InVivoMAb mouse IgG2a isotype control, unknown specificity

Catalog #BE0085
Product Citations:
148
Clone:
C1.18.4

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Product Details

The C1.18.4 monoclonal antibody is ideal for use as a non-reactive isotype-matched control for mouse IgG2a antibodies in most in vivo and in vitro applications.

Specifications

Isotype Mouse IgG2a, κ
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107771
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.

Additional Formats

Carmi, Y., et al. (2015). "Allogeneic IgG combined with dendritic cell stimuli induce antitumour T-cell immunity" Nature 521(7550): 99-104. PubMed

Whereas cancers grow within host tissues and evade host immunity through immune-editing and immunosuppression, tumours are rarely transmissible between individuals. Much like transplanted allogeneic organs, allogeneic tumours are reliably rejected by host T cells, even when the tumour and host share the same major histocompatibility complex alleles, the most potent determinants of transplant rejection. How such tumour-eradicating immunity is initiated remains unknown, although elucidating this process could provide the basis for inducing similar responses against naturally arising tumours. Here we find that allogeneic tumour rejection is initiated in mice by naturally occurring tumour-binding IgG antibodies, which enable dendritic cells (DCs) to internalize tumour antigens and subsequently activate tumour-reactive T cells. We exploited this mechanism to treat autologous and autochthonous tumours successfully. Either systemic administration of DCs loaded with allogeneic-IgG-coated tumour cells or intratumoral injection of allogeneic IgG in combination with DC stimuli induced potent T-cell-mediated antitumour immune responses, resulting in tumour eradication in mouse models of melanoma, pancreas, lung and breast cancer. Moreover, this strategy led to eradication of distant tumours and metastases, as well as the injected primary tumours. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we studied antibodies and cells from patients with lung cancer. T cells from these patients responded vigorously to autologous tumour antigens after culture with allogeneic-IgG-loaded DCs, recapitulating our findings in mice. These results reveal that tumour-binding allogeneic IgG can induce powerful antitumour immunity that can be exploited for cancer immunotherapy.

Nakatsukasa, H., et al. (2015). "The DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 regulates IL-9 production in CD4(+) T cells" Nat Immunol 16(10): 1077-1084. PubMed

The molecular mechanisms by which signaling via transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) control the differentiation of CD4(+) IL-9-producing helper T cells (TH9 cells) remain incompletely understood. We found here that the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 regulated TH9 differentiation, as deletion of Id3 increased IL-9 production from CD4(+) T cells. Mechanistically, TGF-beta1 and IL-4 downregulated Id3 expression, and this process required the kinase TAK1. A reduction in Id3 expression enhanced binding of the transcription factors E2A and GATA-3 to the Il9 promoter region, which promoted Il9 transcription. Notably, Id3-mediated control of TH9 differentiation regulated anti-tumor immunity in an experimental melanoma-bearing model in vivo and also in human CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Thus, our study reveals a previously unrecognized TAK1-Id3-E2A-GATA-3 pathway that regulates TH9 differentiation.

Bulliard, Y., et al. (2013). "Activating Fc gamma receptors contribute to the antitumor activities of immunoregulatory receptor-targeting antibodies" J Exp Med 210(9): 1685-1693. PubMed

Fc gamma receptor (FcgammaR) coengagement can facilitate antibody-mediated receptor activation in target cells. In particular, agonistic antibodies that target tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members have shown dependence on expression of the inhibitory FcgammaR, FcgammaRIIB. It remains unclear if engagement of FcgammaRIIB also extends to the activities of antibodies targeting immunoregulatory TNFRs expressed by T cells. We have explored the requirement for activating and inhibitory FcgammaRs for the antitumor effects of antibodies targeting the TNFR glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR; TNFRSF18; CD357) expressed on activated and regulatory T cells (T reg cells). We found that although FcgammaRIIB was dispensable for the in vivo efficacy of anti-GITR antibodies, in contrast, activating FcgammaRs were essential. Surprisingly, the dependence on activating FcgammaRs extended to an antibody targeting the non-TNFR receptor CTLA-4 (CD152) that acts as a negative regulator of T cell immunity. We define a common mechanism that correlated with tumor efficacy, whereby antibodies that coengaged activating FcgammaRs expressed by tumor-associated leukocytes facilitated the selective elimination of intratumoral T cell populations, particularly T reg cells. These findings may have broad implications for antibody engineering efforts aimed at enhancing the therapeutic activity of immunomodulatory antibodies.

