing mice. Tumors were assessed for growth and then collected and analyzed by flow cytometry. Immunization of E.G7-OVA tumor-bearing mice with SIINFEKL peptide vaccine, coadministered with TLR agonists and αCTLA-4, demonstrated greater antitumor efficacy than immunization with TLR agonists or αCTLA-4 alone. Conversely, the antitumor efficacy was abrogated when vaccine and TLR agonists were combined with αPD-1. TLR agonists suppressed PD-1 expression on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and activated this population. Depletion of Tregs in tumor-bearing mice led to greater antitumor efficacy of this combination therapy, even in the presence of αPD-1. Combining vaccination with TLR agonists and αCTLA-4 or αLAG-3 showed greater antitumor than with combinations with αTIM-3 or αVISTA. The combination of TLR agonists and αCTLA-4 or αLAG-3 can further improve the efficacy of a cancer vaccine, an effect not observed using αPD-1 due to activation of Tregs when αPD-1 was combined with TLR3 and TLR9 agonists. These data suggest that optimal combinations of TLR agonists and immune checkpoint blockade may improve the efficacy of human anticancer vaccines. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2024. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    DLL4/Notch blockade disrupts mandibular advancement-induced condylar osteogenesis by inhibiting H-type angiogenesis.

    In Journal of Oral Rehabilitation on 1 April 2024 by Hu, Y. & Li, H.


    Blocking Delta-like 4 (DLL4)/Notch has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of tumours by deregulating angiogenesis. However, DLL4/Notch serves as a negative regulator of angiogenesis in multiple organs while acting as a positive regulator of H-type angiogenesis in postnatal long bones. Therefore, the effect of DLL4/Notch signalling blockade on mandibular condylar osteogenesis attracted our attention. To explore the effect of blocking DLL4/Notch on mandibular advancement (MA)-induced condylar osteogenesis. Six-week-old young male C57BL/6J mice (n = 40) were randomly divided into four groups: control group, MA group, MA + Anti-DLL4 group and MA + IgG group. Of note, IgG served as the isotype control for the anti-DLL4. The femurs, tibias and mandibular condyles were collected after sacrificing mice on Day 31 for morphology, micro-computed tomography, immunofluorescence, histology and immunohistochemistry evaluation. First, DLL4/Notch blockade shortened femoral length and reduced bone mass by inhibiting H-type angiogenesis. Second, DLL4/Notch blockade disrupted MA-induced condylar head volume and quality by inhibiting H-type angiogenesis. Mechanistically, blocking DLL4/Notch reduced the number of runt-related transcription factor 2+ (RUNX2+ ) early osteoprogenitors and the expression of Noggin protein in the condylar subchondral bone by inhibiting H-type angiogenesis. In addition, blockade of DLL4/Notch also destroyed the condylar cartilage layer. DLL4/Notch blockade results in shortened femurs and osteopenia, as well as impaired MA-induced condylar osteogenic volume and quality in growing mice by inhibiting H-type angiogenesis. Therefore, when blocking DLL4/Notch is used as a treatment target for diseases, attention should be paid to its impact on the bone mass of mandibular condyle. © 2023 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Type I interferon induces TCR-dependent and -independent antimicrobial responses in γδ intraepithelial lymphocytes

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 13 March 2024 by Fischer, M. A., Jia, L., et al.


    Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) expressing the γδ T cell receptor (TCR) survey the intestinal epithelium to limit the invasion of microbial pathogens. The production of type I interferon (IFN) is a central component of an antiviral immune response, yet how these pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to γδ IEL effector function remains unclear. Based on the unique activation status of IELs, and their ability to bridge innate and adaptive immunity, we investigated the extent to which type I IFN signaling modulates γδ IEL function. Using an ex vivo culture model, we find that type I IFN alone is unable to drive IFNγ production, yet low level TCR activation synergizes with type I IFN to induce IFNγ production in murine γδ IELs. Further investigation into the underlying molecular mechanisms of co-stimulation revealed that TCRγδ-mediated activation of NFAT and JNK is required for type I IFN to promote IFNγ expression in a STAT4- dependent manner. Whereas type I IFN rapidly upregulates antiviral gene expression independent of a basal TCRγδ signal, neither tonic TCR triggering nor the presence of a TCR agonist was sufficient to elicit type I IFN-induced IFNγ production in vivo . However, bypassing proximal TCR signaling events synergized with IFNAR/STAT4 activation to induce γδ IEL IFNγ production. These findings indicate that γδ IELs contribute to host defense in response to type I IFN by mounting a rapid antimicrobial response independent of TCRγδ signaling, and under permissive conditions, produce IFNγ in a TCR-dependent manner.

