InVivoMAb mouse IgG2b isotype control, unknown specificity

Catalog #BE0086
Product Citations:
86
Clone:
MPC-11

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Product Details

The MPC-11 monoclonal antibody is ideal for use as a non-reactive isotype-matched control for mouse IgG2b antibodies in most in vivo and in vitro applications.

Specifications

Isotype Mouse IgG2b, κ
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107791
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.

Additional Formats

Turnis, M. E., et al. (2016). "Interleukin-35 Limits Anti-Tumor Immunity" Immunity 44(2): 316-329. PubMed

Regulatory T (Treg) cells pose a major barrier to effective anti-tumor immunity. Although Treg cell depletion enhances tumor rejection, the ensuing autoimmune sequelae limits its utility in the clinic and highlights the need for limiting Treg cell activity within the tumor microenvironment. Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a Treg cell-secreted cytokine that inhibits T cell proliferation and function. Using an IL-35 reporter mouse, we observed substantial enrichment of IL-35(+) Treg cells in tumors. Neutralization with an IL-35-specific antibody or Treg cell-restricted deletion of IL-35 production limited tumor growth in multiple murine models of human cancer. Limiting intratumoral IL-35 enhanced T cell proliferation, effector function, antigen-specific responses, and long-term T cell memory. Treg cell-derived IL-35 promoted the expression of multiple inhibitory receptors (PD1, TIM3, LAG3), thereby facilitating intratumoral T cell exhaustion. These findings reveal previously unappreciated roles for IL-35 in limiting anti-tumor immunity and contributing to T cell dysfunction in the tumor microenvironment.

Barreira da Silva, R., et al. (2015). "Dipeptidylpeptidase 4 inhibition enhances lymphocyte trafficking, improving both naturally occurring tumor immunity and immunotherapy" Nat Immunol 16(8): 850-858. PubMed

The success of antitumor immune responses depends on the infiltration of solid tumors by effector T cells, a process guided by chemokines. Here we show that in vivo post-translational processing of chemokines by dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP4, also known as CD26) limits lymphocyte migration to sites of inflammation and tumors. Inhibition of DPP4 enzymatic activity enhanced tumor rejection by preserving biologically active CXCL10 and increasing trafficking into the tumor by lymphocytes expressing the counter-receptor CXCR3. Furthermore, DPP4 inhibition improved adjuvant-based immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer and checkpoint blockade. These findings provide direct in vivo evidence for control of lymphocyte trafficking via CXCL10 cleavage and support the use of DPP4 inhibitors for stabilizing biologically active forms of chemokines as a strategy to enhance tumor immunotherapy.

Le Saout, C., et al. (2014). "Chronic exposure to type-I IFN under lymphopenic conditions alters CD4 T cell homeostasis" PLoS Pathog 10(3): e1003976. PubMed

HIV infection and the associated chronic immune activation alter T cell homeostasis leading to CD4 T cell depletion and CD8 T cell expansion. The mechanisms behind these outcomes are not totally defined and only partially explained by the direct cytopathic effect of the virus. In this manuscript, we addressed the impact of lymphopenia and chronic exposure to IFN-alpha on T cell homeostasis. In a lymphopenic murine model, this interaction led to decreased CD4 counts and CD8 T cell expansion in association with an increase in the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) levels resulting in enhanced CD4 T cell responsiveness to IFN-alpha. Thus, in the setting of HIV infection, chronic stimulation of this pathway could be detrimental for CD4 T cell homeostasis.

Larena, M., et al. (2011). "Pivotal role of antibody and subsidiary contribution of CD8+ T cells to recovery from infection in a murine model of Japanese encephalitis" J Virol 85(11): 5446-5455. PubMed

