InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer

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Product Citations:
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Product Details

InVivoPure™ dilution buffers are specifically formulated and tested to satisfy the stringent requirements for in vivo applications. They are extremely low in endotoxin, have been screened for murine pathogens, tested in animal models for toxicity and are formulated with respect to buffer composition and pH to satisfy the requirements of Bio X Cell’s antibodies.

Specifications

Endotoxin <0.5 EU/mL (<0.0005EU/μL)
Endotoxin level is determined using an LAL gel clotting test
Sterility 0.2 μM filtered
Murine Pathogen Tests Mouse Norovirus: Negative
Mouse Parvovirus: Negative
Mouse Minute Virus: Negative
Mouse Hepatitis Virus: Negative
Reovirus Screen: Negative
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus: Negative
Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus: Negative
Mouse Rotavirus: Negative
Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis: Negative
Ectromelia/Mousepox Virus: Negative
Hantavirus: Negative
Polyoma Virus: Negative
Mouse Adenovirus: Negative
Sendai Virus: Negative
Mycoplasma Pulmonis: Negative
Pneumonia Virus of Mice: Negative
Mouse Cytomegalovirus: Negative
K Virus: Negative
Toxicity Test Results Nontoxic and nonantigenic in animal models
Concentration 1X
Volume 50 ml
Composition 22 mM Na2HPO4 9.9 mM NaH2PO4 136 mM NaCl
This buffer does not contain calcium, magnesium, phenol red, or preservatives such as azide.
Keep contents sterile. Open only in a biological safety cabinet.
Storage 4°C
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    DLL4/Notch blockade disrupts mandibular advancement-induced condylar osteogenesis by inhibiting H-type angiogenesis.

    In Journal of Oral Rehabilitation on 1 April 2024 by Hu, Y. & Li, H.

    PubMed

    Blocking Delta-like 4 (DLL4)/Notch has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of tumours by deregulating angiogenesis. However, DLL4/Notch serves as a negative regulator of angiogenesis in multiple organs while acting as a positive regulator of H-type angiogenesis in postnatal long bones. Therefore, the effect of DLL4/Notch signalling blockade on mandibular condylar osteogenesis attracted our attention. To explore the effect of blocking DLL4/Notch on mandibular advancement (MA)-induced condylar osteogenesis. Six-week-old young male C57BL/6J mice (n = 40) were randomly divided into four groups: control group, MA group, MA + Anti-DLL4 group and MA + IgG group. Of note, IgG served as the isotype control for the anti-DLL4. The femurs, tibias and mandibular condyles were collected after sacrificing mice on Day 31 for morphology, micro-computed tomography, immunofluorescence, histology and immunohistochemistry evaluation. First, DLL4/Notch blockade shortened femoral length and reduced bone mass by inhibiting H-type angiogenesis. Second, DLL4/Notch blockade disrupted MA-induced condylar head volume and quality by inhibiting H-type angiogenesis. Mechanistically, blocking DLL4/Notch reduced the number of runt-related transcription factor 2+ (RUNX2+ ) early osteoprogenitors and the expression of Noggin protein in the condylar subchondral bone by inhibiting H-type angiogenesis. In addition, blockade of DLL4/Notch also destroyed the condylar cartilage layer. DLL4/Notch blockade results in shortened femurs and osteopenia, as well as impaired MA-induced condylar osteogenic volume and quality in growing mice by inhibiting H-type angiogenesis. Therefore, when blocking DLL4/Notch is used as a treatment target for diseases, attention should be paid to its impact on the bone mass of mandibular condyle. © 2023 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

    • Cancer Research
    S100A8/A9 predicts response to PIM kinase and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer mouse models.

    In Commun Med (Lond) on 20 February 2024 by Begg, L. R., Orriols, A., et al.

