InVivoMAb rat IgG1 Isotype control, anti-trinitrophenol

Catalog #BE0290
Product Citations:
29
Clone:
TNP6A7
Reactivities:
Rat

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Product Details

The TNP6A7 monoclonal antibody reacts with trinitrophenol (TNP). Because TNP is not expressed by mammals this antibody is ideal for use as an isotype-matched control for rat IgG1 antibodies in most in vivo and in vitro applications. This antibody can be used as an alternative to BP0088.

Specifications

Isotype Rat IgG1, λ
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_2687813
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.

Additional Formats

Groves, H. T., et al. (2020). "Respiratory Viral Infection Alters the Gut Microbiota by Inducing Inappetence" mBio 11(1). PubMed

Respiratory viral infections are extremely common, but their impacts on the composition and function of the gut microbiota are poorly understood. We previously observed a significant change in the gut microbiota after viral lung infection. Here, we show that weight loss during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza virus infection was due to decreased food consumption, and that the fasting of mice altered gut microbiota composition independently of infection. While the acute phase tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) response drove early weight loss and inappetence during RSV infection, this was not sufficient to induce changes in the gut microbiota. However, the depletion of CD8(+) cells increased food intake and prevented weight loss, resulting in a reversal of the gut microbiota changes normally observed during RSV infection. Viral infection also led to changes in the fecal gut metabolome, with a significant shift in lipid metabolism. Sphingolipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) valerate were all increased in abundance in the fecal metabolome following RSV infection. Whether this and the impact of infection-induced anorexia on the gut microbiota are part of a protective anti-inflammatory response during respiratory viral infections remains to be determined. IMPORTANCE The gut microbiota has an important role in health and disease: gut bacteria can generate metabolites that alter the function of immune cells systemically. Understanding the factors that can lead to changes in the gut microbiome may help to inform therapeutic interventions. This is the first study to systematically dissect the pathway of events from viral lung infection to changes in gut microbiota. We show that the cellular immune response to viral lung infection induces inappetence, which in turn alters the gut microbiome and metabolome. Strikingly, there was an increase in lipids that have been associated with the resolution of disease. This opens up new paths of investigation: first, what is the (presumably secreted) factor made by the T cells that can induce inappetence? Second, is inappetence an adaptation that accelerates recovery from infection, and if so, does the microbiome play a role in this?

Claser, C., et al. (2019). "Lung endothelial cell antigen cross-presentation to CD8(+)T cells drives malaria-associated lung injury" Nat Commun 10(1): 4241. PubMed

Malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI) are life-threatening manifestations of severe malaria infections. The pathogenic mechanisms that lead to respiratory complications, such as vascular leakage, remain unclear. Here, we confirm that depleting CD8(+)T cells with anti-CD8β antibodies in C57BL/6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA (PbA) prevent pulmonary vascular leakage. When we transfer activated parasite-specific CD8(+)T cells into PbA-infected TCRβ(-/-) mice (devoid of all T-cell populations), pulmonary vascular leakage recapitulates. Additionally, we demonstrate that PbA-infected erythrocyte accumulation leads to lung endothelial cell cross-presentation of parasite antigen to CD8(+)T cells in an IFNγ-dependent manner. In conclusion, pulmonary vascular damage in ALI is a consequence of IFNγ-activated lung endothelial cells capturing, processing, and cross-presenting malaria parasite antigen to specific CD8(+)T cells induced during infection. The mechanistic understanding of the immunopathogenesis in malaria-associated ARDS and ALI provide the basis for development of adjunct treatments.

Al Sayed, M. F., et al. (2019). "T-cell-Secreted TNFα Induces Emergency Myelopoiesis and Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Differentiation in Cancer" Cancer Res 79(2): 346-359. PubMed

Hematopoiesis in patients with cancer is characterized by reduced production of red blood cells and an increase in myelopoiesis, which contributes to the immunosuppressive environment in cancer. Some tumors produce growth factors that directly stimulate myelopoiesis such as G-CSF or GM-CSF. However, for a majority of tumors that do not directly secrete hematopoietic growth factors, the mechanisms involved in the activation of myelopoiesis are poorly characterized. In this study, we document in different murine tumor models activated hematopoiesis with increased proliferation of long-term and short-term hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitor cells. As a consequence, the frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and its ratio to CD8(+) T cells increased in tumor-bearing mice. Activation of hematopoiesis and myeloid differentiation in tumor-bearing mice was induced by TNFα, which was mainly secreted by activated CD4(+) T cells. Therefore, the activated adaptive immune system in cancer induces emergency myelopoiesis and immunosuppression. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings characterize a regulatory circuit linking activated T cells to suppression of tumor-specific immune responses, providing a conceptual advance in the understanding of emergency-hematopoiesis in cancer and opening new targets for therapeutic approaches.

