InVivoMAb polyclonal rabbit IgG

Catalog #BE0095
Product Citations:
8
Clone:
Polyclonal

$164.00 - $4,280.00

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Product Details

The polyclonal rabbit IgG is purified from rabbit serum. It is ideal for use as a non-reactive control IgG for rabbit IgG antibodies in most in vivo and in vitro applications.

Specifications

Isotype Rabbit IgG
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from rabbit serum
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107793
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Murine Pathogen Tests Ectromelia/Mousepox Virus: Negative
Hantavirus: Negative
K Virus: Negative
Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus: Negative
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus: Negative
Mouse Adenovirus: Negative
Mouse Cytomegalovirus: Negative
Mouse Hepatitis Virus: Negative
Mouse Minute Virus: Negative
Mouse Norovirus: Negative
Mouse Parvovirus: Negative
Mouse Rotavirus: Negative
Mycoplasma Pulmonis: Negative
Pneumonia Virus of Mice: Negative
Polyoma Virus: Negative
Reovirus Screen: Negative
Sendai Virus: Negative
Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis: Negative
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
Vig, S., et al. (2019). "Cytokine-induced translocation of GRP78 to the plasma membrane triggers a pro-apoptotic feedback loop in pancreatic beta cells" Cell Death Dis 10(4): 309. PubMed

The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is an ubiquitously expressed endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, with a central role in maintaining protein homeostasis. Recently, an alternative role for GRP78 under stress conditions has been proposed, with stress-induced extracellular secretion and translocation of GRP78 to the cell surface where it acts as a multifunctional signaling receptor. Here we demonstrate translocation of GRP78 to the surface of human EndoC-βH1 cells and primary human islets upon cytokine exposure, in analogy to observations in rodent INS-1E and MIN6 beta cell lines. We show that GRP78 is shuttled via the anterograde secretory pathway, through the Golgi complex and secretory granules, and identify the DNAJ homolog subfamily C member 3 (DNAJC3) as a GRP78-interacting protein that facilitates its membrane translocation. Evaluation of downstream signaling pathways, using N- and C-terminal anti-GRP78 blocking antibodies, demonstrates that both GRP78 signaling domains initiate pro-apoptotic signaling cascades in beta cells. Extracellular GRP78 itself is identified as a ligand for cell surface GRP78 (sGRP78), increasing caspase 3/7 activity and cell death upon binding, which is accompanied by enhanced Chop and Bax mRNA expression. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokines induce a self-destructive pro-apoptotic feedback loop through the secretion and membrane translocation of GRP78. This proapoptotic function distinguishes the role of sGRP78 in beta cells from its reported anti-apoptotic and proliferative role in cancer cells, opening the road for the use of compounds that block sGRP78 as potential beta cell-preserving therapies in type 1 diabetes.

    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Neutrophil extracellular traps and extracellular histones potentiate IL-17 inflammation in periodontitis.

    In The Journal of Experimental Medicine on 4 September 2023 by Kim, T. S., Silva, L. M., et al.

    PubMed

    Neutrophil infiltration is a hallmark of periodontitis, a prevalent oral inflammatory condition in which Th17-driven mucosal inflammation leads to destruction of tooth-supporting bone. Herein, we document that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are early triggers of pathogenic inflammation in periodontitis. In an established animal model, we demonstrate that neutrophils infiltrate the gingival oral mucosa at early time points after disease induction and expel NETs to trigger mucosal inflammation and bone destruction in vivo. Investigating mechanisms by which NETs drive inflammatory bone loss, we find that extracellular histones, a major component of NETs, trigger upregulation of IL-17/Th17 responses, and bone destruction. Importantly, human findings corroborate our experimental work. We document significantly increased levels of NET complexes and extracellular histones bearing classic NET-associated posttranslational modifications, in blood and local lesions of severe periodontitis patients, in the absence of confounding disease. Our findings suggest a feed-forward loop in which NETs trigger IL-17 immunity to promote immunopathology in a prevalent human inflammatory disease. © 2023 Moutsopoulos et al.

    • Cancer Research
    Small Extracellular Vesicle-Derived vWF Induces a Positive Feedback Loop between Tumor and Endothelial Cells to Promote Angiogenesis and Metastasis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    In Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) on 1 September 2023 by Wong, S. W. K., Tey, S. K., et al.

