InVivoPlus rat IgG2a isotype control, anti-trinitrophenol

Catalog #BP0089
Product Citations:
99
Clone:
2A3

$781.00 - $5,568.00

Choose an Option...
  • 100 mg - $5,568.00
  • 50 mg - $3,936.00
  • 25 mg - $2,615.00
  • 5 mg - $781.00
  • Custom Amount (Quotes Only)
In stock
Only %1 left

Product Details

The 2A3 monoclonal antibody reacts with trinitrophenol. Because trinitrophenol is not expressed by mammals this antibody is ideal for use as an isotype-matched control for rat IgG2a antibodies in most in vivo and in vitro applications.

Specifications

Isotype Rat IgG2a, κ
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 6.5 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Formulation PBS, pH 6.5
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin* <1EU/mg (<0.001EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Aggregation* <5%
Determined by DLS
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 μM filtered
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107769
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Murine Pathogen Tests* Ectromelia/Mousepox Virus: Negative
Hantavirus: Negative
K Virus: Negative
Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus: Negative
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus: Negative
Mouse Adenovirus: Negative
Mouse Cytomegalovirus: Negative
Mouse Hepatitis Virus: Negative
Mouse Minute Virus: Negative
Mouse Norovirus: Negative
Mouse Parvovirus: Negative
Mouse Rotavirus: Negative
Mycoplasma Pulmonis: Negative
Pneumonia Virus of Mice: Negative
Polyoma Virus: Negative
Reovirus Screen: Negative
Sendai Virus: Negative
Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis: Negative
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
* Additional quality control measures for our InVivoPlus™ products include advanced binding validation, murine pathogen screening, protein aggregation screening, and ultra-low endotoxin levels. The superior quality of our InVivoPlus™ products will meet and exceed the strict demands and rigorous standards required for in vivo research. Learn more about the InVivoPlus™ difference here.

Additional Formats

Bauche, D., et al. (2018). "LAG3(+) Regulatory T Cells Restrain Interleukin-23-Producing CX3CR1(+) Gut-Resident Macrophages during Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell-Driven Colitis" Immunity 49(2): 342-352 e345. PubMed

Interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) maintains gut homeostasis but can also promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The regulation of ILC3-dependent colitis remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) prevented ILC3-mediated colitis in an IL-10-independent manner. Treg cells inhibited IL-23 and IL-1beta production from intestinal-resident CX3CR1(+) macrophages but not CD103(+) dendritic cells. Moreover, Treg cells restrained ILC3 production of IL-22 through suppression of CX3CR1(+) macrophage production of IL-23 and IL-1beta. This suppression was contact dependent and was mediated by latent activation gene-3 (LAG-3)-an immune checkpoint receptor-expressed on Treg cells. Engagement of LAG-3 on MHC class II drove profound immunosuppression of CX3CR1(+) tissue-resident macrophages. Our study reveals that the health of the intestinal mucosa is maintained by an axis driven by Treg cells communication with resident macrophages that withhold inflammatory stimuli required for ILC3 function.

Ngiow, S. F., et al. (2015). "A Threshold Level of Intratumor CD8+ T-cell PD1 Expression Dictates Therapeutic Response to Anti-PD1" Cancer Res 75(18): 3800-3811. PubMed

Despite successes, thus far, a significant proportion of the patients treated with anti-PD1 antibodies have failed to respond. We use mouse tumor models of anti-PD1 sensitivity and resistance and flow cytometry to assess tumor-infiltrating immune cells immediately after therapy. We demonstrate that the expression levels of T-cell PD1 (PD1(lo)), myeloid, and T-cell PDL1 (PDL1(hi)) in the tumor microenvironment inversely correlate and dictate the efficacy of anti-PD1 mAb and function of intratumor CD8(+) T cells. In sensitive tumors, we reveal a threshold for PD1 downregulation on tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells below which the release of adaptive immune resistance is achieved. In contrast, PD1(hi) T cells in resistant tumors fail to be rescued by anti-PD1 therapy and remain dysfunctional unless intratumor PDL1(lo) immune cells are targeted. Intratumor Tregs are partly responsible for the development of anti-PD1-resistant tumors and PD1(hi) CD8(+) T cells. Our analyses provide a framework to interrogate intratumor CD8(+) T-cell PD1 and immune PDL1 levels and response in human cancer. Cancer Res; 75(18); 3800-11. (c)2015 AACR.