Kugel, C. H., 3rd, et al. (2018). "Age Correlates with Response to Anti-PD1, Reflecting Age-Related Differences in Intratumoral Effector and Regulatory T-Cell Populations" Clin Cancer Res 24(21): 5347-5356. PubMed

Purpose: We have shown that the aged microenvironment increases melanoma metastasis, and decreases response to targeted therapy, and here we queried response to anti-PD1.Experimental Design: We analyzed the relationship between age, response to anti-PD1, and prior therapy in 538 patients. We used mouse models of melanoma, to analyze the intratumoral immune microenvironment in young versus aged mice and confirmed our findings in human melanoma biopsies.Results: Patients over the age of 60 responded more efficiently to anti-PD-1, and likelihood of response to anti-PD-1 increased with age, even when we controlled for prior MAPKi therapy. Placing genetically identical tumors in aged mice (52 weeks) significantly increased their response to anti-PD1 as compared with the same tumors in young mice (8 weeks). These data suggest that this increased response in aged patients occurs even in the absence of a more complex mutational landscape. Next, we found that young mice had a significantly higher population of regulatory T cells (Tregs), skewing the CD8(+):Treg ratio. FOXP3 staining of human melanoma biopsies revealed similar increases in Tregs in young patients. Depletion of Tregs using anti-CD25 increased the response to anti-PD1 in young mice.Conclusions: While there are obvious limitations to our study, including our inability to conduct a meta-analysis due to a lack of available data, and our inability to control for mutational burden, there is a remarkable consistency in these data from over 500 patients across 8 different institutes worldwide. These results stress the importance of considering age as a factor for immunotherapy response. Clin Cancer Res; 24(21); 5347-56. ©2018 AACR See related commentary by Pawelec, p. 5193.

Kuranda, K., et al. (2018). "Exposure to wild-type AAV drives distinct capsid immunity profiles in humans" J Clin Invest 128(12): 5267-5279. PubMed

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been broadly adopted as a gene delivery tool in clinical trials, owing to their high efficiency of transduction of several host tissues and their low immunogenicity. However, a considerable proportion of the population is naturally exposed to the WT virus from which AAV vectors are derived, which leads to the acquisition of immunological memory that can directly determine the outcome of gene transfer. Here, we show that prior exposure to AAV drives distinct capsid immunity profiles in healthy subjects. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from AAV-seropositive donors, recombinant AAV triggered TNF-α secretion in memory CD8+ T cells, B cell differentiation into antibody-secreting cells, and anti-capsid antibody production. Conversely, PBMCs isolated from AAV-seronegative individuals appeared to carry a population of NK cells reactive to AAV. Further, we demonstrated that the AAV capsid activates IL-1β and IL-6 cytokine secretion in monocyte-related dendritic cells (moDCs). IL-1β and IL-6 blockade inhibited the anti-capsid humoral response in vitro and in vivo. These results provide insights into immune responses to AAV in humans, define a possible role for moDCs and NK cells in capsid immunity, and open new avenues for the modulation of vector immunogenicity.

Bauche, D., et al. (2018). "LAG3(+) Regulatory T Cells Restrain Interleukin-23-Producing CX3CR1(+) Gut-Resident Macrophages during Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell-Driven Colitis" Immunity 49(2): 342-352 e345. PubMed

Interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) maintains gut homeostasis but can also promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The regulation of ILC3-dependent colitis remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) prevented ILC3-mediated colitis in an IL-10-independent manner. Treg cells inhibited IL-23 and IL-1beta production from intestinal-resident CX3CR1(+) macrophages but not CD103(+) dendritic cells. Moreover, Treg cells restrained ILC3 production of IL-22 through suppression of CX3CR1(+) macrophage production of IL-23 and IL-1beta. This suppression was contact dependent and was mediated by latent activation gene-3 (LAG-3)-an immune checkpoint receptor-expressed on Treg cells. Engagement of LAG-3 on MHC class II drove profound immunosuppression of CX3CR1(+) tissue-resident macrophages. Our study reveals that the health of the intestinal mucosa is maintained by an axis driven by Treg cells communication with resident macrophages that withhold inflammatory stimuli required for ILC3 function.

