InVivoPlus polyclonal Armenian hamster IgG

Catalog #BP0091
Product Citations:
12
Clone:
Polyclonal

$781.00 - $5,568.00

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Product Details

The polyclonal Armenian hamster IgG is purified from Armenian hamster serum. It is ideal for use as a non-reactive control IgG for Armenian hamster antibodies in most in vivo and in vitro applications.

Specifications

Isotype Armenian hamster IgG
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin* <1EU/mg (<0.001EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Aggregation* <5%
Determined by DLS
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from Armenian hamster serum
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107773
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Murine Pathogen Tests* Ectromelia/Mousepox Virus: Negative
Hantavirus: Negative
K Virus: Negative
Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus: Negative
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus: Negative
Mouse Adenovirus: Negative
Mouse Cytomegalovirus: Negative
Mouse Hepatitis Virus: Negative
Mouse Minute Virus: Negative
Mouse Norovirus: Negative
Mouse Parvovirus: Negative
Mouse Rotavirus: Negative
Mycoplasma Pulmonis: Negative
Pneumonia Virus of Mice: Negative
Polyoma Virus: Negative
Reovirus Screen: Negative
Sendai Virus: Negative
Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis: Negative
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
* Additional quality control measures for our InVivoPlus™ products include advanced binding validation, murine pathogen screening, protein aggregation screening, and ultra-low endotoxin levels. The superior quality of our InVivoPlus™ products will meet and exceed the strict demands and rigorous standards required for in vivo research. Learn more about the InVivoPlus™ difference here.

Additional Formats

Ariyan, C. E., et al. (2018). "Robust Antitumor Responses Result from Local Chemotherapy and CTLA-4 Blockade" Cancer Immunol Res 6(2): 189-200. PubMed

Clinical responses to immunotherapy have been associated with augmentation of preexisting immune responses, manifested by heightened inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. However, many tumors have a noninflamed microenvironment, and response rates to immunotherapy in melanoma have been <50%. We approached this problem by utilizing immunotherapy (CTLA-4 blockade) combined with chemotherapy to induce local inflammation. In murine models of melanoma and prostate cancer, the combination of chemotherapy and CTLA-4 blockade induced a shift in the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment, with infiltrating CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells increasing the CD8/Foxp3 T-cell ratio. These changes were associated with improved survival of the mice. To translate these findings into a clinical setting, 26 patients with advanced melanoma were treated locally by isolated limb infusion with the nitrogen mustard alkylating agent melphalan followed by systemic administration of CTLA-4 blocking antibody (ipilimumab) in a phase II trial. This combination of local chemotherapy with systemic checkpoint blockade inhibitor resulted in a response rate of 85% at 3 months (62% complete and 23% partial response rate) and a 58% progression-free survival at 1 year. The clinical response was associated with increased T-cell infiltration, similar to that seen in the murine models. Together, our findings suggest that local chemotherapy combined with checkpoint blockade-based immunotherapy results in a durable response to cancer therapy.

Li, C., et al. (2015). "ADAP and SKAP55 deficiency suppresses PD-1 expression in CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes for enhanced anti-tumor immunotherapy" EMBO Mol Med 7(6): 754-769. PubMed

PD-1 negatively regulates CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) cytotoxicity and anti-tumor immunity. However, it is not fully understood how PD-1 expression on CD8(+) CTL is regulated during anti-tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we have identified that the ADAP-SKAP55 signaling module reduced CD8(+) CTL cytotoxicity and enhanced PD-1 expression in a Fyn-, Ca(2+)-, and NFATc1-dependent manner. In DC vaccine-based tumor prevention and therapeutic models, knockout of SKAP55 or ADAP showed a heightened protection from tumor formation or metastases in mice and reduced PD-1 expression in CD8(+) effector cells. Interestingly, CTLA-4 levels and the percentages of tumor infiltrating CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs remained unchanged. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of SKAP55-deficient or ADAP-deficient CD8(+) CTLs significantly blocked tumor growth and increased anti-tumor immunity. Pretreatment of wild-type CD8(+) CTLs with the NFATc1 inhibitor CsA could also downregulate PD-1 expression and enhance anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy. Together, we propose that targeting the unrecognized ADAP-SKAP55-NFATc1-PD-1 pathway might increase efficacy of anti-tumor immunotherapy.