    An AhR-Ovol1-Id1 regulatory axis in keratinocytes promotes skin homeostasis against atopic dermatitis

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 31 January 2024 by Chen, Z., Dragan, M., et al.


    ABSTRACT Skin is our outer permeability and immune defense barrier against myriad external assaults. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) senses environmental factors and regulates barrier robustness and immune homeostasis. AhR agonist is in clinical trial for atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment, but the underlying mechanism of action remains ill-defined. Here we report OVOL1/Ovol1 as a conserved and direct transcriptional target of AhR in epidermal keratinocytes. We show that OVOL1/Ovol1 impacts AhR regulation of keratinocyte gene expression, and Ovol1 deletion in keratinocytes hampers AhR’s barrier promotion function and worsens AD-like inflammation. Mechanistically, we identify Ovol1’s direct downstream targets genome-wide, and provide in vivo evidence for Id1’s critical role in barrier maintenance and disease suppression. Furthermore, our findings reveal an IL-1/dermal γδT cell axis exacerbating both type 2 and type 3 immune responses downstream of barrier perturbation in Ovol1 -deficient AD skin. Finally, we present data suggesting the clinical relevance of OVOL1 and ID1 function in human AD. Our study highlights a keratinocyte-intrinsic AhR-Ovol1-Id1 regulatory axis that promotes both epidermal and immune homeostasis against AD-like inflammation, implicating new therapeutic targets for AD.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    p53 suppresses MHC class II presentation by intestinal epithelium to protect against radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.

    In Nature Communications on 2 January 2024 by Wang, J., Chang, C. Y., et al.


    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome is a major complication and limiting factor for radiotherapy. Tumor suppressor p53 has a protective role in radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. However, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that regulating the IL12-p40/MHC class II signaling pathway is a critical mechanism by which p53 protects against radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome. p53 inhibits the expression of inflammatory cytokine IL12-p40, which in turn suppresses the expression of MHC class II on intestinal epithelial cells to suppress T cell activation and inflammation post-irradiation that causes intestinal stem cell damage. Anti-IL12-p40 neutralizing antibody inhibits inflammation and rescues the defects in intestinal epithelial regeneration post-irradiation in p53-deficient mice and prolongs mouse survival. These results uncover that the IL12-p40/MHC class II signaling mediates the essential role of p53 in ensuring intestinal stem cell function and proper immune reaction in response to radiation to protect mucosal epithelium, and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy to protect against radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome. © 2024. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Low-dose radiotherapy combined with dual PD-L1 and VEGFA blockade elicits antitumor response in hepatocellular carcinoma mediated by activated intratumoral CD8+ exhausted-like T cells.

    In Nature Communications on 24 November 2023 by Li, S., Li, K., et al.


    Atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1) combined with bevacizumab (anti-VEGFA) is the first-line immunotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the number of patients who benefit from this regimen remains limited. Here, we combine dual PD-L1 and VEGFA blockade (DPVB) with low-dose radiotherapy (LDRT), which rapidly inflames tumors, rendering them vulnerable to immunotherapy. The combinatorial therapy exhibits superior antitumor efficacy mediated by CD8+ T cells in various preclinical HCC models. Treatment efficacy relies upon mobilizing exhausted-like CD8+ T cells (CD8+ Tex) with effector function and cytolytic capacity. Mechanistically, LDRT sensitizes tumors to DPVB by recruiting stem-like CD8+ Tpex, the progenitor exhausted CD8+ T cells, from draining lymph nodes (dLNs) into the tumor via the CXCL10/CXCR3 axis. Together, these results further support the rationale for combining LDRT with atezolizumab and bevacizumab, and its clinical translation. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Endocrinology and Physiology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    A paracrine circuit of IL-1β/IL-1R1 between myeloid and tumor cells drives genotype-dependent glioblastoma progression.

    In The Journal of Clinical Investigation on 15 November 2023 by Chen, Z., Giotti, B., et al.


    Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from blood circulation infiltrate glioblastoma (GBM) and promote growth. Here, we show that PDGFB-driven GBM cells induce the expression of the potent proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in MDM, which engages IL-1R1 in tumor cells, activates the NF-κB pathway, and subsequently leads to induction of monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs). Thus, a feedforward paracrine circuit of IL-1β/IL-1R1 between tumors and MDM creates an interdependence driving PDGFB-driven GBM progression. Genetic loss or locally antagonizing IL-1β/IL-1R1 leads to reduced MDM infiltration, diminished tumor growth, and reduced exhausted CD8+ T cells and thereby extends the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In contrast to IL-1β, IL-1α exhibits antitumor effects. Genetic deletion of Il1a/b is associated with decreased recruitment of lymphoid cells and loss-of-interferon signaling in various immune populations and subsets of malignant cells and is associated with decreased survival time of PDGFB-driven tumor-bearing mice. In contrast to PDGFB-driven GBM, Nf1-silenced tumors have a constitutively active NF-κB pathway, which drives the expression of MCPs to recruit monocytes into tumors. These results indicate local antagonism of IL-1β could be considered as an effective therapy specifically for proneural GBM.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Fusobacterium nucleatum infection activates the noncanonical inflammasome and exacerbates inflammatory response in DSS-induced colitis.

    In European Journal of Immunology on 1 November 2023 by Boonyaleka, K., Okano, T., et al.


    Caspase activation results in pyroptosis, an inflammatory cell death that contributes to several inflammatory diseases by releasing inflammatory cytokines and cellular contents. Fusobacterium nucleatum is a periodontal pathogen frequently detected in human cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases. Studies have reported that F. nucleatum infection leads to NLRP3 activation and pyroptosis, but the precise activation process and disease association remain poorly understood. This study demonstrated that F. nucleatum infection exacerbates acute colitis in mice and activates pyroptosis through caspase-11-mediated gasdermin D cleavage in macrophages. Furthermore, F. nucleatum infection in colitis mice induces the enhancement of IL-1⍺ secretion from the colon, affecting weight loss and severe disease activities. Neutralization of IL-1⍺ protects F. nucleatum infected mice from severe colitis. Therefore, F. nucleatum infection facilitates inflammation in acute colitis with IL-1⍺ from colon tissue by activating noncanonical inflammasome through gasdermin D cleavage. © 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Stem Cells and Developmental Biology
    Reciprocal transmission of activating and inhibitory signals and cell fate in regenerating T cells.

    In Cell Reports on 31 October 2023 by Wang, P. H., Washburn, R. S., et al.


    The ability of activated progenitor T cells to self-renew while producing differentiated effector cell descendants may underlie immunological memory and persistent responses to ongoing infection. The nature of stem-like T cells responding to cancer and during treatment with immunotherapy is not clear. The subcellular organization of dividing progenitor CD8+ T cells from mice challenged with syngeneic tumors is examined here. Three-dimensional microscopy reveals an activating hub composed of polarized CD3, CD28, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity at the putative immunological synapse with an inhibitory hub composed of polarized PD-1 and CD73 at the opposite pole of mitotic blasts. Progenitor T cells from untreated and inhibitory checkpoint blockade-treated mice yield a differentiated TCF1- daughter cell, which inherits the PI3K activation hub, alongside a discordantly fated, self-renewing TCF1+ sister cell. Dynamic organization of opposite activating and inhibitory signaling poles in mitotic lymphocytes may account for the enigmatic durability of specific immunity. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Mural cell-derived chemokines provide a protective niche to safeguard vascular macrophages and limit chronic inflammation.

    In Immunity on 10 October 2023 by Pekayvaz, K., Gold, C., et al.


    Maladaptive, non-resolving inflammation contributes to chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Because macrophages remove necrotic cells, defective macrophage programs can promote chronic inflammation with persistent tissue injury. Here, we investigated the mechanisms sustaining vascular macrophages. Intravital imaging revealed a spatiotemporal macrophage niche across vascular beds alongside mural cells (MCs)-pericytes and smooth muscle cells. Single-cell transcriptomics, co-culture, and genetic deletion experiments revealed MC-derived expression of the chemokines CCL2 and MIF, which actively preserved macrophage survival and their homeostatic functions. In atherosclerosis, this positioned macrophages in viable plaque areas, away from the necrotic core, and maintained a homeostatic macrophage phenotype. Disruption of this MC-macrophage unit via MC-specific deletion of these chemokines triggered detrimental macrophage relocalizing, exacerbated plaque necrosis, inflammation, and atheroprogression. In line, CCL2 inhibition at advanced stages of atherosclerosis showed detrimental effects. This work presents a MC-driven safeguard toward maintaining the homeostatic vascular macrophage niche. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    Molecular, metabolic, and functional CD4 T cell paralysis in the lymph node impedes tumor control.