Zhang, Y., et al. (2018). "Macrophage-Associated PGK1 Phosphorylation Promotes Aerobic Glycolysis and Tumorigenesis" Mol Cell 71(2): 201-215.e207. PubMed

Macrophages are a dominant leukocyte population in the tumor microenvironment and actively promote cancer progression. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the role of macrophages remains poorly understood. Here we show that polarized M2 macrophages enhance 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDPK1)-mediated phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) threonine (T) 243 phosphorylation in tumor cells by secreting interleukin-6 (IL-6). This phosphorylation facilitates a PGK1-catalyzed reaction toward glycolysis by altering substrate affinity. Inhibition of PGK1 T243 phosphorylation or PDPK1 in tumor cells or neutralization of macrophage-derived IL-6 abrogates macrophage-promoted glycolysis, proliferation, and tumorigenesis. In addition, PGK1 T243 phosphorylation correlates with PDPK1 activation, IL-6 expression, and macrophage infiltration in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Moreover, PGK1 T243 phosphorylation also correlates with malignance and prognosis of human GBM. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of macrophage-promoted tumor growth by regulating tumor cell metabolism, implicating the therapeutic potential to disrupt the connection between macrophages and tumor cells by inhibiting PGK1 phosphorylation.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Arf1 Ablation in Colorectal Cancer Cells Activates a Super Signal Complex in DC to Enhance Anti-Tumor Immunity.

    In Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) on 1 November 2023 by Ma, H., Fang, W., et al.

    PubMed

    The anti-tumor immune response relies on interactions among tumor cells and immune cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells regulate DCs as well as DCs regulate T cells remain enigmatic. Here, the authors identify a super signaling complex in DCs that mediates the Arf1-ablation-induced anti-tumor immunity. They find that the Arf1-ablated tumor cells release OxLDL, HMGB1, and genomic DNA, which together bound to a coreceptor complex of CD36/TLR2/TLR6 on DC surface. The complex then is internalized into the Rab7-marked endosome in DCs, and further joined by components of the NF-κB, NLRP3 inflammasome and cGAS-STING triple pathways to form a super signal complex for producing different cytokines, which together promote CD8+ T cell tumor infiltration, cross-priming and stemness. Blockage of the HMGB1-gDNA complex or reducing expression in each member of the coreceptors or the cGAS/STING pathway prevents production of the cytokines. Moreover, depletion of the type I IFNs and IL-1β cytokines abrogate tumor regression in mice bearing the Arf1-ablated tumor cells. These findings reveal a new molecular mechanism by which dying tumor cells releasing several factors to activate the triple pathways in DC for producing multiple cytokines to simultaneously promote DC activation, T cell infiltration, cross-priming and stemness. © 2023 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Angiogenic inhibitor pre-administration improves the therapeutic effects of immunotherapy.

    In Cancer Medicine on 1 April 2023 by Sato, M., Maishi, N., et al.

    PubMed

    In lung cancer, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are often inadequate for tumor growth inhibition. Angiogenic inhibitors (AIs) are required to normalize tumor vasculature for improved immune cell infiltration. However, in clinical practice, ICIs and cytotoxic antineoplastic agents are simultaneously administered with an AI when tumor vessels are abnormal. Therefore, we examined the effects of pre-administering an AI for lung cancer immunotherapy in a mouse lung cancer model. Using DC101, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) monoclonal antibody, a murine subcutaneous Lewis lung cancer (LLC) model was used to determine the timing of vascular normalization. Microvessel density (MVD), pericyte coverage, tissue hypoxia, and CD8-positive cell infiltration were analyzed. The effects of an ICI and paclitaxel after DC101 pre-administration were investigated. On Day 3, increased pericyte coverage and alleviated tumor hypoxia represented the highest vascular normalization. CD8+ T-cell infiltration was also highest on Day 3. When combined with an ICI, DC101 pre-administration significantly reduced PD-L1 expression. When combined with an ICI and paclitaxel, only DC101 pre-administration significantly inhibited tumor growth, but simultaneous administration did not. AI pre-administration, and not simultaneous administration, may increase the therapeutic effects of ICIs due to improved immune cell infiltration. © 2023 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Combinatorial immunotherapies overcome MYC-driven immune evasion in triple negative breast cancer.

    In Nature Communications on 27 June 2022 by Lee, J. V., Housley, F., et al.

    PubMed

    Few patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors with complete and durable remissions being quite rare. Oncogenes can regulate tumor immune infiltration, however whether oncogenes dictate diminished response to immunotherapy and whether these effects are reversible remains poorly understood. Here, we report that TNBCs with elevated MYC expression are resistant to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Using mouse models and patient data, we show that MYC signaling is associated with low tumor cell PD-L1, low overall immune cell infiltration, and low tumor cell MHC-I expression. Restoring interferon signaling in the tumor increases MHC-I expression. By combining a TLR9 agonist and an agonistic antibody against OX40 with anti-PD-L1, mice experience tumor regression and are protected from new TNBC tumor outgrowth. Our findings demonstrate that MYC-dependent immune evasion is reversible and druggable, and when strategically targeted, may improve outcomes for patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. © 2022. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    Somatic mouse models of gastric cancer reveal genotype-specific features of metastatic disease

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 15 June 2022 by Leibold, J., Amor, C., et al.