Imai, Y., et al. (2015). "Cutting Edge: PD-1 Regulates Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasiform Dermatitis through Inhibition of IL-17A Expression by Innate gammadelta-Low T Cells" J Immunol 195(2): 421-425. PubMed

Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is a key regulatory molecule that has been targeted in human cancers, including melanoma. In clinical testing, Abs against PD-1 have resulted in psoriasiform dermatitis (PsD). To determine whether PD-1 regulates PsD, we compared skin responses of PD-1-deficient (PD-1KO) mice and wild-type (WT) controls in an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced murine model of psoriasis. PD-1KO mice showed severe epidermal hyperplasia, greater neutrophilic infiltration, and higher expression of Th17 cytokines (versus WT mice). IMQ exposure increased PD-1 expression by skin gammadelta-low (GDL) T cells and enhanced expression of PD-L1 by keratinocytes. Three-fold increases in the percentage of IL-17A(+) GDL T cells were observed in skin cell suspensions derived from IMQ-treated PD-1KO mice (versus WT controls), suggesting that the lack of PD-1 has a functional effect not only on alphabeta T cells, but also on GDL T cells, and that PD-1 may play a regulatory role in PsD.

Awe, O., et al. (2015). "PU.1 Expression in T Follicular Helper Cells Limits CD40L-Dependent Germinal Center B Cell Development" J Immunol . PubMed

PU.1 is an ETS family transcription factor that is important for the development of multiple hematopoietic cell lineages. Previous work demonstrated a critical role for PU.1 in promoting Th9 development and in limiting Th2 cytokine production. Whether PU.1 has functions in other Th lineages is not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of ectopic expression of PU.1 in CD4+ T cells and observed decreased expression of genes involved with the function of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, including Il21 and Tnfsf5 (encoding CD40L). T cells from conditional mutant mice that lack expression of PU.1 in T cells (Sfpi1lck-/-) demonstrated increased production of CD40L and IL-21 in vitro. Following adjuvant-dependent or adjuvant-independent immunization, we observed that Sfpi1lck-/- mice had increased numbers of Tfh cells, increased germinal center B cells (GCB cells), and increased Ab production in vivo. This correlated with increased expression of IL-21 and CD40L in Tfh cells from Sfpi1lck-/- mice compared with control mice. Finally, although blockade of IL-21 did not affect GCB cells in Sfpi1lck-/- mice, anti-CD40L treatment of immunized Sfpi1lck-/- mice decreased GCB cell numbers and Ag-specific Ig concentrations. Together, these data indicate an inhibitory role for PU.1 in the function of Tfh cells, germinal centers, and Tfh-dependent humoral immunity.

Ozdemir, B. C., et al. (2014). "Depletion of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts and fibrosis induces immunosuppression and accelerates pancreas cancer with reduced survival" Cancer Cell 25(6): 719-734. PubMed

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with marked fibrosis and stromal myofibroblasts, but their functional contribution remains unknown. Transgenic mice with the ability to delete alphaSMA(+) myofibroblasts in pancreatic cancer were generated. Depletion starting at either noninvasive precursor (pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia) or the PDAC stage led to invasive, undifferentiated tumors with enhanced hypoxia, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cells, with diminished animal survival. In PDAC patients, fewer myofibroblasts in their tumors also correlated with reduced survival. Suppressed immune surveillance with increased CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs was observed in myofibroblast-depleted mouse tumors. Although myofibroblast-depleted tumors did not respond to gemcitabine, anti-CTLA4 immunotherapy reversed disease acceleration and prolonged animal survival. This study underscores the need for caution in targeting carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in PDAC.

Ballesteros-Tato, A., et al. (2014). "Epitope-specific regulation of memory programming by differential duration of antigen presentation to influenza-specific CD8(+) T cells" Immunity 41(1): 127-140. PubMed

Memory CD8(+) T cells are programmed during the primary response for robust secondary responsiveness. Here we show that CD8(+) T cells responding to different epitopes of influenza virus received qualitatively different signals during the primary response that altered their secondary responsiveness. Nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8(+) T cells encountered antigen on CD40-licensed, CD70-expressing, CD103(-)CD11b(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) at later times in the primary response. As a consequence, they maintained CD25 expression and responded to interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD27, which together programmed their robust secondary proliferative capacity and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing ability. In contrast, polymerase (PA)-specific CD8(+) T cells did not encounter antigen-bearing, CD40-activated DCs at later times in the primary response, did not receive CD27 and CD25 signals, and were not programmed to become memory CD8(+) T cells with strong proliferative and cytokine-producing ability. As a result, CD8(+) T cells responding to abundant antigens, like NP, dominated the secondary response.