    PubMed

    Understanding why some triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients respond poorly to existing therapies while others respond well remains a challenge. This study aims to understand the potential underlying mechanisms distinguishing early-stage TNBC tumors that respond to clinical intervention from non-responders, as well as to identify clinically viable therapeutic strategies, specifically for TNBC patients who may not benefit from existing therapies. We conducted retrospective bioinformatics analysis of historical gene expression datasets to identify a group of genes whose expression levels in early-stage tumors predict poor clinical outcomes in TNBC. In vitro small-molecule screening, genetic manipulation, and drug treatment in syngeneic mouse models of TNBC were utilized to investigate potential therapeutic strategies and elucidate mechanisms of drug action. Our bioinformatics analysis reveals a robust association between increased expression of immunosuppressive cytokine S100A8/A9 in early-stage tumors and subsequent disease progression in TNBC. A targeted small-molecule screen identifies PIM kinase inhibitors as capable of decreasing S100A8/A9 expression in multiple cell types, including TNBC and immunosuppressive myeloid cells. Combining PIM inhibition and immune checkpoint blockade induces significant antitumor responses, especially in otherwise resistant S100A8/A9-high PD-1/PD-L1-positive tumors. Notably, serum S100A8/A9 levels mirror those of tumor S100A8/A9 in a syngeneic mouse model of TNBC. Our data propose S100A8/A9 as a potential predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarker in clinical trials evaluating combination therapy targeting PIM and immune checkpoints in TNBC. This work encourages the development of S100A8/A9-based liquid biopsy tests for treatment guidance. © 2024. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    Hyperactive Natural Killer cells in Rag2 knockout mice inhibit the development of acute myeloid leukemia.

    In Communications Biology on 21 December 2023 by Sugimoto, E., Li, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Immunotherapy has attracted considerable attention as a therapeutic strategy for cancers including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we found that the development of several aggressive subtypes of AML is slower in Rag2-/- mice despite the lack of B and T lymphocytes, even compared to the immunologically normal C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, an orally active p53-activating drug shows stronger antileukemia effect on AML in Rag2-/- mice than C57BL/6 mice. Intriguingly, Natural Killer (NK) cells in Rag2-/- mice are increased in number, highly express activation markers, and show increased cytotoxicity to leukemia cells in a coculture assay. B2m depletion that triggers missing-self recognition of NK cells impairs the growth of AML cells in vivo. In contrast, NK cell depletion accelerates AML progression in Rag2-/- mice. Interestingly, immunogenicity of AML keeps changing during tumor evolution, showing a trend that the aggressive AMLs generate through serial transplantations are susceptible to NK cell-mediated tumor suppression in Rag2-/- mice. Thus, we show the critical role of NK cells in suppressing the development of certain subtypes of AML using Rag2-/- mice, which lack functional lymphocytes but have hyperactive NK cells. © 2023. The Author(s).

    Candida-induced granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells are protective against polymicrobial sepsis.

    In mBio on 31 October 2023 by Esher, S. K., Harriett, A. J., et al.

    PubMed

    Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections are serious clinical infections that can lead to life-threatening sepsis, which is difficult to treat in part due to the complex and dynamic inflammatory responses involved. Our prior studies demonstrated that immunization with low-virulence Candida species can provide strong protection against lethal polymicrobial sepsis challenge in mice. This long-lived protection was found to be mediated by trained Gr-1+ polymorphonuclear leukocytes with features resembling myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Here we definitively characterize these cells as MDSCs and demonstrate that their mechanism of protection involves the abrogation of lethal inflammation, in part through the action of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. These studies highlight the role of MDSCs and IL-10 in controlling acute lethal inflammation and give support for the utility of trained tolerogenic immune responses in the clinical treatment of sepsis.

    • Cancer Research
    CDK4/6-MEK Inhibition in MPNSTs Causes Plasma Cell Infiltration, Sensitization to PD-L1 Blockade, and Tumor Regression.

    In Clinical Cancer Research on 1 September 2023 by Kohlmeyer, J. L., Lingo, J. J., et al.