    PubMed

    h4>ABSTRACT/h4> Metastatic gastric carcinoma is a highly lethal cancer that responds poorly to conventional and molecularly targeted therapies. Despite its clinical relevance, the mechanisms underlying the behavior and therapeutic response of this disease are poorly understood owing, in part, to a paucity of tractable models that faithfully recapitulate different subtypes of the human disease. To close this gap, we developed methods to somatically introduce different oncogenic lesions directly into the stomach epithelium and show that genotypic configurations observed in patients produce metastatic gastric cancers that recapitulate the histological, molecular, and clinical features of all non-viral molecular subtypes of the human disease. Applying this platform to both wild-type and immune-deficient mice revealed previously unappreciated links between the genotype, organotropism and immune surveillance of metastatic cells that produced distinct patterns of metastasis that were mirrored in patients. Our results establish and credential a highly portable platform for producing autochthonous cancer models with flexible genotypes and host backgrounds, which can unravel mechanisms of gastric tumorigenesis or test new therapeutic concepts aimed at improving outcomes in gastric cancer patients.

    • FC/FACS
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Caspase-7 activates ASM to repair gasdermin and perforin pores.

    In Nature on 1 June 2022 by Nozaki, K., Maltez, V. I., et al.

    PubMed

    Among the caspases that cause regulated cell death, a unique function for caspase-7 has remained elusive. Caspase-3 performs apoptosis, whereas caspase-7 is typically considered an inefficient back-up. Caspase-1 activates gasdermin D pores to lyse the cell; however, caspase-1 also activates caspase-7 for unknown reasons1. Caspases can also trigger cell-type-specific death responses; for example, caspase-1 causes the extrusion of intestinal epithelial cell (IECs) in response to infection with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium)2,3. Here we show in both organoids and mice that caspase-7-deficient IECs do not complete extrusion. Mechanistically, caspase-7 counteracts gasdermin D pores and preserves cell integrity by cleaving and activating acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), which thereby generates copious amounts of ceramide to enable enhanced membrane repair. This provides time to complete the process of IEC extrusion. In parallel, we also show that caspase-7 and ASM cleavage are required to clear Chromobacterium violaceum and Listeria monocytogenes after perforin-pore-mediated attack by natural killer cells or cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which normally causes apoptosis in infected hepatocytes. Therefore, caspase-7 is not a conventional executioner but instead is a death facilitator that delays pore-driven lysis so that more-specialized processes, such as extrusion or apoptosis, can be completed before cell death. Cells must put their affairs in order before they die. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    Cancer-cell-derived GABA promotes β-catenin-mediated tumour growth and immunosuppression.

    In Nature Cell Biology on 1 February 2022 by Huang, D., Wang, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Many cancers have an unusual dependence on glutamine. However, most previous studies have focused on the contribution of glutamine to metabolic building blocks and the energy supply. Here, we report that cancer cells with aberrant expression of glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) rewire glutamine metabolism for the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-a prominent neurotransmitter-in non-nervous tissues. An analysis of clinical samples reveals that increased GABA levels predict poor prognosis. Mechanistically, we identify a cancer-intrinsic pathway through which GABA activates the GABAB receptor to inhibit GSK-3β activity, leading to enhanced β-catenin signalling. This GABA-mediated β-catenin activation both stimulates tumour cell proliferation and suppresses CD8+ T cell intratumoural infiltration, such that targeting GAD1 or GABABR in mouse models overcomes resistance to anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade therapy. Our findings uncover a signalling role for tumour-derived GABA beyond its classic function as a neurotransmitter that can be targeted pharmacologically to reverse immunosuppression. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Chlamydia evasion of neutrophil host defense results in NLRP3 dependent myeloid-mediated sterile inflammation through the purinergic P2X7 receptor.

    In Nature Communications on 15 September 2021 by Yang, C., Lei, L., et al.