Kerzerho, J., et al. (2013). "Programmed cell death ligand 2 regulates TH9 differentiation and induction of chronic airway hyperreactivity" J Allergy Clin Immunol 131(4): 1048-1057, 1057 e1041-1042. PubMed

BACKGROUND: Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways; however, the underlying physiologic and immunologic processes are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether TH9 cells develop in vivo in a model of chronic airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and what factors control this development. METHOD: We have developed a novel chronic allergen exposure model using the clinically relevant antigen Aspergillus fumigatus to determine the time kinetics of TH9 development in vivo. RESULTS: TH9 cells were detectable in the lungs after chronic allergen exposure. The number of TH9 cells directly correlated with the severity of AHR, and anti-IL-9 treatment decreased airway inflammation. Moreover, we have identified programmed cell death ligand (PD-L) 2 as a negative regulator of TH9 cell differentiation. Lack of PD-L2 was associated with significantly increased TGF-beta and IL-1alpha levels in the lungs, enhanced pulmonary TH9 differentiation, and higher morbidity in the sensitized mice. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that PD-L2 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of TH9 cell development in chronic AHR, providing novel strategies for modulating adaptive immunity during chronic allergic responses.

Licona-Limon, P., et al. (2013). "Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection" Immunity 39(4): 744-757. PubMed

Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial, and the importance of IL-9- versus IL-4-producing CD4(+) effector T cells in type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9-deficient and IL-9-fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas T helper 9 (Th9) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells, caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia, and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection.

Rayamajhi, M., et al. (2012). "Lung B cells promote early pathogen dissemination and hasten death from inhalation anthrax" Mucosal Immunol 5(4): 444-454. PubMed

Sampling of mucosal antigens regulates immune responses but may also promote dissemination of mucosal pathogens. Lung dendritic cells (LDCs) capture antigens and traffic them to lung-draining lymph nodes (LDLNs) dependent on the chemokine receptor CCR7 (chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7). LDCs also capture lung pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis (BA). However, we show here that the initial traffic of BA spores from lungs to LDLNs is largely independent of LDCs and CCR7, occurring instead in association with B cells. BA spores rapidly bound B cells in lungs and cultured mouse and human B cells. Binding was independent of the B-cell receptor (BCR). B cells instilled in the lungs trafficked to LDLNs and BA spore traffic to LDLNs was impaired by B-cell deficiency. Depletion of B cells also delayed death of mice receiving a lethal BA infection. These results suggest that mucosal B cells traffic BA, and possibly other antigens, from lungs to LDLNs.

Schafer, H., et al. (2012). "Myofibroblast-induced tumorigenicity of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells is L1CAM dependent" Carcinogenesis 33(1): 84-93. PubMed

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and chronic pancreatitis, representing one risk factor for PDAC, are characterized by a marked desmoplasia enriched of pancreatic myofibroblasts (PMFs). Thus, PMFs are thought to essentially promote pancreatic tumorigenesis. We recently demonstrated that the adhesion molecule L1CAM is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of PMF-cocultured H6c7 human ductal epithelial cells and that L1CAM is expressed already in ductal structures of chronic pancreatitis with even higher elevation in primary tumors and metastases of PDAC patients. This study aimed at investigating whether PMFs and L1CAM drive malignant transformation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells by enhancing their tumorigenic potential. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that in the presence of PMFs, H6c7 cells exhibit a profound resistance against death ligand-induced apoptosis. This apoptosis protection was similarly observed in H6c7 cells stably overexpressing L1CAM. Intrapancreatic inoculation of H6c7 cells together with PMFs (H6c7co) resulted in tumor formation in 7/8 and liver metastases in 6/8 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, whereas no tumors and metastases were detectable after inoculation of H6c7 cells alone. Likewise, tumor outgrowth and metastases resulted from inoculation of L1CAM-overexpressing H6c7 cells in 5/7 and 3/7 SCID mice, respectively, but not from inoculation of mock-transfected H6c7 cells. Treatment of H6c7co tumor-bearing mice with the L1CAM antibody L1-9.3/2a inhibited tumor formation and liver metastasis in 100 and 50%, respectively, of the treated animals. Overall, these data provide new insights into the mechanisms of how PMFs and L1CAM contribute to malignant transformation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells in early stages of pancreatic tumorigenesis.

Libbey, J. E., et al. (2011). "Interleukin-6, produced by resident cells of the central nervous system and infiltrating cells, contributes to the development of seizures following viral infection" J Virol 85(14): 6913-6922. PubMed

Cells that can participate in an innate immune response within the central nervous system (CNS) include infiltrating cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes , macrophages, and natural killer cells) and resident cells (microglia and sometimes astrocytes). The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced by all of these cells and has been implicated in the development of behavioral seizures in the Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced seizure model. The assessment, via PCR arrays, of the mRNA expression levels of a large number of chemokines (ligands and receptors) in TMEV-infected and mock-infected C57BL/6 mice both with and without seizures did not clearly demonstrate the involvement of PMNs, monocytes/macrophages, or NK cells in the development of seizures, possibly due to overlapping function of the chemokines. Additionally, C57BL/6 mice unable to recruit or depleted of infiltrating PMNs and NK cells had seizure rates comparable to those of controls following TMEV infection, and therefore PMNs and NK cells do not significantly contribute to seizure development. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice treated with minocycline, which affects monocytes/macrophages, microglial cells, and PMNs, had significantly fewer seizures than controls following TMEV infection, indicating monocytes/macrophages and resident microglial cells are important in seizure development. Irradiated bone marrow chimeric mice that were either IL-6-deficient mice reconstituted with wild-type bone marrow cells or wild-type mice reconstituted with IL-6-deficient bone marrow cells developed significantly fewer behavioral seizures following TMEV infection. Therefore, both resident CNS cells and infiltrating cells are necessary for seizure development.