    PubMed

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hypervascular malignancy by which its growth and dissemination are largely driven by the modulation of tumor-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs). Proteomic profiling of circulating sEVs of control individuals and HCC patients identifies von Willibrand factor (vWF) to be upregulated progressively along HCC stages. Elevated sEV-vWF levels are found in a larger cohort of HCC-sEV samples and metastatic HCC cell lines compared to their respective normal counterparts. Circulating sEVs of late-stage HCC patients markedly augment angiogenesis, tumor-endothelial adhesion, pulmonary vascular leakiness, and metastasis, which are significantly compromised by anti-vWF antibody. The role of vWF is further corroborated by the enhanced promoting effect of sEVs collected from vWF-overexpressing cells. sEV-vWF modulates endothelial cells through an elevated level of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). Mechanistically, secreted FGF2 elicits a positive feedback response in HCC via the FGFR4/ERK1 signaling pathway. The co-administration of anti-vWF antibody or FGFR inhibitor significantly improves the treatment outcome of sorafenib in a patient-derived xenograft mouse model. This study reveals mutual stimulation between HCC and endothelial cells by tumor-derived sEVs and endothelial angiogenic factors, facilitating angiogenesis and metastasis. It also provides insights into a new therapeutic strategy involving blocking tumor-endothelial intercellular communication. © 2023 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    IL-39 promotes chronic graft-versus-host disease by increasing T and B Cell pathogenicity.

    In Experimental Hematology Oncology on 2 June 2022 by Lv, K., Hu, B., et al.

    PubMed

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a major complication during the late phase of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). IL-39, a newly described pro-inflammatory cytokine belonging to the IL-12 family, plays a role in lupus development. Recently, IL-39 has been identified as a pathogenic factor in acute GVHD (aGVHD). However, the role of IL-39 in the pathogenesis of cGVHD remains unclear. We constructed a recombinant IL-39 plasmid and established scleroderma and lupus-like cGVHD models. Quantitative PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect IL-39 expression in mice and patients post transplantation, respectively. Hydrodynamic gene transfer (HGT) was performed to achieve IL-39 overexpression in vivo. Multiparameter flow cytometry, western blotting, and assays in vitro were performed to investigate the effect of IL-39 on cGVHD. The relative expression of IL-23p19 and EBi3 was significantly increased in the intestine of cGVHD mice on day 40 post allo-HSCT, and IL-39 levels were significantly elevated in the serum of patients following allo-HSCT. Overexpression of IL-39 significantly aggravated the severity of cGVHD. Increased IL-39 levels promoted T-cell activation and germinal center responses, and may exacerbate thymic damage. Consistently, blocking IL-39 markedly ameliorated immune dysregulation in the cGVHD mice. Furthermore, we found that IL-39 was produced by B cells, CD11b+ cells, and CD8+T cells after activation. Stimulation of IL-39 led to upregulation of the IL-39 receptor on CD4+T cells and further caused activation of the STAT1/STAT3 pathway, through which IL-39 may exert its pro-inflammatory effects. Our study reveals a critical role for IL-39 in cGVHD pathogenesis and indicates that IL-39 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for cGVHD prevention. © 2022. The Author(s).

    • ICC-IF
    • ,
    • Homo sapiens (Human)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Systemic Blockade of Clever-1 Elicits Lymphocyte Activation Alongside Checkpoint Molecule Downregulation in Patients with Solid Tumors: Results from a Phase I/II Clinical Trial.

    In Clinical Cancer Research on 1 August 2021 by Virtakoivu, R., Rannikko, J. H., et al.