    In Cell Reports on 26 September 2023 by Guo, M., Abd-Rabbo, D., et al.


    CD4 T cells are central effectors of anti-cancer immunity and immunotherapy, yet the regulation of CD4 tumor-specific T (TTS) cells is unclear. We demonstrate that CD4 TTS cells are quickly primed and begin to divide following tumor initiation. However, unlike CD8 TTS cells or exhaustion programming, CD4 TTS cell proliferation is rapidly frozen in place by a functional interplay of regulatory T cells and CTLA4. Together these mechanisms paralyze CD4 TTS cell differentiation, redirecting metabolic circuits, and reducing their accumulation in the tumor. The paralyzed state is actively maintained throughout cancer progression and CD4 TTS cells rapidly resume proliferation and functional differentiation when the suppressive constraints are alleviated. Overcoming their paralysis established long-term tumor control, demonstrating the importance of rapidly crippling CD4 TTS cells for tumor progression and their potential restoration as therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    A binary module for microbiota-mediated regulation of γδ17 cells, hallmarked by microbiota-driven expression of programmed cell death protein 1.

    In Cell Reports on 29 August 2023 by Huang, H. I., Xue, Y., et al.


    Little is known about how microbiota regulate innate-like γδ T cells or how these restrict their effector functions within mucosal barriers, where microbiota provide chronic stimulation. Here, we show that microbiota-mediated regulation of γδ17 cells is binary, where microbiota instruct in situ interleukin-17 (IL-17) production and concomitant expression of the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Microbiota-driven expression of PD-1 and IL-17 and preferential adoption of a PD-1high phenotype are conserved for γδ17 cells across multiple mucosal barriers. Importantly, microbiota-driven PD-1 inhibits in situ IL-17 production by mucosa-resident γδ17 effectors, linking microbiota to their simultaneous activation and suppression. We further show the dynamic nature of this microbiota-driven module and define an inflammation-associated activation state for γδ17 cells marked by augmented PD-1, IL-17, and lipid uptake, thus linking the microbiota to dynamic subset-specific activation and metabolic remodeling to support γδ17 effector functions in a microbiota-dense tissue environment. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    CD39 inhibition and VISTA blockade may overcome radiotherapy resistance by targeting exhausted CD8+ T cells and immunosuppressive myeloid cells.

    In Cell Reports Medicine on 15 August 2023 by Zhang, Y., Hu, J., et al.


    Although radiotherapy (RT) has achieved great success in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), local relapses still occur and abscopal effects are rarely seen even when it is combined with immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs). Here, we characterize the dynamic changes of tumor-infiltrating immune cells after RT in a therapy-resistant murine tumor model using single-cell transcriptomes and T cell receptor sequencing. At the early stage, the innate and adaptive immune systems are activated. At the late stage, however, the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) shifts into immunosuppressive properties. Our study reveals that inhibition of CD39 combined with RT preferentially decreases the percentage of exhausted CD8+ T cells. Moreover, we find that the combination of V-domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) blockade and RT synergistically reduces immunosuppressive myeloid cells. Clinically, high VISTA expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Altogether, our data provide deep insight into acquired resistance to RT from an immune perspective and present rational combination strategies. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    The GPCR-Gαs-PKA signaling axis promotes T cell dysfunction and cancer immunotherapy failure.

    In Nature Immunology on 1 August 2023 by Wu, V. H., Yung, B. S., et al.


    Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4 has revolutionized cancer treatment. However, many cancers do not respond to ICB, prompting the search for additional strategies to achieve durable responses. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most intensively studied drug targets but are underexplored in immuno-oncology. Here, we cross-integrated large singe-cell RNA-sequencing datasets from CD8+ T cells covering 19 distinct cancer types and identified an enrichment of Gαs-coupled GPCRs on exhausted CD8+ T cells. These include EP2, EP4, A2AR, β1AR and β2AR, all of which promote T cell dysfunction. We also developed transgenic mice expressing a chemogenetic CD8-restricted Gαs-DREADD to activate CD8-restricted Gαs signaling and show that a Gαs-PKA signaling axis promotes CD8+ T cell dysfunction and immunotherapy failure. These data indicate that Gαs-GPCRs are druggable immune checkpoints that might be targeted to enhance the response to ICB immunotherapies. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Transitional dendritic cells are distinct from conventional DC2 precursors and mediate proinflammatory antiviral responses.