The immunological correlates for recovery from primary Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection in humans and experimental animals remain poorly defined. To investigate the relative importance of the adaptive immune responses, we have established a mouse model for Japanese encephalitis in which a low-dose virus inoculum was administered into the footpads of adult C57BL/6 mice. In this model, ~60% of the mice developed a fatal encephalitis and a virus burden in the central nervous system (CNS). Using mice lacking B cells (muMT(-/-) mice) and immune B cell transfer to wild-type mice, we show a critically important role for humoral immunity in preventing virus spread to the CNS. T cell help played an essential part in the maintenance of an effective antibody response necessary to combat the infection, since mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class II showed truncated IgM and blunted IgG responses and uniformly high lethality. JEV infection resulted in extensive CD8(+) T cell activation, judged by upregulation of surface markers CD69 and CD25 and cytokine production after stimulation with a JEV NS4B protein-derived H-2D(b)-binding peptide and trafficking of virus-immune CD8(+) T cells into the CNS. However, no significant effect of CD8(+) T cells on the survival phenotype was found, which was corroborated in knockout mice lacking key effector molecules (Fas receptor, perforin, or granzymes) of cytolytic pathways triggered by T lymphocytes. Accordingly, CD8(+) T cells are mostly dispensable for recovery from infection with JEV. This finding highlights the conflicting role that CD8(+) T cells play in the pathogenesis of JEV and closely related encephalitic flaviviruses such as West Nile virus.

Lamere, M. W., et al. (2011). "Regulation of antinucleoprotein IgG by systemic vaccination and its effect on influenza virus clearance" J Virol 85(10): 5027-5035. PubMed

Seasonal influenza epidemics recur due to antigenic drift of envelope glycoprotein antigens and immune evasion of circulating viruses. Additionally, antigenic shift can lead to influenza pandemics. Thus, a universal vaccine that protects against multiple influenza virus strains could alleviate the continuing impact of this virus on human health. In mice, accelerated clearance of a new viral strain (cross-protection) can be elicited by prior infection (heterosubtypic immunity) or by immunization with the highly conserved internal nucleoprotein (NP). Both heterosubtypic immunity and NP-immune protection require antibody production. Here, we show that systemic immunization with NP readily accelerated clearance of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus isolate in an antibody-dependent manner. However, human immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine (TIV) only rarely and modestly boosted existing levels of anti-NP IgG. Similar results were observed in mice, although the reaction could be enhanced with adjuvants, by adjusting the stoichiometry among NP and other vaccine components, and by increasing the interval between TIV prime and boost. Importantly, mouse heterosubtypic immunity that had waned over several months could be enhanced by injecting purified anti-NP IgG or by boosting with NP protein, correlating with a long-lived increase in anti-NP antibody titers. Thus, current immunization strategies poorly induce NP-immune antibody that is nonetheless capable of contributing to long-lived cross-protection. The high conservation of NP antigen and the known longevity of antibody responses suggest that the antiviral activity of anti-NP IgG may provide a critically needed component of a universal influenza vaccine.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Spon1+ inflammatory monocytes promote collagen remodeling and lung cancer metastasis through lipoprotein receptor 8 signaling.

    In JCI Insight on 8 May 2024 by Whately, K. M., Sengottuvel, N., et al.

    PubMed

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common subset. We previously found that infiltration of tumor inflammatory monocytes (TIMs) into lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) tumors is associated with increased metastases and poor survival. To further understand how TIMs promote metastases, we compared RNA-Seq profiles of TIMs from several LUSC metastatic models with inflammatory monocytes (IMs) of non-tumor-bearing controls. We identified Spon1 as upregulated in TIMs and found that Spon1 expression in LUSC tumors corresponded with poor survival and enrichment of collagen extracellular matrix signatures. We observed SPON1+ TIMs mediate their effects directly through LRP8 on NSCLC cells, which resulted in TGF-β1 activation and robust production of fibrillar collagens. Using several orthogonal approaches, we demonstrated that SPON1+ TIMs were sufficient to promote NSCLC metastases. Additionally, we found that Spon1 loss in the host, or Lrp8 loss in cancer cells, resulted in a significant decrease of both high-density collagen matrices and metastases. Finally, we confirmed the relevance of the SPON1/LRP8/TGF-β1 axis with collagen production and survival in patients with NSCLC. Taken together, our study describes how SPON1+ TIMs promote collagen remodeling and NSCLC metastases through an LRP8/TGF-β1 signaling axis.

    • Cancer Research
    Targeting eIF4A triggers an interferon response to synergize with chemotherapy and suppress triple-negative breast cancer.

    In The Journal of Clinical Investigation on 15 December 2023 by Zhao, N., Kabotyanski, E. B., et al.