    PubMed

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are lethal, Ras-driven sarcomas that lack effective therapies. We investigated effects of targeting cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6), MEK, and/or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in preclinical MPNST models. Patient-matched MPNSTs and precursor lesions were examined by FISH, RNA sequencing, IHC, and Connectivity-Map analyses. Antitumor activity of CDK4/6 and MEK inhibitors was measured in MPNST cell lines, patient-derived xenografts (PDX), and de novo mouse MPNSTs, with the latter used to determine anti-PD-L1 response. Patient tumor analyses identified CDK4/6 and MEK as actionable targets for MPNST therapy. Low-dose combinations of CDK4/6 and MEK inhibitors synergistically reactivated the retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor, induced cell death, and decreased clonogenic survival of MPNST cells. In immune-deficient mice, dual CDK4/6-MEK inhibition slowed tumor growth in 4 of 5 MPNST PDXs. In immunocompetent mice, combination therapy of de novo MPNSTs caused tumor regression, delayed resistant tumor outgrowth, and improved survival relative to monotherapies. Drug-sensitive tumors that regressed contained plasma cells and increased cytotoxic T cells, whereas drug-resistant tumors adopted an immunosuppressive microenvironment with elevated MHC II-low macrophages and increased tumor cell PD-L1 expression. Excitingly, CDK4/6-MEK inhibition sensitized MPNSTs to anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) with some mice showing complete tumor regression. CDK4/6-MEK inhibition induces a novel plasma cell-associated immune response and extended antitumor activity in MPNSTs, which dramatically enhances anti-PD-L1 therapy. These preclinical findings provide strong rationale for clinical translation of CDK4/6-MEK-ICB targeted therapies in MPNST as they may yield sustained antitumor responses and improved patient outcomes. ©2023 American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Cancer Research
    Intratumor Fusobacterium nucleatum promotes the progression of pancreatic cancer via the CXCL1-CXCR2 axis.

    In Cancer Science on 1 September 2023 by Hayashi, M., Ikenaga, N., et al.

    PubMed

    Intratumor bacteria modify the tumor immune microenvironment and influence outcomes of various tumors. Periodontal pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum has been detected in pancreatic cancer tissues and is associated with poor prognosis. However, it remains unclear how F. nucleatum affects pancreatic cancer. Here, we compared clinical features with F. nucleatum colonization in pancreatic cancer tissues. F. nucleatum was detected in 15.5% (13/84) of pancreatic cancer patients. The tumor size was significantly larger in the F. nucleatum-positive group than in the negative group. To clarify the biological effect of intratumor F. nucleatum on pancreatic cancer progression, we performed migration/invasion assays and cytokine array analysis of cancer cells cocultured with F. nucleatum. F. nucleatum promoted CXCL1 secretion from pancreatic cancer cells, leading to cancer progression through autocrine signaling. Intratumor F. nucleatum suppressed tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells by recruiting myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to the tumor in an F. nucleatum-injected subcutaneous pancreatic cancer mouse model, resulting in tumor progression. Furthermore, tumor growth accelerated by F. nucleatum was suppressed by MDSC depletion or cytokine inhibitors. Intratumor F. nucleatum promoted pancreatic cancer progression through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms of the CXCL1-CXCR2 axis. Blockade of the CXCL1-CXCR2 axis may be a novel therapeutic approach for patients with intratumor F. nucleatum-positive pancreatic cancer. © 2023 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Development of a Patient-Derived 3D Immuno-Oncology Platform to Potentiate Immunotherapy Responses in Ascites-Derived Circulating Tumor Cells.

    In Cancers on 16 August 2023 by Gerton, T. J., Green, A., et al.