Lamere, M. W., et al. (2011). "Regulation of antinucleoprotein IgG by systemic vaccination and its effect on influenza virus clearance" J Virol 85(10): 5027-5035. PubMed

Seasonal influenza epidemics recur due to antigenic drift of envelope glycoprotein antigens and immune evasion of circulating viruses. Additionally, antigenic shift can lead to influenza pandemics. Thus, a universal vaccine that protects against multiple influenza virus strains could alleviate the continuing impact of this virus on human health. In mice, accelerated clearance of a new viral strain (cross-protection) can be elicited by prior infection (heterosubtypic immunity) or by immunization with the highly conserved internal nucleoprotein (NP). Both heterosubtypic immunity and NP-immune protection require antibody production. Here, we show that systemic immunization with NP readily accelerated clearance of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus isolate in an antibody-dependent manner. However, human immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine (TIV) only rarely and modestly boosted existing levels of anti-NP IgG. Similar results were observed in mice, although the reaction could be enhanced with adjuvants, by adjusting the stoichiometry among NP and other vaccine components, and by increasing the interval between TIV prime and boost. Importantly, mouse heterosubtypic immunity that had waned over several months could be enhanced by injecting purified anti-NP IgG or by boosting with NP protein, correlating with a long-lived increase in anti-NP antibody titers. Thus, current immunization strategies poorly induce NP-immune antibody that is nonetheless capable of contributing to long-lived cross-protection. The high conservation of NP antigen and the known longevity of antibody responses suggest that the antiviral activity of anti-NP IgG may provide a critically needed component of a universal influenza vaccine.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    Gestational diabetes augments group B Streptococcus infection by disrupting maternal immunity and the vaginal microbiota.

    In Nature Communications on 3 February 2024 by Mercado-Evans, V., Mejia, M. E., et al.

    PubMed

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a pervasive perinatal pathogen, yet factors driving GBS dissemination in utero are poorly defined. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a complication marked by dysregulated immunity and maternal microbial dysbiosis, increases risk for GBS perinatal disease. Using a murine GDM model of GBS colonization and perinatal transmission, we find that GDM mice display greater GBS in utero dissemination and subsequently worse neonatal outcomes. Dual-RNA sequencing reveals differential GBS adaptation to the GDM reproductive tract, including a putative glycosyltransferase (yfhO), and altered host responses. GDM immune disruptions include reduced uterine natural killer cell activation, impaired recruitment to placentae, and altered maternofetal cytokines. Lastly, we observe distinct vaginal microbial taxa associated with GDM status and GBS invasive disease status. Here, we show a model of GBS dissemination in GDM hosts that recapitulates several clinical aspects and identifies multiple host and bacterial drivers of GBS perinatal disease. © 2024. The Author(s).

    IgG hexamers initiate acute lung injury

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 27 January 2024 by Cleary, S., Seo, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Antibodies can initiate lung injury in a variety of disease states such as autoimmunity, transfusion reactions, or after organ transplantation, but the key factors determining in vivo pathogenicity of injury-inducing antibodies are unclear. A previously overlooked step in complement activation by IgG antibodies has been elucidated involving interactions between IgG Fc domains that enable assembly of IgG hexamers, which can optimally activate the complement cascade. Here, we tested the in vivo relevance of IgG hexamers in a complement-dependent alloantibody model of acute lung injury. We used three approaches to block alloantibody hexamerization (antibody carbamylation, the K439E Fc mutation, or treatment with domain B from Staphylococcal protein A), all of which reduced acute lung injury. Conversely, Fc mutations promoting spontaneous hexamerization made a harmful alloantibody into a more potent inducer of acute lung injury and rendered an innocuous alloantibody pathogenic. Treatment with a recombinant Fc hexamer ‘decoy’ therapeutic protected mice from lung injury, including in a model with transgenic human FCGR2A expression that exacerbated pathology. These results indicate a direct in vivo role of IgG hexamerization in initiating acute lung injury and the potential for therapeutics that inhibit or mimic hexamerization to treat antibody-mediated diseases. Brief summary IgG antibodies can form hexamers. This study shows that hexamer assembly is an important event determining the ability of IgG to trigger acute lung injury. Graphical abstract

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Suppression of protein quality control system by TRIM30a sensitises tumour cells to NK cell-mediated immune surveillance.