    PubMed

    Macrophages are critical in driving an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that counteracts the efficacy of T-cell-targeting therapies. Thus, agents able to reprogram macrophages toward a proinflammatory state hold promise as novel immunotherapies for solid cancers. Inhibition of the macrophage scavenger receptor Clever-1 has shown benefit in inducing CD8+ T-cell-mediated antitumor responses in mouse models of cancer, which supports the clinical development of Clever-1-targeting antibodies for cancer treatment.In this study, we analyzed the mode of action of a humanized IgG4 anti-Clever-1 antibody, FP-1305 (bexmarilimab), both in vitro and in patients with heavily pretreated metastatic cancer (n = 30) participating in part 1 (dose-finding) of a phase I/II open-label trial (NCT03733990). We studied the Clever-1 interactome in primary human macrophages in antibody pull-down assays and utilized mass cytometry, RNA sequencing, and cytokine profiling to evaluate FP-1305-induced systemic immune activation in patients with cancer.Our pull-down assays and functional studies indicated that FP-1305 impaired multiprotein vacuolar ATPase-mediated endosomal acidification and improved the ability of macrophages to activate CD8+ T-cells. In patients with cancer, FP-1305 administration led to suppression of nuclear lipid signaling pathways and a proinflammatory phenotypic switch in blood monocytes. These effects were accompanied by a significant increase and activation of peripheral T-cells with indications of antitumor responses in some patients.Our results reveal a nonredundant role played by the receptor Clever-1 in suppressing adaptive immune cells in humans. We provide evidence that targeting macrophage scavenging activity can promote an immune switch, potentially leading to intratumoral proinflammatory responses in patients with metastatic cancer.©2021 The Authors; Published by the American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Epithelial membrane protein 2 (Emp2) modulates innate immune cell population recruitment at the maternal-fetal interface.

    In Journal of Reproductive Immunology on 1 June 2021 by Chu, A., Kok, S. Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Epithelial membrane protein 2 (EMP2) is a tetraspan membrane protein that has been revealed in cancer and placental models to mediate a number of vascular responses. Recently, Emp2 modulation has been shown to have an immunologic effect on uterine NK cell recruitment in the mouse placenta. Given the importance of immune cell populations on both placental vascularization and maternal immune tolerance of the developing fetus, we wanted to better characterize the immunologic effects of Emp2 at the placental-fetal interface. We performed flow cytometry of WT and Emp2 KO C57Bl/6 mouse uterine horns at GD12.5 to characterize immune cell populations localized to the various components of the maternal-fetal interface. We found that Emp2 KO decidua and placenta showed an elevated overall percentage of CD45+ cells compared to WT. Characterization of CD45+ cells in the decidua of Emp2 KO dams revealed an increase in NK cells, whereas in the placenta, Emp2 KO dams showed an increased percentage of M1 macrophages (with an increased ratio of M1/M2 macrophages). Given the differences detected in uNK cell populations in the decidua, we further characterized the interaction between Emp2 genetic KO and NK cell deletion via anti-asialo GM1 antibody injections. While the double knock-out of Emp2 and NK cells did not alter individual pup birthweight, it significantly reduced total litter weight and size by ∼50 %. In conclusion, Emp2 appears to regulate uNK and macrophage cell populations in pregnancy. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    IFN-γ-dependent NK cell activation is essential to metastasis suppression by engineered Salmonella.

    In Nature Communications on 5 May 2021 by Lin, Q., Rong, L., et al.

    PubMed

    Metastasis accounts for 90% of cancer-related deaths and, currently, there are no effective clinical therapies to block the metastatic cascade. A need to develop novel therapies specifically targeting fundamental metastasis processes remains urgent. Here, we demonstrate that Salmonella YB1, an engineered oxygen-sensitive strain, potently inhibits metastasis of a broad range of cancers. This process requires both IFN-γ and NK cells, as the absence of IFN-γ greatly reduces, whilst depletion of NK cells in vivo completely abolishes, the anti-metastatic ability of Salmonella. Mechanistically, we find that IFN-γ is mainly produced by NK cells during early Salmonella infection, and in turn, IFN-γ promotes the accumulation, activation, and cytotoxicity of NK cells, which kill the metastatic cancer cells thus achieving an anti-metastatic effect. Our findings highlight the significance of a self-regulatory feedback loop of NK cells in inhibiting metastasis, pointing a possible approach to develop anti-metastatic therapies by harnessing the power of NK cells.