    PubMed

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is responsible for the majority of gynecology cancer-related deaths. Patients in remission often relapse with more aggressive forms of disease within 2 years post-treatment. Alternative immuno-oncology (IO) strategies, such as immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) targeting the PD-(L)1 signaling axis, have proven inefficient so far. Our aim is to utilize epigenetic modulators to maximize the benefit of personalized IO combinations in ex vivo 3D patient-derived platforms and in vivo syngeneic models. Using patient-derived tumor ascites, we optimized an ex vivo 3D screening platform (PDOTS), which employs autologous immune cells and circulating ascites-derived tumor cells, to rapidly test personalized IO combinations. Most importantly, patient responses to platinum chemotherapy and poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors in 3D platforms recapitulate clinical responses. Furthermore, similar to clinical trial results, responses to ICB in PDOTS tend to be low and positively correlated with the frequency of CD3+ immune cells and EPCAM+/PD-L1+ tumor cells. Thus, the greatest response observed with anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy alone is seen in patient-derived HGSOC ascites, which present with high levels of systemic CD3+ and PD-L1+ expression in immune and tumor cells, respectively. In addition, priming with epigenetic adjuvants greatly potentiates ICB in ex vivo 3D testing platforms and in vivo tumor models. We further find that epigenetic priming induces increased tumor secretion of several key cytokines known to augment T and NK cell activation and cytotoxicity, including IL-6, IP-10 (CXCL10), KC (CXCL1), and RANTES (CCL5). Moreover, epigenetic priming alone and in combination with ICB immunotherapy in patient-derived PDOTS induces rapid upregulation of CD69, a reliable early activation of immune markers in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Consequently, this functional precision medicine approach could rapidly identify personalized therapeutic combinations able to potentiate ICB, which is a great advantage, especially given the current clinical difficulty of testing a high number of potential combinations in patients.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Direct In Vivo Activation of T Cells with Nanosized Immunofilaments Inhibits Tumor Growth and Metastasis.

    In ACS Nano on 11 July 2023 by Weiss, L., Weiden, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Adoptive T cell therapy has successfully been implemented for the treatment of cancer. Nevertheless, ex vivo expansion of T cells by artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) remains cumbersome and can compromise T cell functionality, thereby limiting their therapeutic potential. We propose a radically different approach aimed at direct expansion of T cells in vivo, thereby omitting the need for large-scale ex vivo T cell production. We engineered nanosized immunofilaments (IFs), with a soluble semiflexible polyisocyanopeptide backbone that presents peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complexes and costimulatory molecules multivalently. IFs readily activated and expanded antigen-specific T cells like natural APCs, as evidenced by transcriptomic analyses of T cells. Upon intravenous injection, IFs reach the spleen and lymph nodes and induce antigen-specific T cell responses in vivo. Moreover, IFs display strong antitumor efficacy resulting in inhibition of the formation of melanoma metastases and reduction of primary tumor growth in synergy with immune checkpoint blockade. In conclusion, nanosized IFs represent a powerful modular platform for direct activation and expansion of antigen-specific T cells in vivo, which can greatly contribute to cancer immunotherapy.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Abnormal activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways affect osimertinib resistance and influence the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells to shape the immunosuppressive tumor immune microenvironment.

    In Thoracic Cancer on 1 July 2023 by Wang, C., Fei, K., et al.

    PubMed

    Osimertinib is the first-line treatment for patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, but the treatment options after drug resistance are limited. Previous studies have suggested that EGFR is in an immunosuppressive tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). However, the evolution of TIME after osimertinib resistance and whether this resistance can be overcome by targeting TIME needs to be further investigated. The remodeling process and mechanism of TIME during the treatment with osimertinib were studied. The proportion of EGFRL858R+T790M mutant tumor immune infiltrating cells was extremely low. Osimertinib treatment transiently triggered inflammatory cells, but several immunosuppressive cells infiltrated after drug resistance and formed a myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC)-enriched TIME. The programmed cell death protein-1 monoclonal antibody was not able to reverse the MDSC-enriched TIME. Further analysis revealed that the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways recruited a large number of MDSCs via cytokines. Finally, MDSC secreted high levels of interleukin-10 and arginase-1 and created an immunosuppressive TIME. Thus, our findings lay the foundation for the evolution of TIME in osimertinib treatment, establish the mechanism of immunosuppressive TIME after osimertinib resistance, and propose potential solutions. © 2023 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    EZH2 inhibition promotes tumor immunogenicity in lung squamous cell carcinomas

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 8 June 2023 by DuCote, T. J., Song, X., et al.