Van der Jeught, K., et al. (2014). "Intratumoral administration of mRNA encoding a fusokine consisting of IFN-beta and the ectodomain of the TGF-beta receptor II potentiates antitumor immunity" Oncotarget 5(20): 10100-10113. PubMed

It is generally accepted that the success of immunotherapy depends on the presence of tumor-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells and the modulation of the tumor environment. In this study, we validated mRNA encoding soluble factors as a tool to modulate the tumor microenvironment to potentiate infiltration of tumor-specific T cells. Intratumoral delivery of mRNA encoding a fusion protein consisting of interferon-beta and the ectodomain of the transforming growth factor-beta receptor II, referred to as Fbeta(2), showed therapeutic potential. The treatment efficacy was dependent on CD8(+) T cells and could be improved through blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions. In vitro studies revealed that administration of Fbeta(2) to tumor cells resulted in a reduced proliferation and increased expression of MHC I but also PD-L1. Importantly, Fbeta(2) enhanced the antigen presenting capacity of dendritic cells, whilst reducing the suppressive activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that intratumoral delivery of mRNA encoding soluble proteins, such as Fbeta(2), can modulate the tumor microenvironment, leading to effective antitumor T cell responses, which can be further potentiated through combination therapy.

Khmaladze, I., et al. (2014). "Mannan induces ROS-regulated, IL-17A-dependent psoriasis arthritis-like disease in mice" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(35): E3669-3678. PubMed

Psoriasis (Ps) and psoriasis arthritis (PsA) are poorly understood common diseases, induced by unknown environmental factors, affecting skin and articular joints. A single i.p. exposure to mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced an acute inflammation in inbred mouse strains resembling human Ps and PsA-like disease, whereas multiple injections induced a relapsing disease. Exacerbation of disease severity was observed in mice deficient for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, restoration of ROS production, specifically in macrophages, ameliorated both skin and joint disease. Neutralization of IL-17A, mainly produced by gammadelta T cells, completely blocked disease symptoms. Furthermore, mice depleted of granulocytes were resistant to disease development. In contrast, certain acute inflammatory mediators (C5, Fcgamma receptor III, mast cells, and histamine) and adaptive immune players (alphabeta T and B cells) were redundant in disease induction. Hence, we propose that mannan-induced activation of macrophages leads to TNF-alpha secretion and stimulation of local gammadelta T cells secreting IL-17A. The combined action of activated macrophages and IL-17A produced in situ drives neutrophil infiltration in the epidermis and dermis of the skin, leading to disease manifestations. Thus, our finding suggests a new mechanism triggered by exposure to exogenous microbial components, such as mannan, that can induce and exacerbate Ps and PsA.

Gopinath, S., et al. (2014). "Role of disease-associated tolerance in infectious superspreaders" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(44): 15780-15785. PubMed

Natural populations show striking heterogeneity in their ability to transmit disease. For example, a minority of infected individuals known as superspreaders carries out the majority of pathogen transmission events. In a mouse model of Salmonella infection, a subset of infected hosts becomes superspreaders, shedding high levels of bacteria (>10(8) cfu per g of feces) but remain asymptomatic with a dampened systemic immune state. Here we show that superspreader hosts remain asymptomatic when they are treated with oral antibiotics. In contrast, nonsuperspreader Salmonella-infected hosts that are treated with oral antibiotics rapidly shed superspreader levels of the pathogen but display signs of morbidity. This morbidity is linked to an increase in inflammatory myeloid cells in the spleen followed by increased production of acute-phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. The degree of colonic inflammation is similar in antibiotic-treated superspreader and nonsuperspreader hosts, indicating that the superspreader hosts are tolerant of antibiotic-mediated perturbations in the intestinal tract. Importantly, neutralization of acute-phase proinflammatory cytokines in antibiotic-induced superspreaders suppresses the expansion of inflammatory myeloid cells and reduces morbidity. We describe a unique disease-associated tolerance to oral antibiotics in superspreaders that facilitates continued transmission of the pathogen.

Church, S. E., et al. (2014). "Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells maintain effector and memory tumor-specific CD8+ T cells" Eur J Immunol 44(1): 69-79. PubMed

Immunotherapies that augment antitumor T cells have had recent success for treating patients with cancer. Here we examined whether tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells enhance CD8(+) T-cell adoptive immunotherapy in a lymphopenic environment. Our model employed physiological doses of tyrosinase-related protein 1-specific CD4(+) transgenic T cells-CD4(+) T cells and pmel-CD8(+) T cells that when transferred individually were subtherapeutic; however, when transferred together provided significant (p = 0.001) therapeutic efficacy. Therapeutic efficacy correlated with increased numbers of effector and memory CD8(+) T cells with tumor-specific cytokine expression. When combined with CD4(+) T cells, transfer of total (naive and effector) or effector CD8(+) T cells were highly effective, suggesting CD4(+) T cells can help mediate therapeutic effects by maintaining function of activated CD8(+) T cells. In addition, CD4(+) T cells had a pronounced effect in the early posttransfer period, as their elimination within the first 3 days significantly (p < 0.001) reduced therapeutic efficacy. The CD8(+) T cells recovered from mice treated with both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells had decreased expression of PD-1 and PD-1-blockade enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of pmel-CD8 alone, suggesting that CD4(+) T cells help reduce CD8(+) T-cell exhaustion. These data support combining immunotherapies that elicit both tumor-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells for treatment of patients with cancer.