Dai, M., et al. (2015). "Curing mice with large tumors by locally delivering combinations of immunomodulatory antibodies" Clin Cancer Res 21(5): 1127-1138. PubMed

PURPOSE: Immunomodulatory mAbs can treat cancer, but cures are rare except for small tumors. Our objective was to explore whether the therapeutic window increases by combining mAbs with different modes of action and injecting them into tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Combinations of mAbs to CD137/PD-1/CTLA-4 or CD137/PD-1/CTLA-4/CD19 were administrated intratumorally to mice with syngeneic tumors (B16 and SW1 melanoma, TC1 lung carcinoma), including tumors with a mean surface of approximately 80 mm(2). Survival and tumor growth were assessed. Immunologic responses were evaluated using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. RESULTS: More than 50% of tumor-bearing mice had complete regression and long-term survival after tumor injection with mAbs recognizing CD137/PD-1/CTLA-4/CD19 with similar responses in three models. Intratumoral injection was more efficacious than intraperitoneal injection in causing rejection also of untreated tumors in the same mice. The three-mAb combination could also induce regression, but was less efficacious. There were few side effects, and therapy-resistant tumors were not observed. Transplanted tumor cells rapidly caused a Th2 response with increased CD19 cells. Successful therapy shifted this response to the Th1 phenotype with decreased CD19 cells and increased numbers of long-term memory CD8 effector cells and T cells making IFNgamma and TNFalpha. CONCLUSIONS: Intratumoral injection of mAbs recognizing CD137/PD-1/CTLA-4/CD19 can eradicate established tumors and reverse a Th2 response with tumor-associated CD19 cells to Th1 immunity, whereas a combination lacking anti-CD19 is less effective. There are several human cancers for which a similar approach may provide clinical benefit.

Kurtulus, S., et al. (2015). "TIGIT predominantly regulates the immune response via regulatory T cells" J Clin Invest. doi : 10.1172/JCI81187. PubMed

Coinhibitory receptors are critical for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Upregulation of these receptors on effector T cells terminates T cell responses, while their expression on Tregs promotes their suppressor function. Understanding the function of coinhibitory receptors in effector T cells and Tregs is crucial, as therapies that target coinhibitory receptors are currently at the forefront of treatment strategies for cancer and other chronic diseases. T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is a recently identified coinhibitory receptor that is found on the surface of a variety of lymphoid cells, and its role in immune regulation is just beginning to be elucidated. We examined TIGIT-mediated immune regulation in different murine cancer models and determined that TIGIT marks the most dysfunctional subset of CD8+ T cells in tumor tissue as well as tumor-tissue Tregs with a highly active and suppressive phenotype. We demonstrated that TIGIT signaling in Tregs directs their phenotype and that TIGIT primarily suppresses antitumor immunity via Tregs and not CD8+ T cells. Moreover, TIGIT+ Tregs upregulated expression of the coinhibitory receptor TIM-3 in tumor tissue, and TIM-3 and TIGIT synergized to suppress antitumor immune responses. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into how TIGIT regulates immune responses in chronic disease settings.

Ellis, G. T., et al. (2015). "TRAIL+ monocytes and monocyte-related cells cause lung damage and thereby increase susceptibility to influenza-Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection" EMBO Rep 16(9): 1203-1218. PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection is a major cause of influenza-associated mortality; however, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis or protection remain unclear. Using a clinically relevant mouse model, we identify immune-mediated damage early during coinfection as a new mechanism causing susceptibility. Coinfected CCR2(-/-) mice lacking monocytes and monocyte-derived cells control bacterial invasion better, show reduced epithelial damage and are overall more resistant than wild-type controls. In influenza-infected wild-type lungs, monocytes and monocyte-derived cells are the major cell populations expressing the apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL. Accordingly, anti-TRAIL treatment reduces bacterial load and protects against coinfection if administered during viral infection, but not following bacterial exposure. Post-influenza bacterial outgrowth induces a strong proinflammatory cytokine response and massive inflammatory cell infiltrate. Depletion of neutrophils or blockade of TNF-alpha facilitate bacterial outgrowth, leading to increased mortality, demonstrating that these factors aid bacterial control. We conclude that inflammatory monocytes recruited early, during the viral phase of coinfection, induce TRAIL-mediated lung damage, which facilitates bacterial invasion, while TNF-alpha and neutrophil responses help control subsequent bacterial outgrowth. We thus identify novel determinants of protection versus pathology in influenza-Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection.