    PubMed

    Protein synthesis is frequently dysregulated in cancer and selective inhibition of mRNA translation represents an attractive cancer therapy. Here, we show that therapeutically targeting the RNA helicase eIF4A with zotatifin, the first-in-class eIF4A inhibitor, exerts pleiotropic effects on both tumor cells and the tumor immune microenvironment in a diverse cohort of syngeneic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) mouse models. Zotatifin not only suppresses tumor cell proliferation but also directly repolarizes macrophages toward an M1-like phenotype and inhibits neutrophil infiltration, which sensitizes tumors to immune checkpoint blockade. Mechanistic studies revealed that zotatifin reprograms the tumor translational landscape, inhibits the translation of Sox4 and Fgfr1, and induces an interferon (IFN) response uniformly across models. The induction of an IFN response is partially due to the inhibition of Sox4 translation by zotatifin. A similar induction of IFN-stimulated genes was observed in breast cancer patient biopsies following zotatifin treatment. Surprisingly, zotatifin significantly synergizes with carboplatin to trigger DNA damage and an even heightened IFN response, resulting in T cell-dependent tumor suppression. These studies identified a vulnerability of eIF4A in TNBC, potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers for zotatifin, and provide a rationale for new combination regimens consisting of zotatifin and chemotherapy or immunotherapy as treatments for TNBC.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Helicobacter pylori CagA promotes immune evasion of gastric cancer by upregulating PD-L1 level in exosomes.

    In IScience on 15 December 2023 by Wang, J., Deng, R., et al.

    PubMed

    Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) may promote immune evasion of Hp-infected gastric cancer (GC), but potential mechanisms are still under explored. In this study, the positive rates of CagA and PD-L1 protein in tumor tissues and the high level of exosomal PD-L1 protein in plasma exosomes were significantly associated with the elevated stages of tumor node metastasis (TNM) in Hp-infected GC. Moreover, the positive rate of CagA was positively correlated with the positive rate of PD-L1 in tumor tissues and the level of PD-L1 protein in plasma exosomes, and high level of exosomal PD-L1 might indicate poor prognosis of Hp-infected GC. Mechanically, CagA increased PD-L1 level in exosomes derived from GC cells by inhibiting p53 and miRNA-34a, suppressing proliferation and anticancer effect of CD8+ T cells. This study provides sights for understanding immune evasion mediated by PD-L1. Targeting CagA and exosomal PD-L1 may improve immunotherapy efficacy of Hp-infected GC. © 2023 The Authors.

    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Mice with FVB-derived sequence on chromosome 17 succumb to disseminated virus infection due to aberrant NK cell and T cell responses.

    In IScience on 17 November 2023 by Tibbs, T. N., Donoghue, L. J., et al.

    PubMed

    Zoonotic arenavirus infections can result in viral hemorrhagic disease, characterized by platelet loss, petechia, and multi-organ injury. The mechanisms governing these outcomes are likely impacted by virus strain and infection dose, as well as an individual's genetic background and immune constitution. To better understand the processes leading to severe pathogenesis, we compared two strains of inbred mice, C57BL/6J (B6) and FVB/NJ (FVB), that have diametrically opposed outcomes during disseminated lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Infection caused minimal pathogenesis in B6 mice, whereas FVB mice developed acute hepatitis and perished due, in part, to aberrant NK cell and T cell responses. Susceptible mice showed an outgrowth of cytolytic CD4+ T cells and loss of Treg cells. B6 congenic mice with the FVB allele at a 25Mb locus on chromosome 17 recapitulated FVB pathogenesis upon infection. A locus containing a limited number of variants in immune-related genes greatly impacts survival during infection. © 2023 The Author(s).

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    TIM-3 blockade in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma models promotes tumor regression and antitumor immune memory.