Youlin, K., et al. (2012). "Combination immunotherapy with 4-1BBL and CTLA-4 blockade for the treatment of prostate cancer" Clin Dev Immunol 2012: 439235. PubMed

Immune regulation has been shown to be involved in the progressive growth of some murine tumours. Interruption of immune regulatory pathways via activation of 4-1BB or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) blockade appears to be a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of 4-1BBL-expressing tumor cell vaccine in combination with CTLA-4 blockade on rejection of murine prostate cancer RM-1. We found that the combination of both a vaccine consisting of 4-1BBL-expressing RM-1 cells and CTLA-4 blockade resulted in regression of RM-1 tumors and a significant increase in survival of the tumour cell recipients, compared to that of either treatment alone. The combined vaccination resulted in higher CTL against RM-1 cells and increased secretion of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-2 in the mix-cultured supernatant. These results suggest that combining activation of 4-1BB and blockade of CTLA-4 may offer a new strategy for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

Bortnick, A., et al. (2012). "Long-lived bone marrow plasma cells are induced early in response to T cell-independent or T cell-dependent antigens" J Immunol 188(11): 5389-5396. PubMed

The signals required to generate long-lived plasma cells remain unresolved. One widely cited model posits that long-lived plasma cells derive from germinal centers (GCs) in response to T cell-dependent (TD) Ags. Thus, T cell-independent (TI) Ags, which fail to sustain GCs, are considered ineffective at generating long-lived plasma cells. However, we show that long-lived hapten-specific plasma cells are readily induced without formation of GCs. Long-lived plasma cells developed in T cell-deficient mice after a single immunization with haptenated LPS, a widely used TI Ag. Long-lived plasma cells also formed in response to TD Ag when the GC response was experimentally prevented. These observations establish that long-lived plasma cells are induced in both TI and TD responses, and can arise independently of B cell maturation in GCs.

Waitz, R., et al. (2012). "Potent induction of tumor immunity by combining tumor cryoablation with anti-CTLA-4 therapy" Cancer Res 72(2): 430-439. PubMed

Thermal ablation to destroy tumor tissue may help activate tumor-specific T cells by elevating the presentation of tumor antigens to the immune system. However, the antitumor activity of these T cells may be restrained by their expression of the inhibitory T-cell coreceptor CTLA-4, the target of the recently U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved antibody drug ipilumimab. By relieving this restraint, CTLA-4-blocking antibodies such as ipilumimab can promote tumor rejection, but the full scope of their most suitable applications has yet to be fully determined. In this study, we offer a preclinical proof-of-concept in the TRAMP C2 mouse model of prostate cancer that CTLA-4 blockade cooperates with cryoablation of a primary tumor to prevent the outgrowth of secondary tumors seeded by challenge at a distant site. Although growth of secondary tumors was unaffected by cryoablation alone, the combination treatment was sufficient to slow growth or trigger rejection. In addition, secondary tumors were highly infiltrated by CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells, and there was a significant increase in the ratio of intratumoral T effector cells to CD4(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells, compared with monotherapy. These findings documented for the first time an effect of this immunotherapeutic intervention on the intratumoral accumulation and systemic expansion of CD8(+) T cells specific for the TRAMP C2-specific antigen SPAS-1. Although cryoablation is currently used to treat a targeted tumor nodule, our results suggest that combination therapy with CTLA-4 blockade will augment antitumor immunity and rejection of tumor metastases in this setting.