    PubMed

    ABSTRACT Two important factors that contribute to resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are an immune-suppressive microenvironment and limited antigen presentation by tumor cells. In this study, we examine if inhibition of the methyltransferase EZH2 can increase ICI response in lung squamous cell carcinomas (LSCCs). Our in vitro experiments using 2D human cancer cell lines as well as 3D murine and patient derived organoids treated with two inhibitors of the EZH2 plus interferon-γ (IFNγ) showed that EZH2 inhibition leads to expression of both major histocompatibility complex class I and II (MHCI/II) expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. ChIP-sequencing confirmed loss of EZH2-mediated histone marks and gain of activating histone marks at key loci. Further, we demonstrate strong tumor control in models of both autochthonous and syngeneic LSCC treated with anti-PD1 immunotherapy with EZH2 inhibition. Single-cell RNA sequencing and immune cell profiling demonstrated phenotypic changes towards more tumor suppressive phenotypes in EZH2 inhibitor treated tumors. These results indicate that this therapeutic modality could increase ICI responses in patients undergoing treatment for LSCC.

    Blockade of IL-6 signaling alleviates atherosclerosis in Tet2-deficient clonal hematopoiesis.

    In Nat Cardiovasc Res on 1 June 2023 by Liu, W., Yalcinkaya, M., et al.

    PubMed

    Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) increases the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease possibly due to increased plaque inflammation. Human studies suggest that limitation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling could be beneficial in people with large CH clones, particularly in TET2 CH. Here we show that IL-6 receptor antibody treatment reverses the atherosclerosis promoted by Tet2 CH, with reduction of monocytosis, lesional macrophage burden and macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) expression. IL-6 induces expression of Csf1r in Tet2-deficient macrophages through enhanced STAT3 binding to its promoter. In mouse and human Tet2-deficient macrophages, IL-6 increases CSF1R expression and enhances macrophage survival. Treatment with the CSF1R inhibitor PLX3397 reversed accelerated atherosclerosis in Tet2 CH mice. Our study demonstrates the causality of IL-6 signaling in Tet2 CH accelerated atherosclerosis, identifies IL-6-induced CSF1R expression as a critical mechanism and supports blockade of IL-6 signaling as a potential therapy for CH-driven cardiovascular disease.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Targeting ZDHHC9 potentiates anti-programmed death-ligand 1 immunotherapy of pancreatic cancer by modifying the tumor microenvironment.

    In Biomedicine Pharmacotherapy = Biomédecine Pharmacothérapie on 1 May 2023 by Lin, Z., Huang, K., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy targeting the programmed death 1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) axis has achieved considerable success in treating a wide range of cancers. However, most patients with pancreatic cancer remain resistant to ICB. Moreover, there is a lack of optimal biomarkers for the prediction of response to this therapy. Palmitoylation is mediated by a family of 23 S-acyltransferases, termed zinc finger Asp-His-His-Cys-type palmitoyltransferases (ZDHHC), which precisely control various cancer-related protein functions and represent promising drug targets for cancer therapy. Here, we revealed that tumor cell-intrinsic ZDHHC9 was overexpressed in pancreatic cancer tissues and associated with impaired anti-tumor immunity. In syngeneic pancreatic tumor models, the knockdown of ZDHHC9 expression suppressed tumor progression and prolonged survival time of mice by modifying the immunosuppressive ('cold') to proinflammatory ('hot') tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, ZDHHC9 deficiency sensitized anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy mainly in a CD8+ T cell dependent manner. Lastly, we employed the ZDHHC9-siRNA nanoparticle system to efficiently silence ZDHHC9 in pancreatic tumors. Collectively, our findings indicate that ZDHHC9 overexpression in pancreatic tumors is a mechanism involved in the inhibition of host anti-tumor immunity and highlight the importance of inactivating ZDHHC9 as an effective immunotherapeutic strategy and booster for anti-PD-L1 therapy against pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling prevents bone marrow fibrosis by reducing osteopontin plasma levels in a myelofibrosis mouse model.