    PubMed

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection causes severe inflammatory disease resulting in blindness and infertility. The pathophysiology of these diseases remains elusive but myeloid cell-associated inflammation has been implicated. Here we show NLRP3 inflammasome activation is essential for driving a macrophage-associated endometritis resulting in infertility by using a female mouse genital tract chlamydial infection model. We find the chlamydial parasitophorous vacuole protein CT135 triggers NLRP3 inflammasome activation via TLR2/MyD88 signaling as a pathogenic strategy to evade neutrophil host defense. Paradoxically, a consequence of CT135 mediated neutrophil killing results in a submucosal macrophage-associated endometritis driven by ATP/P2X7R induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Importantly, macrophage-associated immunopathology occurs independent of macrophage infection. We show chlamydial infection of neutrophils and epithelial cells produce elevated levels of extracellular ATP. We propose this source of ATP serves as a DAMP to activate submucosal macrophage NLRP3 inflammasome that drive damaging immunopathology. These findings offer a paradigm of sterile inflammation in infectious disease pathogenesis. © 2021. This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Combinatorial Immunotherapies Overcome MYC-Driven Immune Evasion

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 8 May 2021 by Lee, J. V., Housley, F., et al.

    PubMed

    For many human cancers, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), a modest number of patients benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors, and few experience cancer remission 1 . Expression of programed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), tumor immune infiltration, or tumor mutation burden have been widely investigated for predicting cancer immunotherapy response 1-5 . Whether specific oncogenes diminish response to immunotherapy 6-10 and whether these effects are reversible remains poorly understood. We predicted that MYC , an oncogene that is frequently overexpressed 11,12 and is associated with worse prognosis 12 , may predict immunotherapy response in patients with TNBC. Here, we report that MYC-elevated TNBCs are resistant to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Using mouse models of TNBC and patient data we report that MYC signaling is associated with low tumor cell PD-L1, low overall immune cell infiltration, and low tumor cell MHC-I expression. Restoring interferon signaling in the tumor reduces MYC expression and increases MHC-I expression. By combining a TLR9 agonist and an agonistic antibody against OX40 with anti-PD-L1, most mice experience complete tumor regression and are protected from new TNBC tumor outgrowth. Our findings demonstrate that MYC-dependent immune evasion is reversible and druggable, and if strategically targeted, may improve outcomes for patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Epithelium-autonomous NAIP/NLRC4 prevents TNF-driven inflammatory destruction of the gut epithelial barrier in Salmonella-infected mice.

    In Mucosal Immunology on 1 May 2021 by Fattinger, S. A., Geiser, P., et al.

    PubMed

    The gut epithelium is a critical protective barrier. Its NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasome senses infection by Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella Typhimurium (S.Tm) and promotes expulsion of infected enterocytes. During the first ~12-24 h, this reduces mucosal S.Tm loads at the price of moderate enteropathy. It remained unknown how this NAIP/NLRC4-dependent tradeoff would develop during subsequent infection stages. In NAIP/NLRC4-deficient mice, S.Tm elicited severe enteropathy within 72 h, characterized by elevated mucosal TNF (>20 pg/mg) production from bone marrow-derived cells, reduced regeneration, excessive enterocyte loss, and a collapse of the epithelial barrier. TNF-depleting antibodies prevented this destructive pathology. In hosts proficient for epithelial NAIP/NLRC4, a heterogeneous enterocyte death response with both apoptotic and pyroptotic features kept S.Tm loads persistently in check, thereby preventing this dire outcome altogether. Our results demonstrate that immediate and selective removal of infected enterocytes, by locally acting epithelium-autonomous NAIP/NLRC4, is required to avoid a TNF-driven inflammatory hyper-reaction that otherwise destroys the epithelial barrier.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Differential combination immunotherapy requirements for inflamed (warm) tumors versus T cell excluded (cool) tumors: engage, expand, enable, and evolve.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 1 February 2021 by Fabian, K. P., Padget, M. R., et al.

    PubMed

    Different types of tumors have varying susceptibility to immunotherapy and hence require different treatment strategies; these cover a spectrum ranging from 'hot' tumors or those with high mutational burden and immune infiltrates that are more amenable to targeting to 'cold' tumors that are more difficult to treat due to the fewer targetable mutations and checkpoint markers. We hypothesized that an effective anti-tumor response requires multiple agents that would (1) engage the immune response and generate tumor-specific effector cells; (2) expand the number and breadth of the immune effector cells; (3) enable the anti-tumor activity of these immune cells in the tumor microenvironment; and (4) evolve the tumor response to widen immune effector repertoire. A hexatherapy combination was designed and administered to MC38-CEA (warm) and 4T1 (cool) murine tumor models. The hexatherapy regimen was composed of adenovirus-based vaccine and IL-15 (interleukin-15) superagonist (N-803) to engage the immune response; anti-OX40 and anti-4-1BB to expand effector cells; anti-PD-L1 (anti-programmed death-ligand 1) to enable anti-tumor activity; and docetaxel to promote antigen spread. Primary and metastatic tumor growth inhibition were measured. The generation of anti-tumor immune effector cells was analyzed using flow cytometry, ELISpot (enzyme-linked immunospot), and RNA analysis. The MC38-CEA and 4T1 tumor models have differential sensitivities to the combination treatments. In the 'warm' MC38-CEA, combinations with two to five agents resulted in moderate therapeutic benefit while the hexatherapy regimen outperformed all these combinations. On the other hand, the hexatherapy regimen was required in order to decrease the primary and metastatic tumor burden in the 'cool' 4T1 model. In both models, the hexatherapy regimen promoted CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation and activity. Furthermore, the hexatherapy regimen induced vaccine-specific T cells and stimulated antigen cascade. The hexatherapy regimen also limited the immunosuppressive T cell and myeloid derived suppressor cell populations, and also decreased the expression of exhaustion markers in T cells in the 4T1 model. The hexatherapy regimen is a strategic combination of immuno-oncology agents that can engage, expand, enable, and evolve the immune response and can provide therapeutic benefits in both MC38-CEA (warm) and 4T1 (cool) tumor models. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.