Coley, S. M., et al. (2009). "IFN-gamma dictates allograft fate via opposing effects on the graft and on recipient CD8 T cell responses" J Immunol 182(1): 225-233. PubMed

CD8 T cells are necessary for costimulation blockade-resistant rejection. However, the mechanism by which CD8 T cells mediate rejection in the absence of major costimulatory signals is poorly understood. IFN-gamma promotes CD8 T cell-mediated immune responses, but IFN-gamma-deficient mice show early graft loss despite costimulation blockade. In contrast, we found that IFN-gamma receptor knockout mice show dramatically prolonged graft survival under costimulation blockade. To investigate this paradox, we addressed the effects of IFN-gamma on T cell alloresponses in vivo independent of the effects of IFN-gamma on graft survival. We identified a donor-specific CD8 T cell breakthrough response temporally correlated with costimulation blockade-resistant rejection. Neither IFN-gamma receptor knockout recipients nor IFN-gamma-deficient recipients showed a CD8 breakthrough response. Graft death on IFN-gamma-deficient recipients despite costimulation blockade could be explained by the lack of IFN-gamma available to act on the graft. Indeed, the presence of IFN-gamma was necessary for graft survival on IFN-gamma receptor knockout recipients, as either IFN-gamma neutralization or the lack of the IFN-gamma receptor on the graft precipitated early graft loss. Thus, IFN-gamma is required both for the recipient to mount a donor-specific CD8 T cell response under costimulation blockade as well as for the graft to survive after allotransplantation.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    Molecular, metabolic, and functional CD4 T cell paralysis in the lymph node impedes tumor control.

    In Cell Reports on 26 September 2023 by Guo, M., Abd-Rabbo, D., et al.

    PubMed

    CD4 T cells are central effectors of anti-cancer immunity and immunotherapy, yet the regulation of CD4 tumor-specific T (TTS) cells is unclear. We demonstrate that CD4 TTS cells are quickly primed and begin to divide following tumor initiation. However, unlike CD8 TTS cells or exhaustion programming, CD4 TTS cell proliferation is rapidly frozen in place by a functional interplay of regulatory T cells and CTLA4. Together these mechanisms paralyze CD4 TTS cell differentiation, redirecting metabolic circuits, and reducing their accumulation in the tumor. The paralyzed state is actively maintained throughout cancer progression and CD4 TTS cells rapidly resume proliferation and functional differentiation when the suppressive constraints are alleviated. Overcoming their paralysis established long-term tumor control, demonstrating the importance of rapidly crippling CD4 TTS cells for tumor progression and their potential restoration as therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Decoupled neoantigen cross-presentation by dendritic cells limits anti-tumor immunity against tumors with heterogeneous neoantigen expression.

    In eLife on 7 August 2023 by Nguyen, K. B., Roerden, M., et al.

    PubMed

    Cancer immunotherapies, in particular checkpoint blockade immunotherapy (CBT), can induce control of cancer growth, with a fraction of patients experiencing durable responses. However, the majority of patients currently do not respond to CBT and the molecular determinants of resistance have not been fully elucidated. Mounting clinical evidence suggests that the clonal status of neoantigens (NeoAg) impacts the anti-tumor T cell response. High intratumor heterogeneity (ITH), where the majority of NeoAgs are expressed subclonally, is correlated with poor clinical response to CBT and poor infiltration with tumor-reactive T cells. However, the mechanism by which ITH blunts tumor-reactive T cells is unclear. We developed a transplantable murine lung cancer model to characterize the immune response against a defined set of NeoAgs expressed either clonally or subclonally to model low or high ITH, respectively. Here we show that clonal expression of a weakly immunogenic NeoAg with a relatively strong NeoAg increased the immunogenicity of tumors with low but not high ITH. Mechanistically we determined that clonal NeoAg expression allowed cross-presenting dendritic cells to acquire and present both NeoAgs. Dual NeoAg presentation by dendritic cells was associated with a more mature DC phenotype and a higher stimulatory capacity. These data suggest that clonal NeoAg expression can induce more potent anti-tumor responses due to more stimulatory dendritic cell:T cell interactions. Therapeutic vaccination targeting subclonally expressed NeoAgs could be used to boost anti-tumor T cell responses. © 2023, Nguyen et al.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    MAIT cells activate dendritic cells to promote TFH cell differentiation and induce humoral immunity.

    In Cell Reports on 25 April 2023 by Pankhurst, T. E., Buick, K. H., et al.

    PubMed

    Protective immune responses against respiratory pathogens, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza virus, are initiated by the mucosal immune system. However, most licensed vaccines are administered parenterally and are largely ineffective at inducing mucosal immunity. The development of safe and effective mucosal vaccines has been hampered by the lack of a suitable mucosal adjuvant. In this study we explore a class of adjuvant that harnesses mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. We show evidence that intranasal immunization of MAIT cell agonists co-administered with protein, including the spike receptor binding domain from SARS-CoV-2 virus and hemagglutinin from influenza virus, induce protective humoral immunity and immunoglobulin A production. MAIT cell adjuvant activity is mediated by CD40L-dependent activation of dendritic cells and subsequent priming of T follicular helper cells. In summary, we show that MAIT cells are promising vaccine targets that can be utilized as cellular adjuvants in mucosal vaccines. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Intratumor childhood vaccine-specific CD4+ T-cell recall coordinates antitumor CD8+ T cells and eosinophils.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 1 April 2023 by Brown, M. C., Beasley, G. M., et al.