    In Immunology on 1 January 2024 by Afolabi, L. O., Bi, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Tumorigenesis entails circumventing cell-intrinsic regulatory mechanisms while avoiding extrinsic immune surveillance and other host defence systems. Nevertheless, how tumour cells' ability to eliminate misfolded proteins affects immune surveillance remains poorly understood. In this study, we find that overexpression of murine tripartite motif-containing protein 30a (TRIM30a) sensitises tumour cells to natural killer (NK) cells-mediated cytolysis. TRIM30a has no effect on tumour cell proliferation or apoptosis in vitro. However, TRIM30a-overexpressing tumour cells grow substantially slower than control tumour cells in immune-competent mice but not in NK cell-depleted mice. [Correction added on 04 October 2023, after first online publication: 'NK-depleted' has been changed to 'NK cell-depleted' in the preceding sentence.] Mechanistically, TRIM30a overexpression impedes the clearance of misfolded proteins and increases the production of reactive oxygen species induced by proteotoxic stress, implying that TRIM30a impairs protein quality control (PQC) systems in tumour cells. Furthermore, TRIM30a reduces expression of genes encoding proteasome subunits and antioxidant proteins. Our study demonstrates that TRIM30a is a potential tumour suppressor and immune modulator that promotes tumour cytolysis by NK cells, and suggests that an enhanced PQC and antioxidant capacity is an integral part of the immune escape mechanism during tumorigenesis. © 2023 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Autophagy-mediated NKG2D internalization impairs NK cell function and exacerbates radiation pneumonitis.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 11 December 2023 by Wang, R., Ma, X., et al.

    PubMed

    Radiation pneumonitis is a critical complication that constrains the use of radiation therapy for thoracic malignancies, leading to substantial morbidity via respiratory distress and lung function impairment. The role of Natural killer (NK) cells in inflammatory diseases is well-documented; however, their involvement in radiation pneumonitis is not fully understood. To explore the involvement of NK cells in radiation pneumonitis, we analyzed tissue samples for NK cell presence and function. The study utilized immunofluorescence staining, western blotting, and immunoprecipitation to investigate CXCL10 and ROS levels, autophagy activity, and NKG2D receptor dynamics in NK cells derived from patients and animal models subjected to radiation. In this study, we observed an augmented infiltration of NK cells in tissues affected by radiation pneumonitis, although their function was markedly diminished. In animal models, enhancing NK cell activity appeared to decelerate the disease progression. Concomitant with the disease course, there was a notable upsurge in CXCL10 and ROS levels. CXCL10 was found to facilitate NK cell migration through CXCR3 receptor activation. Furthermore, evidence of excessive autophagy in patient NK cells was linked to ROS accumulation, as indicated by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. The association between the NKG2D receptor and its adaptor proteins (AP2 subunits AP2A1 and AP2M1), LC3, and lysosomes was intensified after radiation exposure, as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation. This interaction led to NKG2D receptor endocytosis and subsequent lysosomal degradation. Our findings delineate a mechanism by which radiation-induced lung injury may suppress NK cell function through an autophagy-dependent pathway. The dysregulation observed suggests potential therapeutic targets; hence, modulating autophagy and enhancing NK cell activity could represent novel strategies for mitigating radiation pneumonitis. Copyright © 2023 Wang, Ma, Zhang, Jiang, Mao, Li, Tian and Cheng.

    • Cancer Research
    Leukemia-intrinsic determinants of CAR-T response revealed by iterative in vivo genome-wide CRISPR screening.

    In Nature Communications on 5 December 2023 by Ramos, A., Koch, C. E., et al.

    PubMed

    CAR-T therapy is a promising, novel treatment modality for B-cell malignancies and yet many patients relapse through a variety of means, including loss of CAR-T cells and antigen escape. To investigate leukemia-intrinsic CAR-T resistance mechanisms, we performed genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 loss-of-function screens in an immunocompetent murine model of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) utilizing a modular guide RNA library. We identified IFNγR/JAK/STAT signaling and components of antigen processing and presentation pathway as key mediators of resistance to CAR-T therapy in vivo; intriguingly, loss of this pathway yielded the opposite effect in vitro (sensitized leukemia to CAR-T cells). Transcriptional characterization of this model demonstrated upregulation of these pathways in tumors relapsed after CAR-T treatment, and functional studies showed a surprising role for natural killer (NK) cells in engaging this resistance program. Finally, examination of data from B-ALL patients treated with CAR-T revealed an association between poor outcomes and increased expression of JAK/STAT and MHC-I in leukemia cells. Overall, our data identify an unexpected mechanism of resistance to CAR-T therapy in which tumor cell interaction with the in vivo tumor microenvironment, including NK cells, induces expression of an adaptive, therapy-induced, T-cell resistance program in tumor cells. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Mice with FVB-derived sequence on chromosome 17 succumb to disseminated virus infection due to aberrant NK cell and T cell responses.

    In IScience on 17 November 2023 by Tibbs, T. N., Donoghue, L. J., et al.