    In Nature Immunology on 1 August 2023 by Sulczewski, F. B., Alfaro, R. M., et al.


    High-dimensional approaches have revealed heterogeneity amongst dendritic cells (DCs), including a population of transitional DCs (tDCs) in mice and humans. However, the origin and relationship of tDCs to other DC subsets has been unclear. Here we show that tDCs are distinct from other well-characterized DCs and conventional DC precursors (pre-cDCs). We demonstrate that tDCs originate from bone marrow progenitors shared with plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). In the periphery, tDCs contribute to the pool of ESAM+ type 2 DCs (DC2s), and these DC2s have pDC-related developmental features. Different from pre-cDCs, tDCs have less turnover, capture antigen, respond to stimuli and activate antigen-specific naïve T cells, all characteristics of differentiated DCs. Different from pDCs, viral sensing by tDCs results in IL-1β secretion and fatal immune pathology in a murine coronavirus model. Our findings suggest that tDCs are a distinct pDC-related subset with a DC2 differentiation potential and unique proinflammatory function during viral infections. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Synergism Between IL21 and Anti-PD-1 Combination Therapy is Underpinned by the Coordinated Reprogramming of the Immune Cellular Network in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    In Cancer Res Commun on 1 August 2023 by Wu, S., Huang, H., et al.


    T cell-stimulating cytokines and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are an ideal combination for increasing response rates of cancer immunotherapy. However, the results of clinical trials have not been satisfying. It is important to understand the mechanism of synergy between these two therapeutic modalities. Here, through integrated analysis of multiple single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets of human tumor-infiltrating immune cells, we demonstrate that IL21 is produced by tumor-associated T follicular helper cells and hyperactivated/exhausted CXCL13+CD4+ T cells in the human tumor microenvironment (TME). In the mouse model, the hyperactivated/exhausted CD4+ T cell-derived IL21 enhances the helper function of CD4+ T cells that boost CD8+ T cell-mediated immune responses during PD-1 blockade immunotherapy. In addition, we demonstrated that IL21's antitumor activity did not require T-cell trafficking. Using scRNA-seq analysis of the whole tumor-infiltrating immune cells, we demonstrated that IL21 treatment in combination with anti-PD-1 blockade synergistically drives tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells to undergo clonal expansion and differentiate toward the hyperactive/exhausted functional state in the TME. In addition, IL21 treatment and anti-PD-1 blockade synergistically promote dendritic cell (DC) activation and maturation to mature DC as well as monocyte to type 1 macrophage (M1) differentiation in the TME. Furthermore, the combined treatment reprograms the immune cellular network by reshaping cell-cell communication in the TME. Our study establishes unique mechanisms of synergy between IL21 and PD-1-based ICI in the TME through the coordinated promotion of type 1 immune responses. This study reveals how cytokine and checkpoint inhibitor therapy can be combined to increase the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. © 2023 The Authors; Published by the American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    An autophagy program that promotes T cell egress from the lymph node controls responses to immune checkpoint blockade

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 18 July 2023 by Houbaert, D., Nikolakopoulos, A. P., et al.


    ABSTRACT Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) lining the lymphatic vessels of the lymph node (LN) parenchyma orchestrate leukocyte trafficking and peripheral T cell dynamics. T cell responses to immunotherapy largely rely on peripheral T cell recruitment in tumors. Yet, a systematic and molecular understanding of how LECs within the LNs control T cell dynamics under steady state and tumor-bearing conditions is lacking. Using intravital and high-resolution imaging combined with immune phenotyping, we show that LEC-specific deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg5 alters intranodal positioning of lymphocytes and accrues their persistence in the LNs, by increasing the availability of the main egress signal S1P. Single-cell RNA-sequencing of tumor-draining LNs from WT and ATG5 LEC-KO mice unveils that loss of ATG5 remodels niche-specific LEC phenotypes, involved in molecular pathways regulating lymphocyte trafficking and LEC-T cell interactions. Functionally, loss of LEC-autophagy prevents recruitment of tumor-infiltrating T cells and NK cells and abrogates tumor regression in response to anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA4-based immunotherapy. Thus, a unique LEC-autophagy program boosts immune-checkpoint responses by guiding systemic T cell dynamics. Graphical Abstract

    TRAIL agonists rescue mice from radiation-induced lung injury

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 13 June 2023 by Strandberg, J., Louie, A., et al.