    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Obesity Shapes Metabolism in the Tumor Microenvironment to Suppress Anti-Tumor Immunity.

    In Cell on 23 December 2020 by Ringel, A. E., Drijvers, J. M., et al.

    PubMed

    Obesity is a major cancer risk factor, but how differences in systemic metabolism change the tumor microenvironment (TME) and impact anti-tumor immunity is not understood. Here, we demonstrate that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity impairs CD8+ T cell function in the murine TME, accelerating tumor growth. We generate a single-cell resolution atlas of cellular metabolism in the TME, detailing how it changes with diet-induced obesity. We find that tumor and CD8+ T cells display distinct metabolic adaptations to obesity. Tumor cells increase fat uptake with HFD, whereas tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells do not. These differential adaptations lead to altered fatty acid partitioning in HFD tumors, impairing CD8+ T cell infiltration and function. Blocking metabolic reprogramming by tumor cells in obese mice improves anti-tumor immunity. Analysis of human cancers reveals similar transcriptional changes in CD8+ T cell markers, suggesting interventions that exploit metabolism to improve cancer immunotherapy.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.

    • Cancer Research
    Combination of radiotherapy and suppression of Tregs enhances abscopal antitumor effect and inhibits metastasis in rectal cancer.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 1 October 2020 by Ji, D., Song, C., et al.

    PubMed

    Distant metastasis is the major cause of mortality in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Local radiotherapy can trigger an abscopal response to metastatic tumor cells. However, the abscopal effect is a rare event. CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cell is a highly immune-suppressive subset which impedes immune surveillance against cancer, prevents the development of effective antitumor immunity and promotes tumor progression. We assume that the exploitation of the proimmunogenic effects of radiotherapy with anti-CD25 or anti-Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Protein 4 (anti-CTLA4) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) may enhance the local and abscopal effects in rectal cancer and improve the therapeutic outcome. mRNA expression profiling of 81 pretreatment biopsy samples from LARC patients who received neoadjuvant radiotherapy (nRT) was performed to analyze the correlation between gene expression and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of patients with rectal cancer with distant metastasis or synchronous extracolonic cancers was performed to evaluate the abscopal effect of radiotherapy on rectal cancer. Two different dual-tumor mouse models were established to investigate the efficacy of single dose and dose-fractionated radiotherapy combined with anti-CD25 or anti-CTLA4 and anti-Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (anti-PD1) mAbs on the local tumor growth and liver metastasis. The univariate Cox regression analysis, one-way analysis of variance, Dunnett's test, a mixed-effect linear model and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used to calculate p values. The proportion of Tregs in pre-nRT biopsies was negatively correlated with prognosis (p=0.007). The retrospective analysis showed that regressing liver metastases were infiltrated by CD8+ T cells. In contrast, stable/progressing metastases and synchronous extracolonic cancers were characterized by PD1+ T cells and Tregs infiltration. Animal experiment results demonstrated that the combination of radiotherapy and anti-CD25/CTLA4 mAb resulted in a significant increase in CD8+ T cells and CD8+/CD4+ ratio in primary and secondary tumors compared with the irradiation alone group (all p0.05 or p0.01). The combined treatment was able to decrease Tregs, PD1+CD8+ and PD1+CD4+ T cells (p0.05), suppress locally irradiated and distal unirradiated tumor growth, and improve overall survival rate. Radiotherapy in conjunction with anti-CTLA4 reduced liver metastasis (p0.05). These data indicated that radiotherapy plus depletion of Tregs was able to improve the antitumor response and generate an abscopal effect. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Mucosal-associated invariant T cells restrict allergic airway inflammation.

    In The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology on 1 May 2020 by Ye, L., Pan, J., et al.

    PubMed

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Control
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Respiratory Viral Infection Alters the Gut Microbiota by Inducing Inappetence.