    PubMed

    Antitumor mechanisms of CD4+ T cells remain crudely defined, and means to effectively harness CD4+ T-cell help for cancer immunotherapy are lacking. Pre-existing memory CD4+ T cells hold potential to be leveraged for this purpose. Moreover, the role of pre-existing immunity in virotherapy, particularly recombinant poliovirus immunotherapy where childhood polio vaccine specific immunity is ubiquitous, remains unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that childhood vaccine-specific memory T cells mediate antitumor immunotherapy and contribute to the antitumor efficacy of polio virotherapy. The impact of polio immunization on polio virotherapy, and the antitumor effects of polio and tetanus recall were tested in syngeneic murine melanoma and breast cancer models. CD8+ T-cell and B-cell knockout, CD4+ T-cell depletion, CD4+ T-cell adoptive transfer, CD40L blockade, assessments of antitumor T-cell immunity, and eosinophil depletion defined antitumor mechanisms of recall antigens. Pan-cancer transcriptome data sets and polio virotherapy clinical trial correlates were used to assess the relevance of these findings in humans. Prior vaccination against poliovirus substantially bolstered the antitumor efficacy of polio virotherapy in mice, and intratumor recall of poliovirus or tetanus immunity delayed tumor growth. Intratumor recall antigens augmented antitumor T-cell function, caused marked tumor infiltration of type 2 innate lymphoid cells and eosinophils, and decreased proportions of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Antitumor effects of recall antigens were mediated by CD4+ T cells, limited by B cells, independent of CD40L, and dependent on eosinophils and CD8+ T cells. An inverse relationship between eosinophil and Treg signatures was observed across The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cancer types, and eosinophil depletion prevented Treg reductions after polio recall. Pretreatment polio neutralizing antibody titers were higher in patients living longer, and eosinophil levels increased in the majority of patients, after polio virotherapy. Pre-existing anti-polio immunity contributes to the antitumor efficacy of polio virotherapy. This work defines cancer immunotherapy potential of childhood vaccines, reveals their utility to engage CD4+ T-cell help for antitumor CD8+ T cells, and implicates eosinophils as antitumor effectors of CD4+ T cells. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    Blockade of CD47 function attenuates restenosis by promoting smooth muscle cell efferocytosis and inhibiting their migration and proliferation.

    In The Journal of Biological Chemistry on 1 April 2023 by Govatati, S., Pichavaram, P., et al.

    PubMed

    Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various diseases including atherosclerosis but its role in neointimal hyperplasia which contributes to restenosis has not been studied. Using molecular approaches in combination with a mouse vascular endothelial denudation model, we studied the role of CD47 in injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia. We determined that thrombin-induced CD47 expression both in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and mouse aortic smooth muscle cells. In exploring the mechanisms, we found that the protease-activated receptor 1-Gα protein q/11 (Gαq/11)-phospholipase Cβ3-nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 signaling axis regulates thrombin-induced CD47 expression in HASMCs. Depletion of CD47 levels using its siRNA or interference of its function by its blocking antibody (bAb) blunted thrombin-induced migration and proliferation of HASMCs and mouse aortic smooth muscle cells. In addition, we found that thrombin-induced HASMC migration requires CD47 interaction with integrin β3. On the other hand, thrombin-induced HASMC proliferation was dependent on CD47's role in nuclear export and degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase-interacting protein 1. In addition, suppression of CD47 function by its bAb rescued HASMC efferocytosis from inhibition by thrombin. We also found that vascular injury induces CD47 expression in intimal SMCs and that inhibition of CD47 function by its bAb, while alleviating injury-induced inhibition of SMC efferocytosis, attenuated SMC migration, and proliferation resulting in reduced neointima formation. Thus, these findings reveal a pathological role for CD47 in neointimal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cardiovascular biology
    • ,
    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Single-Cell RNA sequencing reveals immune cell dynamics and local intercellular communication in acute murine cardiac allograft rejection.

    In Theranostics on 29 September 2022 by Chen, Z., Xu, H., et al.