    In Cancer Cell on 13 November 2023 by Ausejo-Mauleon, I., Labiano, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive brain stem tumor and the leading cause of pediatric cancer-related death. To date, these tumors remain incurable, underscoring the need for efficacious therapies. In this study, we demonstrate that the immune checkpoint TIM-3 (HAVCR2) is highly expressed in both tumor cells and microenvironmental cells, mainly microglia and macrophages, in DIPG. We show that inhibition of TIM-3 in syngeneic models of DIPG prolongs survival and produces long-term survivors free of disease that harbor immune memory. This antitumor effect is driven by the direct effect of TIM-3 inhibition in tumor cells, the coordinated action of several immune cell populations, and the secretion of chemokines/cytokines that create a proinflammatory tumor microenvironment favoring a potent antitumor immune response. This work uncovers TIM-3 as a bona fide target in DIPG and supports its clinical translation. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Targeted Inhibition of lncRNA Malat1 Alters the Tumor Immune Microenvironment in Preclinical Syngeneic Mouse Models of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    In Cancer Immunology Research on 1 November 2023 by Oluwatoyosi, A., Shen, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) play an important role in gene regulation in both normal tissues and cancer. Targeting lncRNAs is a promising therapeutic approach that has become feasible through the development of gapmer antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript (Malat1) is an abundant lncRNA whose expression is upregulated in several cancers. Although Malat1 increases the migratory and invasive properties of tumor cells, its role in the tumor microenvironment (TME) is still not well defined. We explored the connection between Malat1 and the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) using several immune-competent preclinical syngeneic Tp53-null triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) mouse models that mimic the heterogeneity and immunosuppressive TME found in human breast cancer. Using a Malat1 ASO, we were able to knockdown Malat1 RNA expression resulting in a delay in primary tumor growth, decreased proliferation, and increased apoptosis. In addition, immunophenotyping of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes revealed that Malat1 inhibition altered the TIME, with a decrease in immunosuppressive tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) as well as an increase in cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Malat1 depletion in tumor cells, TAMs, and MDSCs decreased immunosuppressive cytokine/chemokine secretion whereas Malat1 inhibition in T cells increased inflammatory secretions and T-cell proliferation. Combination of a Malat1 ASO with chemotherapy or immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) improved the treatment responses in a preclinical model. These studies highlight the immunostimulatory effects of Malat1 inhibition in TNBC, the benefit of a Malat1 ASO therapeutic, and its potential use in combination with chemotherapies and immunotherapies. ©2023 The Authors; Published by the American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Cancer Research
    Endothelial cells are a key target of IFN-g during response to combined PD-1/CTLA-4 ICB treatment in a mouse model of bladder cancer.

    In IScience on 20 October 2023 by Freshour, S. L., Chen, T. H., et al.

    PubMed

    To explore mechanisms of response to combined PD-1/CTLA-4 immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) treatment in individual cell types, we generated scRNA-seq using a mouse model of invasive urothelial carcinoma with three conditions: untreated tumor, treated tumor, and tumor treated after CD4+ T cell depletion. After classifying tumor cells based on detection of somatic variants and assigning non-tumor cell types using SingleR, we performed differential expression analysis, overrepresentation analysis, and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) within each cell type. GSEA revealed that endothelial cells were enriched for upregulated IFN-g response genes when comparing treated cells to both untreated cells and cells treated after CD4+ T cell depletion. Functional analysis showed that knocking out IFNgR1 in endothelial cells inhibited treatment response. Together, these results indicated that IFN-g signaling in endothelial cells is a key mediator of ICB induced anti-tumor activity. © 2023 The Authors.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Neutrophil-Mediated Tumor-Targeting Delivery System of Oncolytic Bacteria Combined with ICB for Melanoma Lung Metastasis Therapy.

    In Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) on 1 October 2023 by Liu, L., Xin, W., et al.

    PubMed

    Oncolytic bacteria are the most promising tumor target vector. Questions also remain regarding finding a balance between the therapeutic efficacy and safety of oncolytic bacteria. The critical measure of how this balance is maintained is the improvement in tumor colonization. Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (VNP20009) as the only Salmonella strain to be evaluated in a clinical trial is a potential tumor therapeutic bacterium. A delivery system with controlled release of VNP after being loaded into neutrophils, which significantly increases the tumor-targeting of VNP and enhances its therapeutic efficacy in a melanoma lung metastasis model is constructed. To improve the synergistic therapeutic effect, a PD1 nanobody is applied to this system (NE(PD1nb)). NE(PD1nb) activate dendritic cells (DCs) differentiation and stimulate the M1-like differentiation of macrophages, and induce CD4+ T-cells maturity and cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells activation through DCs tumor antigen presentation. © 2023 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Monoclonal antibodies against lipopolysaccharide protect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge in mice.