    In Leukemia on 1 May 2023 by Bianchi, E., Rontauroli, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Clonal myeloproliferation and development of bone marrow (BM) fibrosis are the major pathogenetic events in myelofibrosis (MF). The identification of novel antifibrotic strategies is of utmost importance since the effectiveness of current therapies in reverting BM fibrosis is debated. We previously demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN) has a profibrotic role in MF by promoting mesenchymal stromal cells proliferation and collagen production. Moreover, increased plasma OPN correlated with higher BM fibrosis grade and inferior overall survival in MF patients. To understand whether OPN is a druggable target in MF, we assessed putative inhibitors of OPN expression in vitro and identified ERK1/2 as a major regulator of OPN production. Increased OPN plasma levels were associated with BM fibrosis development in the Romiplostim-induced MF mouse model. Moreover, ERK1/2 inhibition led to a remarkable reduction of OPN production and BM fibrosis in Romiplostim-treated mice. Strikingly, the antifibrotic effect of ERK1/2 inhibition can be mainly ascribed to the reduced OPN production since it could be recapitulated through the administration of anti-OPN neutralizing antibody. Our results demonstrate that OPN is a novel druggable target in MF and pave the way to antifibrotic therapies based on the inhibition of ERK1/2-driven OPN production or the neutralization of OPN activity. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Immune-interacting lymphatic endothelial subtype at capillary terminals drives lymphatic malformation.

    In The Journal of Experimental Medicine on 3 April 2023 by Petkova, M., Kraft, M., et al.

    PubMed

    Oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA, encoding p110α-PI3K, are a common cause of venous and lymphatic malformations. Vessel type-specific disease pathogenesis is poorly understood, hampering development of efficient therapies. Here, we reveal a new immune-interacting subtype of Ptx3-positive dermal lymphatic capillary endothelial cells (iLECs) that recruit pro-lymphangiogenic macrophages to promote progressive lymphatic overgrowth. Mouse model of Pik3caH1047R-driven vascular malformations showed that proliferation was induced in both venous and lymphatic ECs but sustained selectively in LECs of advanced lesions. Single-cell transcriptomics identified the iLEC population, residing at lymphatic capillary terminals of normal vasculature, that was expanded in Pik3caH1047R mice. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including monocyte/macrophage chemokine Ccl2, in Pik3caH1047R-iLECs was associated with recruitment of VEGF-C-producing macrophages. Macrophage depletion, CCL2 blockade, or anti-inflammatory COX-2 inhibition limited Pik3caH1047R-driven lymphangiogenesis. Thus, targeting the paracrine crosstalk involving iLECs and macrophages provides a new therapeutic opportunity for lymphatic malformations. Identification of iLECs further indicates that peripheral lymphatic vessels not only respond to but also actively orchestrate inflammatory processes.© 2023 Petkova et al.

    Thymus antibody-secreting cells possess an interferon gene signature and are preferentially expanded in young female mice.

    In IScience on 17 March 2023 by Pioli, K. T., Lau, K. H., et al.

    PubMed

    Antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are key contributors to humoral immunity through immunoglobulin production and the potential to be long-lived. ASC persistence has been recognized in the autoimmune thymus (THY); however, only recently has this population been appreciated in healthy THY tissue. We showed that the young female THY was skewed toward higher production of ASCs relative to males. However, these differences disappeared with age. In both sexes, THY ASCs included Ki-67+ plasmablasts which required CD154(CD40L) signals for their propagation. Single cell RNA-sequencing revealed that THY ASCs were enriched for an interferon responsive transcriptional signature relative to those from bone marrow and spleen. Flow cytometry confirmed that THY ASCs had increased levels of Toll-like receptor 7 as well as CD69 and major histocompatibility complex class II. Overall, we identified fundamental aspects of THY ASC biology which may be leveraged for future in depth studies of this population in both health and disease. © 2023 The Author(s).