    In mBio on 18 February 2020 by Groves, H. T., Higham, S. L., et al.

    PubMed

    Respiratory viral infections are extremely common, but their impacts on the composition and function of the gut microbiota are poorly understood. We previously observed a significant change in the gut microbiota after viral lung infection. Here, we show that weight loss during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza virus infection was due to decreased food consumption, and that the fasting of mice altered gut microbiota composition independently of infection. While the acute phase tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) response drove early weight loss and inappetence during RSV infection, this was not sufficient to induce changes in the gut microbiota. However, the depletion of CD8+ cells increased food intake and prevented weight loss, resulting in a reversal of the gut microbiota changes normally observed during RSV infection. Viral infection also led to changes in the fecal gut metabolome, with a significant shift in lipid metabolism. Sphingolipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) valerate were all increased in abundance in the fecal metabolome following RSV infection. Whether this and the impact of infection-induced anorexia on the gut microbiota are part of a protective anti-inflammatory response during respiratory viral infections remains to be determined.IMPORTANCE The gut microbiota has an important role in health and disease: gut bacteria can generate metabolites that alter the function of immune cells systemically. Understanding the factors that can lead to changes in the gut microbiome may help to inform therapeutic interventions. This is the first study to systematically dissect the pathway of events from viral lung infection to changes in gut microbiota. We show that the cellular immune response to viral lung infection induces inappetence, which in turn alters the gut microbiome and metabolome. Strikingly, there was an increase in lipids that have been associated with the resolution of disease. This opens up new paths of investigation: first, what is the (presumably secreted) factor made by the T cells that can induce inappetence? Second, is inappetence an adaptation that accelerates recovery from infection, and if so, does the microbiome play a role in this? Copyright © 2020 Groves et al.

    A key role for IL-13 signaling via the type 2 IL-4 receptor in experimental atopic dermatitis.

    In Science Immunology on 14 February 2020 by Bitton, A., Avlas, S., et al.

    PubMed

    IL-13 and IL-4 are potent mediators of type 2-associated inflammation such as those found in atopic dermatitis (AD). IL-4 shares overlapping biological functions with IL-13, a finding that is mainly explained by their ability to signal via the type 2 IL-4 receptor (R), which is composed of IL-4Rα in association with IL-13Rα1. Nonetheless, the role of the type 2 IL-4R in AD remains to be clearly defined. Induction of two distinct models of experimental AD in Il13ra1 -/- mice, which lack the type 2 IL-4R, revealed that dermatitis, including ear and epidermal thickening, was dependent on type 2 IL-4R signaling. Expression of TNF-α was dependent on the type 2 IL-4R, whereas induction of IL-4, IgE, CCL24, and skin eosinophilia was dependent on the type 1 IL-4R. Neutralization of IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α as well as studies in bone marrow-chimeric mice revealed that dermatitis, TNF-α, CXCL1, and CCL11 expression were exclusively mediated by IL-13 signaling via the type 2 IL-4R expressed by nonhematopoietic cells. Conversely, induction of IL-4, CCL24, and eosinophilia was dependent on IL-4 signaling via the type 1 IL-4R expressed by hematopoietic cells. Last, we pharmacologically targeted IL-13Rα1 and established a proof of concept for therapeutic targeting of this pathway in AD. Our data provide mechanistic insight into the differential roles of IL-4, IL-13, and their receptor components in allergic skin and highlight type 2 IL-4R as a potential therapeutic target in AD and other allergic diseases such as asthma and eosinophilic esophagitis. Copyright © 2020 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Control
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Lung endothelial cell antigen cross-presentation to CD8+T cells drives malaria-associated lung injury.

    In Nature Communications on 18 September 2019 by Claser, C., Nguee, S. Y. T., et al.

    PubMed

    Malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI) are life-threatening manifestations of severe malaria infections. The pathogenic mechanisms that lead to respiratory complications, such as vascular leakage, remain unclear. Here, we confirm that depleting CD8+T cells with anti-CD8β antibodies in C57BL/6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA (PbA) prevent pulmonary vascular leakage. When we transfer activated parasite-specific CD8+T cells into PbA-infected TCRβ-/- mice (devoid of all T-cell populations), pulmonary vascular leakage recapitulates. Additionally, we demonstrate that PbA-infected erythrocyte accumulation leads to lung endothelial cell cross-presentation of parasite antigen to CD8+T cells in an IFNγ-dependent manner. In conclusion, pulmonary vascular damage in ALI is a consequence of IFNγ-activated lung endothelial cells capturing, processing, and cross-presenting malaria parasite antigen to specific CD8+T cells induced during infection. The mechanistic understanding of the immunopathogenesis in malaria-associated ARDS and ALI provide the basis for development of adjunct treatments.