    In Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology on 10 July 2023 by Kang, J., Mateu-Borrás, M., et al.

    PubMed

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of hospital-acquired infections, including central line-associated bloodstream infections and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Unfortunately, effective control of these infections can be difficult, in part due to the prevalence of multi-drug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. There remains a need for novel therapeutic interventions against P. aeruginosa, and the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is a promising alternative strategy to current standard of care treatments such as antibiotics. To develop mAbs against P. aeruginosa, we utilized ammonium metavanadate, which induces cell envelope stress responses and upregulates polysaccharide expression. Mice were immunized with P. aeruginosa grown with ammonium metavanadate and we developed two IgG2b mAbs, WVDC-0357 and WVDC-0496, directed against the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide of P. aeruginosa. Functional assays revealed that WVDC-0357 and WVDC-0496 directly reduced the viability of P. aeruginosa and mediated bacterial agglutination. In a lethal sepsis model of infection, prophylactic treatment of mice with WVDC-0357 and WVDC-0496 at doses as low as 15 mg/kg conferred 100% survival against challenge. In both sepsis and acute pneumonia models of infection, treatment with WVDC-0357 and WVDC-0496 significantly reduced bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokine production post-challenge. Furthermore, histopathological examination of the lungs revealed that WVDC-0357 and WVDC-0496 reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. Overall, our results indicate that mAbs directed against lipopolysaccharide are a promising therapy for the treatment and prevention of P. aeruginosa infections. Copyright © 2023 Kang, Mateu-Borrás, Monroe, Sen-Kilic, Miller, Dublin, Huckaby, Yang, Pyles, Nunley, Chapman, Amin, Damron and Barbier.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Inhibition of Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase Reduces Collagen Deposition in Melanoma Tumors and May Improve Immunotherapy Efficacy by Reducing T-cell Exhaustion.

    In Cancer Res Commun on 1 July 2023 by Fukuda, Y., Kim, S. H., et al.

    PubMed

    The arachidonic acid pathway participates in immunosuppression in various types of cancer. Our previous observation detailed that microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase 1 (mPGES-1), an enzyme downstream of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), limited antitumor immunity in melanoma; in addition, genetic depletion of mPGES-1 specifically enhanced immune checkpoint blockade therapy. The current study set out to distinguish the roles of mPGES-1 from those of COX-2 in tumor immunity and determine the potential of mPGES-1 inhibitors for reinforcing immunotherapy in melanoma. Genetic deletion of mPGES-1 showed different profiles of prostaglandin metabolites from that of COX-2 deletion. In our syngeneic mouse model, mPGES-1-deficient cells exhibited similar tumorigenicity to that of COX-2-deficient cells, despite a lower ability to suppress PGE2 synthesis by mPGES-1 depletion, indicating the presence of factors other than PGE2 that are likely to regulate tumor immunity. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that mPGES-1 depletion reduced the expressions of collagen-related genes, which have been found to be associated with immunosuppressive signatures. In our mouse model, collagen was reduced in mPGES-1-deficient tumors, and phenotypic analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes indicated that mPGES-1-deficient tumors had fewer TIM3+ exhausted CD8+ T cells compared with COX-2-deficient tumors. CAY10678, an mPGES-1 inhibitor, was equivalent to celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, in reinforcing anti-PD-1 treatment. Our study indicates that mPGES-1 inhibitors represent a promising adjuvant for immunotherapies in melanoma by reducing collagen deposition and T-cell exhaustion. Collagen is a predominant component of the extracellular matrix that may influence the tumor immune microenvironment for cancer progression. We present here that mPGES-1 has specific roles in regulating tumor immunity, associated with several collagen-related genes and propose that pharmacologic inhibition of mPGES-1 may hold therapeutic promise for improving immune checkpoint-based therapies. © 2023 The Authors; Published by the American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    LIMP-2 enhances cancer stem-like cell properties by promoting autophagy-induced GSK3β degradation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    In International Journal of Oral Science on 8 June 2023 by Liu, Y., Li, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Cancer stem cell-like cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the heterogeneity, metastasis, and treatment resistance of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) due to their high tumor initiation capacity and plasticity. Here, we identified a candidate gene named LIMP-2 as a novel therapeutic target regulating HNSCC progression and CSC properties. The high expression of LIMP-2 in HNSCC patients suggested a poor prognosis and potential immunotherapy resistance. Functionally, LIMP-2 can facilitate autolysosome formation to promote autophagic flux. LIMP-2 knockdown inhibits autophagic flux and reduces the tumorigenic ability of HNSCC. Further mechanistic studies suggest that enhanced autophagy helps HNSCC maintain stemness and promotes degradation of GSK3β, which in turn facilitates nuclear translocation of β-catenin and transcription of downstream target genes. In conclusion, this study reveals LIMP-2 as a novel prospective therapeutic target for HNSCC and provides evidence for a link between autophagy, CSC, and immunotherapy resistance. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Soluble CTLA-4 raises the threshold for T-cell activation and modulates anti-tumour immunity