    • Cancer Research
    Systemic blockade of Clever-1 elicits lymphocyte activation alongside checkpoint molecule downregulation in patients with solid tumors

    Preprint on MedRxiv : the Preprint Server for Health Sciences on 13 November 2020 by Virtakoivu, R., Rannikko, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Macrophages are critical in driving an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that counteracts the efficacy of T-cell targeting therapies. Thus, agents that can reprogram macrophages towards a proinflammatory state hold promise as novel immunotherapies for solid cancers. Here, we report that immunotherapeutic targeting of the macrophage scavenger receptor Clever-1 in heavily pretreated metastatic cancer patients was able to induce a significant increase and activation of peripheral T-cells. Anti-Clever-1 (FP-1305) administration led to suppression of nuclear lipid signaling pathways and a proinflammatory phenotypic switch in blood monocytes. Mechanistically, Clever-1 inhibition impaired multiprotein vacuolar ATPase–mediated endosomal acidification and improved macrophage cross-presentation of scavenged antigens. Our results reveal a non-redundant role played by the receptor Clever-1 in suppressing adaptive immune cell activation in humans. We provide evidence that targeting macrophage scavenging activity can promote an immune switch potentially leading to intratumoral proinflammatory responses in metastatic cancer patients.

    • Cell Biology
    Lysosome Targeting Chimeras (LYTACs) That Engage a Liver-Specific Asialoglycoprotein Receptor for Targeted Protein Degradation

    Preprint on ChemRxiv : the Preprint Server for Chemistry on 30 July 2020 by Ahn, G., Banik, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Selective protein degradation platforms have afforded new development opportunities for therapeutics and tools for biological inquiry. The first lysosome targeting chimeras (LYTACs) targeted extracellular and membrane proteins for degradation by bridging a target protein to an endogenous lysosome targeting receptor, the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR). Here we developed LYTACs that engage the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), a liver-specific lysosomal targeting receptor, to degrade membrane proteins in a tissue-specific manner. We conjugated antibody-based binders targeting cell-surface proteins to a tri-GalNAc motif that engages ASGPR. The resulting LYTACs directed lysosome trafficking of the bound targets and subsequent degradation. Degradation mediated by an EGFR-targeted GalNAc-LYTAC resulted in significant functional effects on the downstream kinase signaling of EGFR compared to canonical inhibition with a monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a small target binder, a 3.4 kDa peptide, can be linked to a single tri-GalNAc ligand to degrade integrins and significantly reduce cell proliferation. Site-specific chemical conjugation of one or two tri-GalNAc ligands to antibody scaffolds improved the pharmacokinetic profile of GalNAc-LYTACs in vivo compared to non-specific chemical conjugation. GalNAc-LYTACs represent an exciting new paradigm for cell-type restricted degradation of proteins.

    • Control
    • ,
    • In Vitro
    • ,
    • Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    Cytokine-induced translocation of GRP78 to the plasma membrane triggers a pro-apoptotic feedback loop in pancreatic beta cells.

    In Cell Death & Disease on 5 April 2019 by Vig, S., Buitinga, M., et al.

    PubMed

    The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is an ubiquitously expressed endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, with a central role in maintaining protein homeostasis. Recently, an alternative role for GRP78 under stress conditions has been proposed, with stress-induced extracellular secretion and translocation of GRP78 to the cell surface where it acts as a multifunctional signaling receptor. Here we demonstrate translocation of GRP78 to the surface of human EndoC-βH1 cells and primary human islets upon cytokine exposure, in analogy to observations in rodent INS-1E and MIN6 beta cell lines. We show that GRP78 is shuttled via the anterograde secretory pathway, through the Golgi complex and secretory granules, and identify the DNAJ homolog subfamily C member 3 (DNAJC3) as a GRP78-interacting protein that facilitates its membrane translocation. Evaluation of downstream signaling pathways, using N- and C-terminal anti-GRP78 blocking antibodies, demonstrates that both GRP78 signaling domains initiate pro-apoptotic signaling cascades in beta cells. Extracellular GRP78 itself is identified as a ligand for cell surface GRP78 (sGRP78), increasing caspase 3/7 activity and cell death upon binding, which is accompanied by enhanced Chop and Bax mRNA expression. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokines induce a self-destructive pro-apoptotic feedback loop through the secretion and membrane translocation of GRP78. This proapoptotic function distinguishes the role of sGRP78 in beta cells from its reported anti-apoptotic and proliferative role in cancer cells, opening the road for the use of compounds that block sGRP78 as potential beta cell-preserving therapies in type 1 diabetes.

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