    PubMed

    Zoonotic arenavirus infections can result in viral hemorrhagic disease, characterized by platelet loss, petechia, and multi-organ injury. The mechanisms governing these outcomes are likely impacted by virus strain and infection dose, as well as an individual's genetic background and immune constitution. To better understand the processes leading to severe pathogenesis, we compared two strains of inbred mice, C57BL/6J (B6) and FVB/NJ (FVB), that have diametrically opposed outcomes during disseminated lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Infection caused minimal pathogenesis in B6 mice, whereas FVB mice developed acute hepatitis and perished due, in part, to aberrant NK cell and T cell responses. Susceptible mice showed an outgrowth of cytolytic CD4+ T cells and loss of Treg cells. B6 congenic mice with the FVB allele at a 25Mb locus on chromosome 17 recapitulated FVB pathogenesis upon infection. A locus containing a limited number of variants in immune-related genes greatly impacts survival during infection. © 2023 The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Genetics
    Tumor-wide RNA splicing aberrations generate immunogenic public neoantigens

    Preprint on Research Square on 16 November 2023 by Okada, H., Kwok, D., et al.

    PubMed

    T-cell-based immunotherapies hold promise in treating cancer by leveraging the immune system’s recognition of cancer-specific antigens. 1 However, their efficacy is often limited in tumors with fewer somatic mutations and significant intratumoral heterogeneity, such as glioblastoma. 2–5 Here we introduce a previously uncharacterized class of tumor-wide and public neoantigens, originating from RNA-splicing aberrations in various cancer types. Notably, we identified T-cell receptor clones capable of recognizing and targeting neoantigens derived from aberrant splicing in GNAS and RPL22 . In multi-site-directed biopsies across various cancer types, we detected the tumor-wide expression of the GNAS neojunction within glioma, mesothelioma, prostate cancer, and liver cancer patients. Importantly, these neoantigens were proven to be endogenously generated and presented by tumor cells under physiological conditions, which was sufficient in triggering the eradication of cancer cells by neoantigen-specific CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, our study unravels the complex interplay of dysregulated splicing factor expression in specific cancer subtypes, which leads to recurrent patterns of neojunction upregulation. These findings offer a robust molecular basis for T-cell-based immunotherapy that targets a newfound class of tumor-wide public neoantigens, addressing the challenges of intratumoral heterogeneity. By characterizing this unique class of tumor-wide and public neoantigens, our research emphasizes the need to consider intratumoral heterogeneity in the quest for effective cancer immunotherapies. These findings have significant implications for the development of targeted treatments and mark a pivotal step in the ongoing journey to uncover neoantigens for cancer immunotherapy.

    • Cardiovascular biology
    CCR5 drives NK cell-associated airway damage in pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    In JCI Insight on 8 November 2023 by Santos, J., Wang, P., et al.

    PubMed

    Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) limits clinical benefit after lung transplantation, a life-prolonging therapy for patients with end-stage disease. PGD is the clinical syndrome resulting from pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), driven by innate immune inflammation. We recently demonstrated a key role for NK cells in the airways of mouse models and human tissue samples of IRI. Here, we used 2 mouse models paired with human lung transplant samples to investigate the mechanisms whereby NK cells migrate to the airways to mediate lung injury. We demonstrate that chemokine receptor ligand transcripts and proteins are increased in mouse and human disease. CCR5 ligand transcripts were correlated with NK cell gene signatures independently of NK cell CCR5 ligand secretion. NK cells expressing CCR5 were increased in the lung and airways during IRI and had increased markers of tissue residency and maturation. Allosteric CCR5 drug blockade reduced the migration of NK cells to the site of injury. CCR5 blockade also blunted quantitative measures of experimental IRI. Additionally, in human lung transplant bronchoalveolar lavage samples, we found that CCR5 ligand was associated with increased patient morbidity and that the CCR5 receptor was increased in expression on human NK cells following PGD. These data support a potential mechanism for NK cell migration during lung injury and identify a plausible preventative treatment for PGD.

    • IHC
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    C-type lectin receptor 2d forms homodimers and heterodimers with TLR2 to negatively regulate IRF5-mediated antifungal immunity.

    In Nature Communications on 23 October 2023 by Li, F., Wang, H., et al.

    PubMed

    Dimerization of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) or Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can alter their ligand binding ability, thereby modulating immune responses. However, the possibilities and roles of dimerization between CLRs and TLRs remain unclear. Here we show that C-type lectin receptor-2d (CLEC2D) forms homodimers, as well as heterodimers with TLR2. Quantitative ligand binding assays reveal that both CLEC2D homodimers and CLEC2D/TLR2 heterodimers have a higher binding ability to fungi-derived β-glucans than TLR2 homodimers. Moreover, homo- or hetero-dimeric CLEC2D mediates β-glucan-induced ubiquitination and degradation of MyD88 to inhibit the activation of transcription factor IRF5 and subsequent IL-12 production. Clec2d-deficient female mice are resistant to infection with Candida albicans, a human fungal pathogen, owing to the increase of IL-12 production and subsequent generation of IFN-γ-producing NK cells. Together, these data indicate that CLEC2D forms homodimers or heterodimers with TLR2, which negatively regulate antifungal immunity through suppression of IRF5-mediated IL-12 production. These homo- and hetero-dimers of CLEC2D and TLR2 provide an example of receptor dimerization to regulate host innate immunity against microbial infections. © 2023. Springer Nature Limited.