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 7 June 2023 by Kennedy, P. T., Saulters, E. L., et al.

    PubMed

    CTLA-4 is a crucial immune checkpoint receptor involved in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, tolerance, and tumour control. Antibodies targeting CTLA-4 have been promising treatment for numerous cancers, but the mechanistic basis of their anti-tumoral immune boosting effects are poorly understood. Although the ctla4 gene also encodes an alternatively-spliced soluble variant (sCTLA-4), preclinical/clinical evaluation of anti-CTLA-4-based immunotherapies have not considered the contribution of this isoform. Here, we explore the functional properties of sCTLA-4 and evaluate the efficacy of isoform-specific anti-sCTLA-4 antibody targeting in murine cancer model. We show that expression of sCTLA-4 in tumour cells suppresses CD8 + T-cells in vitro , and accelerates growth and experimental metastasis of murine tumours in vivo . These effects were accompanied by modification of the immune infiltrate, notably restraining CD8 + T-cells in a non-effector state. sCTLA-4 blockade with isoform-specific antibody reversed this restraint, enhancing intratumoural CD8 + T-cell activation and cytolytic potential, correlating with therapeutic efficacy and tumour control. This previously unappreciated role of sCTLA-4 suggests that better understanding of the biology and function of multi-gene products of immune checkpoint receptors needs to be fully elucidated for improved cancer immunotherapy.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Acidity-mediated induction of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells.

    In European Journal of Immunology on 1 June 2023 by Rao, D., Stunnenberg, J. A., et al.

    PubMed

    Glucose limitation and increased lactic acid levels are consequences of the elevated glycolytic activity of tumor cells, and constitute a metabolic barrier for the function of tumor infiltrating effector immune cells. The immune-suppressive functions of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are unobstructed in lactic-acid rich environments. However, the impact of lactic acid on the induction of Tregs remains unknown. We observed increased TGFβ-mediated induction of Forkhead box P3+ (FoxP3+ ) cells in the presence of extracellular lactic acid, in a glycolysis-independent, acidity-dependent manner. These CD4+ FoxP3+ cells expressed Treg-associated markers, including increased expression of CD39, and were capable of exerting suppressive functions. Corroborating these results in vivo, we observed that neutralizing the tumor pH by systemic administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaBi) decreased Treg abundance. We conclude that acidity augments Treg induction and propose that therapeutic targeting of acidity in the tumor microenvironment (TME) might reduce Treg-mediated immune suppression within tumors. © 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Clonally expanded, thyrotoxic effector CD8+ T cells driven by IL-21 contribute to checkpoint inhibitor thyroiditis.

    In Science Translational Medicine on 17 May 2023 by Lechner, M. G., Zhou, Z., et al.

    PubMed

    Autoimmune toxicity occurs in up to 60% of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy for cancer and represents an increasing clinical challenge for expanding the use of these treatments. To date, human immunopathogenic studies of immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) have relied on sampling of circulating peripheral blood cells rather than affected tissues. Here, we directly obtained thyroid specimens from individuals with ICI-thyroiditis, one of the most common IRAEs, and compared immune infiltrates with those from individuals with spontaneous autoimmune Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or no thyroid disease. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed a dominant, clonally expanded population of thyroid-infiltrating cytotoxic CXCR6+ CD8+ T cells (effector CD8+ T cells) present in ICI-thyroiditis but not HT or healthy controls. Furthermore, we identified a crucial role for interleukin-21 (IL-21), a cytokine secreted by intrathyroidal T follicular (TFH) and T peripheral helper (TPH) cells, as a driver of these thyrotoxic effector CD8+ T cells. In the presence of IL-21, human CD8+ T cells acquired the activated effector phenotype with up-regulation of the cytotoxic molecules interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and granzyme B, increased expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR6, and thyrotoxic capacity. We validated these findings in vivo using a mouse model of IRAEs and further demonstrated that genetic deletion of IL-21 signaling protected ICI-treated mice from thyroid immune infiltration. Together, these studies reveal mechanisms and candidate therapeutic targets for individuals who develop IRAEs.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    Dietary tryptophan metabolite released by intratumoral Lactobacillus reuteri facilitates immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment.