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cardiovascular biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    Distinct Th17 effector cytokines differentially promote microglial and blood-brain barrier inflammatory responses during post-infectious encephalitis

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 12 March 2023 by Wayne, C. R., Bremner, L., et al.

    PubMed

    SUMMARY Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections can cause neuropsychiatric sequelae in children due to post-infectious encephalitis. Multiple GAS infections induce migration of Th17 lymphocytes from the nose into the brain, which are critical for microglial activation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neural circuit impairment in a mouse disease model. How endothelial cells (ECs) and microglia respond to GAS infections, and which Th17-derived cytokines are essential for these responses are unknown. Using single-cell RNA sequencing and spatial transcriptomics, we found that ECs downregulate BBB genes and microglia upregulate interferon-response, chemokine and antigen-presentation genes after GAS infections. Several microglial-derived chemokines were elevated in patient sera. Administration of a neutralizing antibody against interleukin-17A (IL-17A), but not ablation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in T cells, partially rescued BBB dysfunction and microglial expression of chemokine genes. Thus, IL-17A is critical for neuropsychiatric sequelae of GAS infections and may be targeted to treat these disorders.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Disrupting the phase separation of KAT8-IRF1 diminishes PD-L1 expression and promotes antitumor immunity.

    In Nature Cancer on 1 March 2023 by Wu, Y., Zhou, L., et al.

    PubMed

    Immunotherapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis have become first-line treatments in multiple cancers. However, only a limited subset of individuals achieves durable benefits because of the elusive mechanisms regulating PD-1/PD-L1. Here, we report that in cells exposed to interferon-γ (IFNγ), KAT8 undergoes phase separation with induced IRF1 and forms biomolecular condensates to upregulate PD-L1. Multivalency from both the specific and promiscuous interactions between IRF1 and KAT8 is required for condensate formation. KAT8-IRF1 condensation promotes IRF1 K78 acetylation and binding to the CD247 (PD-L1) promoter and further enriches the transcription apparatus to promote transcription of PD-L1 mRNA. Based on the mechanism of KAT8-IRF1 condensate formation, we identified the 2142-R8 blocking peptide, which disrupts KAT8-IRF1 condensate formation and consequently inhibits PD-L1 expression and enhances antitumor immunity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings reveal a key role of KAT8-IRF1 condensates in PD-L1 regulation and provide a competitive peptide to enhance antitumor immune responses. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    Diffusing Alpha-Emitters Radiation Therapy Promotes a Proimmunogenic Tumor Microenvironment and Synergizes With Programmed Cell Death Protein 1 Blockade.