Walsh, K. B., et al. (2014). "Animal model of respiratory syncytial virus: CD8+ T cells cause a cytokine storm that is chemically tractable by sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 receptor agonist therapy" J Virol 88(11): 6281-6293. PubMed

The cytokine storm is an intensified, dysregulated, tissue-injurious inflammatory response driven by cytokine and immune cell components. The cytokine storm during influenza virus infection, whereby the amplified innate immune response is primarily responsible for pulmonary damage, has been well characterized. Now we describe a novel event where virus-specific T cells induce a cytokine storm. The paramyxovirus pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) is a model of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Unexpectedly, when C57BL/6 mice were infected with PVM, the innate inflammatory response was undetectable until day 5 postinfection, at which time CD8(+) T cells infiltrated into the lung, initiating a cytokine storm by their production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Administration of an immunomodulatory sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P1R) agonist significantly inhibited PVM-elicited cytokine storm by blunting the PVM-specific CD8(+) T cell response, resulting in diminished pulmonary disease and enhanced survival. IMPORTANCE: A dysregulated overly exuberant immune response, termed a “cytokine storm,” accompanies virus-induced acute respiratory diseases (VARV), is primarily responsible for the accompanying high morbidity and mortality, and can be controlled therapeutically in influenza virus infection of mice and ferrets by administration of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 receptor (S1P1R) agonists. Here, two novel findings are recorded. First, in contrast to influenza infection, where the cytokine storm is initiated early by the innate immune system, for pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a model of RSV, the cytokine storm is initiated late in infection by the adaptive immune response: specifically, by virus-specific CD8 T cells via their release of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Blockading these cytokines with neutralizing antibodies blunts the cytokine storm and protects the host. Second, PVM infection is controlled by administration of an S1P1R agonist.

Mittal, D., et al. (2014). "Antimetastatic effects of blocking PD-1 and the adenosine A2A receptor" Cancer Res 74(14): 3652-3658. PubMed

Adenosine targeting is an attractive new approach to cancer treatment, but no clinical study has yet examined adenosine inhibition in oncology despite the safe clinical profile of adenosine A2A receptor inhibitors (A2ARi) in Parkinson disease. Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and therefore we have studied experimental and spontaneous mouse models of melanoma and breast cancer metastasis to demonstrate the efficacy and mechanism of a combination of A2ARi in combination with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). This combination significantly reduces metastatic burden and prolongs the life of mice compared with either monotherapy alone. Importantly, the combination was only effective when the tumor expressed high levels of CD73, suggesting a tumor biomarker that at a minimum could be used to stratify patients that might receive this combination. The mechanism of the combination therapy was critically dependent on NK cells and IFNgamma, and to a lesser extent, CD8(+) T cells and the effector molecule, perforin. Overall, these results provide a strong rationale to use A2ARi with anti-PD-1 mAb for the treatment of minimal residual and metastatic disease.

Xiao, N., et al. (2014). "The E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch is required for the differentiation of follicular helper T cells" Nat Immunol 15(7): 657-666. PubMed

Follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells) are responsible for effective B cell-mediated immunity, and Bcl-6 is a central factor for the differentiation of T(FH) cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the induction of T(FH) cells remain unclear. Here we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch was essential for the differentiation of T(FH) cells, germinal center responses and immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to acute viral infection. Itch acted intrinsically in CD4(+) T cells at early stages of T(FH) cell development. Itch seemed to act upstream of Bcl-6 expression, as Bcl-6 expression was substantially impaired in Itch(-/-) cells, and the differentiation of Itch(-/-) T cells into T(FH) cells was restored by enforced expression of Bcl-6. Itch associated with the transcription factor Foxo1 and promoted its ubiquitination and degradation. The defective T(FH) differentiation of Itch(-/-) T cells was rectified by deletion of Foxo1. Thus, our results indicate that Itch acts as an essential positive regulator in the differentiation of T(FH) cells.