    In Cell on 27 April 2023 by Bender, M. J., McPherson, A. C., et al.

    PubMed

    The use of probiotics by cancer patients is increasing, including among those undergoing immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment. Here, we elucidate a critical microbial-host crosstalk between probiotic-released aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist indole-3-aldehyde (I3A) and CD8 T cells within the tumor microenvironment that potently enhances antitumor immunity and facilitates ICI in preclinical melanoma. Our study reveals that probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (Lr) translocates to, colonizes, and persists within melanoma, where via its released dietary tryptophan catabolite I3A, it locally promotes interferon-γ-producing CD8 T cells, thereby bolstering ICI. Moreover, Lr-secreted I3A was both necessary and sufficient to drive antitumor immunity, and loss of AhR signaling within CD8 T cells abrogated Lr's antitumor effects. Further, a tryptophan-enriched diet potentiated both Lr- and ICI-induced antitumor immunity, dependent on CD8 T cell AhR signaling. Finally, we provide evidence for a potential role of I3A in promoting ICI efficacy and survival in advanced melanoma patients. Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Human CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes mediate potent tumor control in humanized immune system mice.

    In Communications Biology on 25 April 2023 by Lin, W., Singh, V., et al.

    PubMed

    Efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancers can be limited by CD8 T cell dysfunction or HLA-I down-regulation. Tumor control mechanisms independent of CD8/HLA-I axis would overcome these limitations. Here, we report potent CD4 T cell-mediated tumor regression and memory responses in humanized immune system (HIS) mice implanted with HT-29 colorectal tumors. The regressing tumors showed increased CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration and enhanced tumor HLA-II expression compared to progressing tumors. The intratumoral CD4 T cell subset associated with tumor regression expressed multiple cytotoxic markers and exhibited clonal expansion. Notably, tumor control was abrogated by depletion of CD4 but not CD8 T cells. CD4 T cells derived from tumor-regressing mice exhibited HLA-II-dependent and tumor-specific killing ex vivo. Taken together, our study demonstrates a critical role of human CD4 CTLs in mediating tumor clearance independent of CD8 T cells and provides a platform to study human anti-tumor immunity in vivo. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    Integrated analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the discovery of splice-associated variants in cancer.

    In Nature Communications on 22 March 2023 by Cotto, K. C., Feng, Y. Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Somatic mutations within non-coding regions and even exons may have unidentified regulatory consequences that are often overlooked in analysis workflows. Here we present RegTools ( www.regtools.org ), a computationally efficient, free, and open-source software package designed to integrate somatic variants from genomic data with splice junctions from bulk or single cell transcriptomic data to identify variants that may cause aberrant splicing. We apply RegTools to over 9000 tumor samples with both tumor DNA and RNA sequence data. RegTools discovers 235,778 events where a splice-associated variant significantly increases the splicing of a particular junction, across 158,200 unique variants and 131,212 unique junctions. To characterize these somatic variants and their associated splice isoforms, we annotate them with the Variant Effect Predictor, SpliceAI, and Genotype-Tissue Expression junction counts and compare our results to other tools that integrate genomic and transcriptomic data. While many events are corroborated by the aforementioned tools, the flexibility of RegTools also allows us to identify splice-associated variants in known cancer drivers, such as TP53, CDKN2A, and B2M, and other genes. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    The CXCL10/CXCR3 Pathway Contributes to the Synergy of Thermal Ablation and PD-1 Blockade Therapy against Tumors.

    In Cancers on 23 February 2023 by Xiao, W., Huang, H., et al.