    Cancer therapy is often limited by toxicity from pneumonitis. This often-lethal side effect is known to be impacted by innate immunity, and in particular the pathways regulated by the TRAIL death receptor DR5. We investigated whether DR5 agonists could rescue mice from the lethal effects of radiation. We found that two different agonists, parenteral PEGylated trimeric-TRAIL (TLY012) and oral TRAIL-Inducing Compound #10 (TIC10/ONC201), could achieve this goal. Both compounds could completely protect mice from lethality by reducing pneumonitis, alveolar-wall thickness, and oxygen desaturation. At the molecular level, this protection appeared to be due to the inhibition of CCl22, a macrophage-derived chemokine previously associated with radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. The discovery that short-term treatment with TRAIL pathway agonists effectively rescues animals from high doses of radiation exposure has important translational implications. One Sentence Summary Prevention of lethality, pneumonitis, lung fibrosis and skin dermatitis post-ψ-irradiation by short- term treatment with innate immune TRAIL pathway agonists

    Dietary palmitoleic acid reprograms gut microbiota and improves biological therapy against colitis.

    In Gut Microbes on 19 May 2023 by Chen, Y., Mai, Q., et al.


    Magnitude and diversity of gut microbiota and metabolic systems are critical in shaping human health and diseases, but it remains largely unclear how complex metabolites may selectively regulate gut microbiota and determine health and diseases. Here, we show that failures or compromised effects of anti-TNF-α therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) patients were correlated with intestinal dysbacteriosis with more pro-inflammatory bacteria, extensive unresolved inflammation, failed mucosal repairment, and aberrant lipid metabolism, particularly lower levels of palmitoleic acid (POA). Dietary POA repaired gut mucosal barriers, reduced inflammatory cell infiltrations and expressions of TNF-α and IL-6, and improved efficacy of anti-TNF-α therapy in both acute and chronic IBD mouse models. Ex vivo treatment with POA in cultured inflamed colon tissues derived from Crohn's disease (CD) patients reduced pro-inflammatory signaling/cytokines and conferred appreciable tissue repairment. Mechanistically, POA significantly upregulated the transcriptional signatures of cell division and biosynthetic process of Akkermansia muciniphila, selectively increased the growth and abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in gut microbiota, and further reprogrammed the composition and structures of gut microbiota. Oral transfer of such POA-reprogrammed, but not control, gut microbiota induced better protection against colitis in anti-TNF-α mAb-treated recipient mice, and co-administration of POA with Akkermansia muciniphila showed significant synergistic protections against colitis in mice. Collectively, this work not only reveals the critical importance of POA as a polyfunctional molecular force to shape the magnitude and diversity of gut microbiota and therefore promote the intestinal homeostasis, but also implicates a new potential therapeutic strategy against intestinal or abenteric inflammatory diseases.

    The Ubiquitin Ligase Itch Skews Light Zone Selection in Germinal Centers.

    In The Journal of Immunology on 15 May 2023 by Renshaw, L., Kim, P., et al.


    Ig diversification occurs in peripheral lymphoid organs after establishment of central tolerance during B cell development. In germinal centers (GCs), somatic hypermutation of Ig genes occurs in dark zones, followed by selection of mutated clones in light zones (LZs). This generates high-affinity Ig receptors to pathogens but can also produce autoreactive Ig receptors, which are removed by selection mechanisms that are incompletely understood. The ubiquitin ligase Itch prevents the emergence of autoimmune disease and autoantibodies in humans and mice, and patients lacking Itch develop potentially fatal autoimmune diseases; yet, how Itch regulates GC B cells is not well understood. By studying Itch-deficient mice, we have recently shown that Itch directly limits the magnitude of GC responses. Proteomic profiling of GC B cells uncovered that Itch-deficient cells exhibit high mTORC1 and Myc activity, hallmarks of positive selection. Bone marrow chimera and adoptive transfer experiments revealed that B cell Itch restricts noncycling LZ cells. These results support, to our knowledge, a novel role for Itch in skewing selection of GC B cells to restrict LZ accumulation and shape GC-derived humoral immunity. Determining how B cells integrate cues within GCs to navigate through LZs and dark zones will aid in understanding how autoreactive clones emerge from GCs in people with autoimmune disease. Copyright © 2023 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

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