    PubMed

    Rationale: Transplant rejection is a major impediment to long-term allograft survival, in which the actions of immune cells are of fundamental importance. However, the immune cell dynamics and local intercellular communication of acute cardiac allograft rejection are not completely clear. Methods: Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on CD45+ immune cells isolated from cardiac grafts and spleens in a model of murine heterotopic heart transplantation. Moreover, we applied unsupervised clustering, functional enrichment analysis, cell trajectory construction and intercellular communication analysis to explore the immune cell dynamics and local intercellular communication of acute cardiac allograft rejection at single-cell level. The effect of CXCR3 antagonist and neutralizing antibody against its ligand on allograft rejection and T cell function was evaluated in murine heart transplantation model. Results: We presented the immune cell landscape of acute murine cardiac allograft rejection at single-cell resolution, and uncovered the functional characteristics and differentiation trajectory of several alloreactive cell subpopulations, including Mki67hi CTLs, Ccl5hi CTLs, activated Tregs and alloreactive B cells. We demonstrated local intercellular communication and revealed the upregulation of CXCR3 and its ligands in cardiac allografts. Finally, CXCR3 blockade significantly suppressed acute cardiac allograft rejection and inhibited the alloreactive T cell function. Conclusions: These results provide a new insight into the immune cell dynamics and local intercellular communication of acute cardiac allograft rejection, and suggest CXCR3 pathway may serve as a potential therapeutic target for transplant rejection. © The author(s).

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Intratumoral Recall of Childhood Vaccine-Specific CD4sup>+/sup> T cells Coordinates Type I and II Antitumor Immunity

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 14 March 2022 by Brown, M. C., McKay, Z. P., et al.

    PubMed

    h4>ABSTRACT/h4> CD4 + T cells are key contributors to cancer immune surveillance. Here we report that childhood vaccine associated antigens engage simultaneous antitumor functions of CD8 + T cells and eosinophils via intratumor vaccine-specific CD4 + T cell recall. Prior vaccination against poliovirus potentiates antitumor efficacy of polio virotherapy in mice, and intratumor recall of poliovirus or tetanus immunity delayed tumor growth. Antitumor effects of recall antigens were mediated by CD4 + T cells, independent of CD40L signaling, and were dependent on eosinophils and CD8 + T cells. Recall antigen therapy caused marked tumor infiltration of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) expressing granzyme B and PD1 and eosinophils, coinciding with decreased proportions of intratumor Tregs. A pan-cancer analysis revealed an inverse relationship between intratumor eosinophils and Tregs, but not CD4 + or CD8 + T cells. This work defines cancer immunotherapy potential of childhood vaccines and implicates type II immunity in CD4 + T cell cancer immune surveillance.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Countering the advert effects of lung cancer on the anticancer potential of dendritic cell populations reinstates sensitivity to anti-PD-1 therapy.

    In PLoS ONE on 1 December 2021 by Brassard, J., Gill, M. E., et al.

    PubMed

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. While the recent use of immune checkpoint inhibitors significantly improves patient outcomes, responsiveness remains restricted to a small proportion of patients. Conventional dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in anticancer immunity. In mice, two subpopulations of DCs are found in the lung: DC2s (CD11b+Sirpα+) and DC1s (CD103+XCR1+), the latest specializing in the promotion of anticancer immune responses. However, the impact of lung cancer on DC populations and the consequent influence on the anticancer immune response remain poorly understood. To address this, DC populations were studied in murine models of Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) and melanoma-induced lung metastasis (B16F10). We report that direct exposure to live or dead cancer cells impacts the capacity of DCs to differentiate into CD103+ DC1s, leading to profound alterations in CD103+ DC1 proportions in the lung. In addition, we observed the accumulation of CD103loCD11b+ DCs, which express DC2 markers IRF4 and Sirpα, high levels of T-cell inhibitory molecules PD-L1/2 and the regulatory molecule CD200. Finally, DC1s were injected in combination with an immune checkpoint inhibitor (anti-PD-1) in the B16F10 model of resistance to the anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint therapy; the co-injection restored sensitivity to immunotherapy. Thus, we demonstrate that lung tumor development leads to the accumulation of CD103loCD11b+ DCs with a regulatory potential combined with a reduced proportion of highly-specialized antitumor CD103+ DC1s, which could promote cancer growth. Additionally, promoting an anticancer DC signature could be an interesting therapeutic avenue to increase the efficacy of existing immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Arf1-mediated lipid metabolism sustains cancer cells and its ablation induces anti-tumor immune responses in mice.

    In Nature Communications on 10 January 2020 by Wang, G., Xu, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for treatment resistance, tumor metastasis, and disease recurrence. Here we demonstrate that the Arf1-mediated lipid metabolism sustains cells enriched with CSCs and its ablation induces anti-tumor immune responses in mice. Notably, Arf1 ablation in cancer cells induces mitochondrial defects, endoplasmic-reticulum stress, and the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which recruit and activate dendritic cells (DCs) at tumor sites. The activated immune system finally elicits antitumor immune surveillance by stimulating T-cell infiltration and activation. Furthermore, TCGA data analysis shows an inverse correlation between Arf1 expression and T-cell infiltration and activation along with patient survival in various human cancers. Our results reveal that Arf1-pathway knockdown not only kills CSCs but also elicits a tumor-specific immune response that converts dying CSCs into a therapeutic vaccine, leading to durable benefits.