    PubMed

    As a practical local therapeutic approach to destroy tumor tissue, thermal ablation can activate tumor-specific T cells via enhancing tumor antigen presentation to the immune system. In the present study, we investigated changes in infiltrating immune cells in tumor tissues from the non-radiofrequency ablation (RFA) side by analyzing single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data of tumor-bearing mice compared with control tumors. We showed that ablation treatment could increase the proportion of CD8+T cells and the interaction between macrophages and T cells was altered. Another thermal ablation treatment, microwave ablation (MWA), increased the enrichment of signaling pathways for chemotaxis and chemokine response and was associated with the chemokine CXCL10. In addition, the immune checkpoint PD-1 was especially up-regulated in the infiltrating T cells of tumors on the non-ablation side after thermal ablation treatment. Combination therapy of ablation and PD-1 blockade had a synergistic anti-tumor effect. Furthermore, we found that the CXCL10/CXCR3 axis contributed to the therapeutic efficacy of ablation combined with anti-PD-1 therapy, and activation of the CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling pathway might improve the synergistic effect of this combination treatment against solid tumors.

    • Cancer Research
    Neoadjuvant Radiation Therapy and Surgery Improves Metastasis-Free Survival over Surgery Alone in a Primary Mouse Model of Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    In Molecular Cancer Therapeutics on 3 January 2023 by Patel, R., Mowery, Y. M., et al.

    PubMed

    This study aims to investigate whether adding neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT), anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) antibody (anti-PD-1), or RT + anti-PD-1 to surgical resection improves disease-free survival for mice with soft tissue sarcomas (STS). We generated a high mutational load primary mouse model of STS by intramuscular injection of adenovirus expressing Cas9 and guide RNA targeting Trp53 and intramuscular injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) into the gastrocnemius muscle of wild-type mice (p53/MCA model). We randomized tumor-bearing mice to receive isotype control or anti-PD-1 antibody with or without radiotherapy (20 Gy), followed by hind limb amputation. We used micro-CT to detect lung metastases with high spatial resolution, which was confirmed by histology. We investigated whether sarcoma metastasis was regulated by immunosurveillance by lymphocytes or tumor cell-intrinsic mechanisms. Compared with surgery with isotype control antibody, the combination of anti-PD-1, radiotherapy, and surgery improved local recurrence-free survival (P = 0.035) and disease-free survival (P = 0.005), but not metastasis-free survival. Mice treated with radiotherapy, but not anti-PD-1, showed significantly improved local recurrence-free survival and metastasis-free survival over surgery alone (P = 0.043 and P = 0.007, respectively). The overall metastasis rate was low (∼12%) in the p53/MCA sarcoma model, which limited the power to detect further improvement in metastasis-free survival with addition of anti-PD-1 therapy. Tail vein injections of sarcoma cells into immunocompetent mice suggested that impaired metastasis was due to inability of sarcoma cells to grow in the lungs rather than a consequence of immunosurveillance. In conclusion, neoadjuvant radiotherapy improves metastasis-free survival after surgery in a primary model of STS. ©2022 American Association for Cancer Research.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Tumor Cell-Surface Binding of Immune Stimulating Polymeric Glyco-Adjuvant via Cysteine-Reactive Pyridyl Disulfide Promotes Antitumor Immunity.

    In ACS Central Science on 26 October 2022 by Slezak, A. J., Mansurov, A., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune stimulating agents like Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonists induce potent antitumor immunity but are limited in their therapeutic window due to off-target immune activation. Here, we developed a polymeric delivery platform that binds excess unpaired cysteines on tumor cell surfaces and debris to adjuvant tumor neoantigens as an in situ vaccine. The metabolic and enzymatic dysregulation in the tumor microenvironment produces these exofacial free thiols, which can undergo efficient disulfide exchange with thiol-reactive pyridyl disulfide moieties upon intratumoral injection. These functional monomers are incorporated into a copolymer with pendant mannose groups and TLR7 agonists to target both antigen and adjuvant to antigen presenting cells. When tethered in the tumor, the polymeric glyco-adjuvant induces a robust antitumor response and prolongs survival of tumor-bearing mice, including in checkpoint-resistant B16F10 melanoma. The construct additionally reduces systemic toxicity associated with clinically relevant small molecule TLR7 agonists. © 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

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