    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Neutrophil extracellular traps and extracellular histones potentiate IL-17 inflammation in periodontitis.

    In The Journal of Experimental Medicine on 4 September 2023 by Kim, T. S., Silva, L. M., et al.

    PubMed

    Neutrophil infiltration is a hallmark of periodontitis, a prevalent oral inflammatory condition in which Th17-driven mucosal inflammation leads to destruction of tooth-supporting bone. Herein, we document that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are early triggers of pathogenic inflammation in periodontitis. In an established animal model, we demonstrate that neutrophils infiltrate the gingival oral mucosa at early time points after disease induction and expel NETs to trigger mucosal inflammation and bone destruction in vivo. Investigating mechanisms by which NETs drive inflammatory bone loss, we find that extracellular histones, a major component of NETs, trigger upregulation of IL-17/Th17 responses, and bone destruction. Importantly, human findings corroborate our experimental work. We document significantly increased levels of NET complexes and extracellular histones bearing classic NET-associated posttranslational modifications, in blood and local lesions of severe periodontitis patients, in the absence of confounding disease. Our findings suggest a feed-forward loop in which NETs trigger IL-17 immunity to promote immunopathology in a prevalent human inflammatory disease. © 2023 Moutsopoulos et al.

    • Cancer Research
    Stromal-derived NRG1 enables oncogenic KRAS bypass in pancreas cancer.

    In Genes and Development on 1 September 2023 by Han, J., Xu, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Activating KRAS mutations (KRAS*) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) drive anabolic metabolism and support tumor maintenance. KRAS* inhibitors show initial antitumor activity followed by recurrence due to cancer cell-intrinsic and immune-mediated paracrine mechanisms. Here, we explored the potential role of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in enabling KRAS* bypass and identified CAF-derived NRG1 activation of cancer cell ERBB2 and ERBB3 receptor tyrosine kinases as a mechanism by which KRAS*-independent growth is supported. Genetic extinction or pharmacological inhibition of KRAS* resulted in up-regulation of ERBB2 and ERBB3 expression in human and murine models, which prompted cancer cell utilization of CAF-derived NRG1 as a survival factor. Genetic depletion or pharmacological inhibition of ERBB2/3 or NRG1 abolished KRAS* bypass and synergized with KRASG12D inhibitors in combination treatments in mouse and human PDAC models. Thus, we found that CAFs can contribute to KRAS* inhibitor therapy resistance via paracrine mechanisms, providing an actionable therapeutic strategy to improve the effectiveness of KRAS* inhibitors in PDAC patients. © 2023 Han et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Membrane-localized neoantigens predict the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.

    In Cell Reports Medicine on 15 August 2023 by Goldberger, Z., Hauert, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune checkpoint immunotherapy (ICI) can re-activate immune reactions against neoantigens, leading to remarkable remission in cancer patients. Nevertheless, only a minority of patients are responsive to ICI, and approaches for prediction of responsiveness are needed to improve the success of cancer treatments. While the tumor mutational burden (TMB) correlates positively with responsiveness and survival of patients undergoing ICI, the influence of the subcellular localizations of the neoantigens remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate in both a mouse melanoma model and human clinical datasets of 1,722 ICI-treated patients that a high proportion of membrane-localized neoantigens, particularly at the plasma membrane, correlate with responsiveness to ICI therapy and improved overall survival across multiple cancer types. We further show that combining membrane localization and TMB analyses can enhance the predictability of cancer patient response to ICI. Our results may have important implications for establishing future clinical guidelines to direct the choice of treatment toward ICI. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Interleukin-9 promotes mast cell progenitor proliferation and CCR2-dependent mast cell migration in allergic airway inflammation.

    In Mucosal Immunology on 1 August 2023 by Pajulas, A., Fu, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Allergic asthma is a chronic lung disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and cellular infiltration that is exacerbated by immunoglobulin E-dependent mast cell (MC) activation. Interleukin-9 (IL-9) promotes MC expansion during allergic inflammation but precisely how IL-9 expands tissue MCs and promotes MC function is unclear. In this report, using multiple models of allergic airway inflammation, we show that both mature MCs (mMCs) and MC progenitors (MCp) express IL-9R and respond to IL-9 during allergic inflammation. IL-9 acts on MCp in the bone marrow and lungs to enhance proliferative capacity. Furthermore, IL-9 in the lung stimulates the mobilization of CCR2+ mMC from the bone marrow and recruitment to the allergic lung. Mixed bone marrow chimeras demonstrate that these are intrinsic effects in the MCp and mMC populations. IL-9-producing T cells are both necessary and sufficient to increase MC numbers in the lung in the context of allergic inflammation. Importantly, T cell IL-9-mediated MC expansion is required for the development of antigen-induced and MC-dependent airway hyperreactivity. Collectively, these data demonstrate that T cell IL-9 induces lung MC expansion and migration by direct effects on the proliferation of MCp and the migration of mMC to mediate airway hyperreactivity. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    • ,
    • Stem Cells and Developmental Biology
    Neoantigen-specific stem cell memory-like CD4+ T cells mediate CD8+ T cell-dependent immunotherapy of MHC class II-negative solid tumors.