    In International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics on 1 March 2023 by Mare, S. D., Nishri, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Diffusing alpha-emitters Radiation Therapy (DaRT) releases alpha-emitting atoms into the tumor microenvironment. The treatment effectively ablates human and mice xenografts and shows 100% response rates in skin or head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. DaRT induces specific and systemic antitumor immune activation and synergizes with immune stimulation and modulation in mice. Here, the transcriptional profile activated by DaRT, and its potential to enhance responsiveness to immune checkpoint inhibition by programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade were studied. Squamous cell carcinoma tumor- bearing BALB/C mice were treated with DaRT or inert seeds in combination with anti-PD-1 (aPD-1) or IgG control antibody. Sixteen days after seed insertion, tumors and spleens were subjected to immunophenotyping and immunohistochemical staining. Combination of DaRT and aPD-1 was tested for efficacy. Gene expression analysis was performed on mRNA extracted from tumors 7 days after DaRT or inert insertion using Nanostring PanCancer-IO-360 panel, and tumors and spleens were subjected to flow cytometry analysis. DaRT in combination with aPD-1 delayed tumor development, induced CD3 and CD8 lymphocytes infiltration more efficiently than either monotherapy. The combined treatment reduced splenic polymorphonuclear myeloid derived suppressor cells more than aPD-1 therapy or control. Granzyme B release in the tumor was increased only in the combinational treatment and was correlated with T-lymphocyte infiltration. Gene expression and gene set enrichment analysis of mRNA levels 7 days after DaRT insertion indicated that DaRT upregulated apoptosis, p53 signaling, G1/S-related arrest, interferon signaling and myeloid related transcription, while downregulating DNA repair, cell proliferation, and notch-related transcription. Flow cytometry showed that DaRT increased dendritic cells activation and led to changes in MDSCs distribution. DaRT promotes a "hot" tumor microenvironment and changes in immune suppression that lead to a potentiation of aPD-1 blockade induced effector T cell function and improved treatment efficacy. This study provides rationale for investigating DaRT and aPD-1 combination in patients with squamous cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    Artificial Diets with Selective Restriction of Amino Acids and Very Low Levels of Lipids Induce Anticancer Activity in Mice with Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    In Cancers on 28 February 2023 by Guillén-Mancina, E., Jiménez-Alonso, J. J., et al.

    PubMed

    Patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) need new therapies to improve the low survival rates achieved with standard treatments. In this work, we show for the first time that the survival of mice with metastatic TNBC can be markedly increased by replacing their normal diet with artificial diets in which the levels of amino acids (AAs) and lipids are strongly manipulated. After observing selective anticancer activity in vitro, we prepared five artificial diets and evaluated their anticancer activity in a challenging model of metastatic TNBC. The model was established by injecting 4T1 murine TNBC cells into the tail vein of immunocompetent BALB/cAnNRj mice. First-line drugs doxorubicin and capecitabine were also tested in this model. AA manipulation led to modest improvements in mice survival when the levels of lipids were normal. Reducing lipid levels to 1% markedly improved the activity of several diets with different AA content. Some mice fed the artificial diets as monotherapy lived much longer than mice treated with doxorubicin and capecitabine. An artificial diet without 10 non-essential AAs, with reduced levels of essential AAs, and with 1% lipids improved the survival not only of mice with TNBC but also of mice with other types of metastatic cancers.

    • Cancer Research
    Long-term exposure to house dust mites accelerates lung cancer development in mice.

    In Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research : CR on 21 January 2023 by Wang, D., Li, W., et al.

    PubMed

    Individuals with certain chronic inflammatory lung diseases have a higher risk of developing lung cancer (LC). However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to house dust mites (HDM), a common indoor aeroallergen associated with the development of asthma, accelerates LC development through the induction of chronic lung inflammation (CLI).  METHODS: The effects of HDM and heat-inactivated HDM (HI-HDM) extracts were evaluated in two preclinical mouse models of LC (a chemically-induced model using the carcinogen urethane and a genetically-driven model with oncogenic KrasG12D activation in lung epithelial cells) and on murine macrophages in vitro. Pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of the Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, caspase-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) or treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) was used to uncover the pro-tumorigenic effect of HDM.  RESULTS: Chronic intranasal (i.n) instillation of HDM accelerated LC development in the two mouse models. Mechanistically, HDM caused a particular subtype of CLI, in which the NLRP3/IL-1β signaling pathway is chronically activated in macrophages, and made the lung microenvironment conducive to tumor development. The tumor-promoting effect of HDM was significantly decreased by heat treatment of the HDM extract and was inhibited by NLRP3, IL-1β, and CCL2 neutralization, or ICS treatment. Collectively, these data indicate that long-term exposure to HDM can accelerate lung tumorigenesis in susceptible hosts (e.g., mice and potentially humans exposed to lung carcinogens or genetically predisposed to develop LC). © 2023. The Author(s).

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