    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Endocrinology and Physiology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Oncolytic Viruses Engineered to Enforce Leptin Expression Reprogram Tumor-Infiltrating T Cell Metabolism and Promote Tumor Clearance.

    In Immunity on 17 September 2019 by Rivadeneira, D. B., DePeaux, K., et al.

    PubMed

    Immunotherapy can reinvigorate dormant responses to cancer, but response rates remain low. Oncolytic viruses, which replicate in cancer cells, induce tumor lysis and immune priming, but their immune consequences are unclear. We profiled the infiltrate of aggressive melanomas induced by oncolytic Vaccinia virus using RNA sequencing and found substantial remodeling of the tumor microenvironment, dominated by effector T cell influx. However, responses to oncolytic viruses were incomplete due to metabolic insufficiencies induced by the tumor microenvironment. We identified the adipokine leptin as a potent metabolic reprogramming agent that supported antitumor responses. Leptin metabolically reprogrammed T cells in vitro, and melanoma cells expressing leptin were immunologically controlled in mice. Engineering oncolytic viruses to express leptin in tumor cells induced complete responses in tumor-bearing mice and supported memory development in the tumor infiltrate. Thus, leptin can provide metabolic support to tumor immunity, and oncolytic viruses represent a platform to deliver metabolic therapy. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cell activation
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Single-cell analysis reveals T cell infiltration in old neurogenic niches.

    In Nature on 1 July 2019 by Dulken, B. W., Buckley, M. T., et al.

    PubMed

    The mammalian brain contains neurogenic niches that comprise neural stem cells and other cell types. Neurogenic niches become less functional with age, but how they change during ageing remains unclear. Here we perform single-cell RNA sequencing of young and old neurogenic niches in mice. The analysis of 14,685 single-cell transcriptomes reveals a decrease in activated neural stem cells, changes in endothelial cells and microglia, and an infiltration of T cells in old neurogenic niches. T cells in old brains are clonally expanded and are generally distinct from those in old blood, which suggests that they may experience specific antigens. T cells in old brains also express interferon-γ, and the subset of neural stem cells that has a high interferon response shows decreased proliferation in vivo. We find that T cells can inhibit the proliferation of neural stem cells in co-cultures and in vivo, in part by secreting interferon-γ. Our study reveals an interaction between T cells and neural stem cells in old brains, opening potential avenues through which to counteract age-related decline in brain function.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Block
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Cooperation between Constitutive and Inducible Chemokines Enables T Cell Engraftment and Immune Attack in Solid Tumors.

    In Cancer Cell on 10 June 2019 by Dangaj, D., Bruand, M., et al.

    PubMed

    We investigated the role of chemokines in regulating T cell accumulation in solid tumors. CCL5 and CXCL9 overexpression was associated with CD8+ T cell infiltration in solid tumors. T cell infiltration required tumor cell-derived CCL5 and was amplified by IFN-γ-inducible, myeloid cell-secreted CXCL9. CCL5 and CXCL9 coexpression revealed immunoreactive tumors with prolonged survival and response to checkpoint blockade. Loss of CCL5 expression in human tumors was associated with epigenetic silencing through DNA methylation. Reduction of CCL5 expression caused tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) desertification, whereas forced CCL5 expression prevented Cxcl9 expression and TILs loss, and attenuated tumor growth in mice through IFN-γ. The cooperation between tumor-derived CCL5 and IFN-γ-inducible CXCR3 ligands secreted by myeloid cells is key for orchestrating T cell infiltration in immunoreactive and immunoresponsive tumors.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Respiratory viral infection alters the gut microbiota by inducing inappetence

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 10 June 2019 by Groves, H. T., Higham, S. L., et al.

    PubMed

    The gut microbiota has an important role in health and disease. Respiratory viral infections are extremely common but their impact on the composition and function of the gut microbiota is poorly understood. We previously observed a significant change in the gut microbiota after viral lung infection. Here we show that weight loss during Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) or influenza virus infection was due to decreased food consumption, and that fasting mice independently of infection altered gut microbiota composition. While the acute phase TNF-α response drove early weight loss and inappetence during RSV infection, this was not sufficient to induce changes in the gut microbiota. However, depleting CD8 + cells increased food intake and prevented weight loss resulting in a reversal of the gut microbiota changes normally observed during RSV infection. Viral infection also led to changes in the faecal gut metabolome during RSV infection, with a significant shift in lipid metabolism. Sphingolipids, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) valerate all increased in abundance in the faecal metabolome following RSV infection. Whether this, and the impact of infection-induced anorexia on the gut microbiota, are part of a protective, anti-inflammatory response during respiratory viral infections remains to be determined.

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