    In Nature Immunology on 1 August 2023 by Brightman, S. E., Becker, A., et al.

    PubMed

    CD4+ T cells play key roles in a range of immune responses, either as direct effectors or through accessory cells, including CD8+ T lymphocytes. In cancer, neoantigen (NeoAg)-specific CD8+ T cells capable of direct tumor recognition have been extensively studied, whereas the role of NeoAg-specific CD4+ T cells is less well understood. We have characterized the murine CD4+ T cell response against a validated NeoAg (CLTCH129>Q) expressed by the MHC-II-deficient squamous cell carcinoma tumor model (SCC VII) at the level of single T cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes and in the setting of adoptive immunotherapy. We find that the natural CLTCH129>Q-specific repertoire is diverse and contains TCRs with distinct avidities as measured by tetramer-binding assays and CD4 dependence. Despite these differences, CD4+ T cells expressing high or moderate avidity TCRs undergo comparable in vivo proliferation to cross-presented antigen from growing tumors and drive similar levels of therapeutic immunity that is dependent on CD8+ T cells and CD40L signaling. Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) with NeoAg-specific CD4+ T cells is most effective when TCR-engineered cells are differentiated ex vivo with IL-7 and IL-15 rather than IL-2 and this was associated with both increased expansion as well as the acquisition and stable maintenance of a T stem cell memory (TSCM)-like phenotype in tumor-draining lymph nodes (tdLNs). ACT with TSCM-like CD4+ T cells results in lower PD-1 expression by CD8+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment and an increased frequency of PD-1+CD8+ T cells in tdLNs. These findings illuminate the role of NeoAg-specific CD4+ T cells in mediating antitumor immunity via providing help to CD8+ T cells and highlight their therapeutic potential in ACT. © 2023. The Author(s).

    NOTCH3 drives meningioma tumorigenesis and resistance to radiotherapy

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 11 July 2023 by Choudhury, A., Cady, M. A., et al.

    PubMed

    Summary Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumors 1–3 . Treatments for patients with meningiomas are limited to surgery and radiotherapy, and systemic therapies remain ineffective or experimental 4,5 . Resistance to radiotherapy is common in high-grade meningiomas 6 , and the cell types and signaling mechanisms driving meningioma tumorigenesis or resistance to radiotherapy are incompletely understood. Here we report NOTCH3 drives meningioma tumorigenesis and resistance to radiotherapy and find NOTCH3+ meningioma mural cells are conserved across meningiomas from humans, dogs, and mice. NOTCH3+ cells are restricted to the perivascular niche during meningeal development and homeostasis and in low-grade meningiomas but are expressed throughout high-grade meningiomas that are resistant to radiotherapy. Integrating single-cell transcriptomics with lineage tracing and imaging approaches across mouse genetic and xenograft models, we show NOTCH3 drives tumor initiating capacity, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and resistance to radiotherapy to increase meningioma growth and reduce survival. An antibody stabilizing the extracellular negative regulatory region of NOTCH3 7,8 blocks meningioma tumorigenesis and sensitizes meningiomas to radiotherapy, reducing tumor growth and improving survival in preclinical models. In summary, our results identify a conserved cell type and signaling mechanism that underlie meningioma tumorigenesis and resistance to radiotherapy, revealing a new therapeutic vulnerability to treat meningiomas that are resistant to standard interventions.

    • COVID-19
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Hypoxia-altered cholesterol homeostasis enhances the expression of interferon-stimulated genes upon SARS-CoV-2 infections in monocytes.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 28 June 2023 by Bauer, R., Meyer, S. P., et al.

    PubMed

    Hypoxia contributes to numerous pathophysiological conditions including inflammation-associated diseases. We characterized the impact of hypoxia on the immunometabolic cross-talk between cholesterol and interferon (IFN) responses. Specifically, hypoxia reduced cholesterol biosynthesis flux and provoked a compensatory activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) in monocytes. Concomitantly, a broad range of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) increased under hypoxia in the absence of an inflammatory stimulus. While changes in cholesterol biosynthesis intermediates and SREBP2 activity did not contribute to hypoxic ISG induction, intracellular cholesterol distribution appeared critical to enhance hypoxic expression of chemokine ISGs. Importantly, hypoxia further boosted chemokine ISG expression in monocytes upon infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Mechanistically, hypoxia sensitized toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling to activation by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which emerged as a major signaling hub to enhance chemokine ISG induction following SARS-CoV-2 infection of hypoxic monocytes. These data depict a hypoxia-regulated immunometabolic mechanism with implications for the development of systemic inflammatory responses in severe cases of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Copyright © 2023 Bauer, Meyer, Raue, Palmer, Guerrero Ruiz, Cardamone, Rösser, Heffels, Roesmann, Wilhelm, Lütjohann, Zarnack, Fuhrmann, Widera, Schmid and Brüne.