    • Cell Biology
    TBKBP1 and TBK1 form a growth factor signalling axis mediating immunosuppression and tumourigenesis.

    In Nature Cell Biology on 1 December 2019 by Zhu, L., Li, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) responds to microbial stimuli and mediates the induction of type I interferon (IFN). Here, we show that TBK1 is also a central mediator of growth factor signalling; this function of TBK1 relies on a specific adaptor-TBK-binding protein 1 (TBKBP1). TBKBP1 recruits TBK1 to protein kinase C-theta (PKCθ) through a scaffold protein, CARD10. This enables PKCθ to phosphorylate TBK1 at Ser 716, a crucial step for TBK1 activation by growth factors but not by innate immune stimuli. Although the TBK1-TBKBP1 signalling axis is not required for the induction of type I IFN, it mediates mTORC1 activation and oncogenesis. Conditional deletion of either TBK1 or TBKBP1 in lung epithelial cells inhibits tumourigenesis in a mouse model of lung cancer. In addition to promoting tumour growth, the TBK1-TBKBP1 axis facilitates tumour-mediated immunosuppression through a mechanism that involves induction of the checkpoint molecule PD-L1 and stimulation of glycolysis. These findings suggest a PKCθ-TBKBP1-TBK1 growth factor signalling axis that mediates both tumour growth and immunosuppression.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Non-invasive Imaging of Sendai Virus Infection in Pharmacologically Immunocompromised Mice: NK and T Cells, but not Neutrophils, Promote Viral Clearance after Therapy with Cyclophosphamide and Dexamethasone.

    In PLoS Pathogens on 1 September 2016 by Mostafa, H. H., Vogel, P., et al.

    PubMed

    In immunocompromised patients, parainfluenza virus (PIV) infections have an increased potential to spread to the lower respiratory tract (LRT), resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Understanding the immunologic defects that facilitate viral spread to the LRT will help in developing better management protocols. In this study, we immunosuppressed mice with dexamethasone and/or cyclophosphamide then monitored the spread of viral infection into the LRT by using a noninvasive bioluminescence imaging system and a reporter Sendai virus (murine PIV type 1). Our results show that immunosuppression led to delayed viral clearance and increased viral loads in the lungs. After cessation of cyclophosphamide treatment, viral clearance occurred before the generation of Sendai-specific antibody responses and coincided with rebounds in neutrophils, T lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells. Neutrophil suppression using anti-Ly6G antibody had no effect on infection clearance, NK-cell suppression using anti-NK antibody delayed clearance, and T-cell suppression using anti-CD3 antibody resulted in no clearance (chronic infection). Therapeutic use of hematopoietic growth factors G-CSF and GM-CSF had no effect on clearance of infection. In contrast, treatment with Sendai virus-specific polysera or a monoclonal antibody limited viral spread into the lungs and accelerated clearance. Overall, noninvasive bioluminescence was shown to be a useful tool to study respiratory viral progression, revealing roles for NK and T cells, but not neutrophils, in Sendai virus clearance after treatment with dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide. Virus-specific antibodies appear to have therapeutic potential.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    T cell Bim levels reflect responses to anti-PD-1 cancer therapy.

    In JCI Insight on 5 May 2016 by Dronca, R. S., Liu, X., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune checkpoint therapy with PD-1 blockade has emerged as an effective therapy for many advanced cancers; however, only a small fraction of patients achieve durable responses. To date, there is no validated blood-based means of predicting the response to PD-1 blockade. We report that Bim is a downstream signaling molecule of the PD-1 pathway, and its detection in T cells is significantly associated with expression of PD-1 and effector T cell markers. High levels of Bim in circulating tumor-reactive (PD-1+CD11ahiCD8+) T cells were prognostic of poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma who did not receive anti-PD-1 therapy and were also predictive of clinical benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma who were treated with anti-PD-1 therapy. Moreover, this circulating tumor-reactive T cell population significantly decreased after successful anti-PD-1 therapy. Our study supports a crucial role of Bim in both T cell activation and apoptosis as regulated by PD-1 and PD-L1 interactions in effector CD8+ T cells. Measurement of Bim levels in circulating T cells of patients with cancer may provide a less invasive strategy to predict and monitor responses to anti-PD-1 therapy, although future prospective analyses are needed to validate its utility.

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