    Autonomous IL-36R signaling in neutrophils activates potent antitumor effector functions.

    In The Journal of Clinical Investigation on 15 June 2023 by Roy, S., Fitzgerald, K., et al.

    PubMed

    While the rapid advancement of immunotherapies has revolutionized cancer treatment, only a small fraction of patients derive clinical benefit. Eradication of large, established tumors appears to depend on engaging and activating both innate and adaptive immune system components to mount a rigorous and comprehensive immune response. Identifying such agents is a high unmet medical need, because they are sparse in the therapeutic landscape of cancer treatment. Here, we report that IL-36 cytokine can engage both innate and adaptive immunity to remodel an immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) and mediate potent antitumor immune responses via signaling in host hematopoietic cells. Mechanistically, IL-36 signaling modulates neutrophils in a cell-intrinsic manner to greatly enhance not only their ability to directly kill tumor cells but also promote T and NK cell responses. Thus, while poor prognostic outcomes are typically associated with neutrophil enrichment in the TME, our results highlight the pleiotropic effects of IL-36 and its therapeutic potential to modify tumor-infiltrating neutrophils into potent effector cells and engage both the innate and adaptive immune system to achieve durable antitumor responses in solid tumors.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Tumor eradication by hetIL-15 locoregional therapy correlates with an induced intratumoral CD103intCD11b+ dendritic cell population.

    In Cell Reports on 30 May 2023 by Stellas, D., Karaliota, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Locoregional monotherapy with heterodimeric interleukin (IL)-15 (hetIL-15) in a triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) orthotopic mouse model resulted in tumor eradication in 40% of treated mice, reduction of metastasis, and induction of immunological memory against breast cancer cells. hetIL-15 re-shaped the tumor microenvironment by promoting the intratumoral accumulation of cytotoxic lymphocytes, conventional type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1s), and a dendritic cell (DC) population expressing both CD103 and CD11b markers. These CD103intCD11b+DCs share phenotypic and gene expression characteristics with both cDC1s and cDC2s, have transcriptomic profiles more similar to monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), and correlate with tumor regression. Therefore, hetIL-15, a cytokine directly affecting lymphocytes and inducing cytotoxic cells, also has an indirect rapid and significant effect on the recruitment of myeloid cells, initiating a cascade for tumor elimination through innate and adoptive immune mechanisms. The intratumoral CD103intCD11b+DC population induced by hetIL-15 may be targeted for the development of additional cancer immunotherapy approaches. Published by Elsevier Inc.

    • Cancer Research
    c-Met Mediated Cytokine Network Promotes Brain Metastasis of Breast Cancer by Remodeling Neutrophil Activities.

    In Cancers on 5 May 2023 by Liu, Y., Smith, M. R., et al.

    PubMed

    The brain is one of the most common metastatic sites among breast cancer patients, especially in those who have Her2-positive or triple-negative tumors. The brain microenvironment has been considered immune privileged, and the exact mechanisms of how immune cells in the brain microenvironment contribute to brain metastasis remain elusive. In this study, we found that neutrophils are recruited and influenced by c-Met high brain metastatic cells in the metastatic sites, and depletion of neutrophils significantly suppressed brain metastasis in animal models. Overexpression of c-Met in tumor cells enhances the secretion of a group of cytokines, including CXCL1/2, G-CSF, and GM-CSF, which play critical roles in neutrophil attraction, granulopoiesis, and homeostasis. Meanwhile, our transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that conditioned media from c-Met high cells significantly induced the secretion of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) from neutrophils, which in turn promotes the self-renewal of cancer stem cells. Our study unveiled the molecular and pathogenic mechanisms of how crosstalk between innate immune cells and tumor cells facilitates tumor progression in the brain, which provides novel therapeutic targets for treating brain metastasis.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Functional
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Intrinsic RIG-I restrains STAT5 activation to modulate antitumor activity of CD8+ T cells.

    In The Journal of Clinical Investigation on 1 May 2023 by Jiang, X., Lin, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Antitumor activity of CD8+ T cells is potentially restrained by a variety of negative regulatory pathways that are triggered in the tumor microenvironment, yet, the exact mechanisms remain incompletely defined. Here, we report that intrinsic RIG-I in CD8+ T cells represents such a factor, as evidenced by observations that the tumor-restricting effect of endogenous or adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells was enhanced by intrinsic Rig-I deficiency or inhibition, with the increased accumulation, survival, and cytotoxicity of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells. Mechanistically, T cell activation-induced RIG-I upregulation restrained STAT5 activation via competitive sequestering of HSP90. In accordance with this, the frequency of RIG-I+ tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells in human colon cancer positively correlated with attenuated survival and effector signatures of CD8+ T cells as well as poor prognosis. Collectively, these results implicate RIG-I as a potentially druggable factor for improving CD8+ T cell-based tumor immunotherapy.

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