Simons, D. M., et al. (2013). "Autoreactive Th1 cells activate monocytes to support regional Th17 responses in inflammatory arthritis" J Immunol 190(7): 3134-3141. PubMed

We have examined mechanisms underlying the formation of pathologic Th17 cells using a transgenic mouse model in which autoreactive CD4(+) T cells recognize influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) as a ubiquitously expressed self-Ag and induce inflammatory arthritis. The lymph nodes of arthritic mice contain elevated numbers of inflammatory monocytes (iMO) with an enhanced capacity to promote CD4(+) Th17 cell differentiation, and a regional inflammatory response develops in the paw-draining lymph nodes by an IL-17-dependent mechanism. The activation of these Th17-trophic iMO precedes arthritis development and occurs in the context of an autoreactive CD4(+) Th1 cell response. Adoptive transfer of HA-specific CD4(+) T cells into nonarthritic mice expressing HA as a self-Ag similarly led to the formation of Th1 cells and of iMO that could support Th17 cell formation, and, notably, the accumulation of these iMO in the lymph nodes was blocked by IFN-gamma neutralization. These studies show that autoreactive CD4(+) Th1 cells directed to a systemically distributed self-Ag can promote the development of a regional Th17 cell inflammatory response by driving the recruitment of Th17-trophic iMO to the lymph nodes.

Bamboat, Z. M., et al. (2010). "Conventional DCs reduce liver ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice via IL-10 secretion" J Clin Invest 120(2): 559-569. PubMed

TLRs are recognized as promoters of tissue damage, even in the absence of pathogens. TLR binding to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released by injured host cells unleashes an inflammatory cascade that amplifies tissue destruction. However, whether TLRs possess the reciprocal ability to curtail the extent of sterile inflammation is uncertain. Here, we investigated this possibility in mice by studying the role of conventional DCs (cDCs) in liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, a model of sterile inflammation. Targeted depletion of mouse cDCs increased liver injury after I/R, as assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase and histologic analysis. In vitro, we identified hepatocyte DNA as an endogenous ligand to TLR9 that promoted cDCs to secrete IL-10. In vivo, cDC production of IL-10 required TLR9 and reduced liver injury. In addition, we found that inflammatory monocytes recruited to the liver via chemokine receptor 2 were downstream targets of cDC IL-10. IL-10 from cDCs reduced production of TNF, IL-6, and ROS by inflammatory monocytes. Our results implicate inflammatory monocytes as mediators of liver I/R injury and reveal that cDCs respond to DAMPS during sterile inflammation, providing the host with protection from progressive tissue damage.

Bamboat, Z. M., et al. (2010). "Toll-like receptor 9 inhibition confers protection from liver ischemia-reperfusion injury" Hepatology 51(2): 621-632. PubMed

Endogenous ligands such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and nucleic acids are released by dying cells and bind Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Because TLR9 sits at the interface of microbial and sterile inflammation by detecting both bacterial and endogenous DNA, we investigated its role in a model of segmental liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mice were subjected to 1 hour of ischemia and 12 hours of reperfusion before assessment of liver injury, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Wild-type (WT) mice treated with an inhibitory cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (iCpG) sequence and TLR9(-/-) mice had markedly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and inflammatory cytokines after liver I/R. Liver damage was mediated by bone marrow-derived cells because WT mice transplanted with TLR9(-/-) bone marrow were protected from hepatic I/R injury. Injury in WT mice partly depended on TLR9 signaling in neutrophils, which enhanced production of ROS, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In vitro, DNA released from necrotic hepatocytes increased liver nonparenchymal cell (NPC) and neutrophil cytokine secretion through a TLR9-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of both TLR9 and HMGB1 caused maximal inflammatory cytokine suppression in neutrophil cultures and conferred even greater protection from I/R injury in vivo. CONCLUSION: TLR9 serves as an endogenous sensor of tissue necrosis that exacerbates the innate immune response during liver I/R. Combined blockade of TLR9 and HMGB1 represents a clinically relevant, novel approach to limiting I/R injury.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cardiovascular biology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Radiofrequency radiation reshapes tumor immune microenvironment into antitumor phenotype in pulmonary metastatic melanoma by inducing active transformation of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T and NK cells.

    In Acta Pharmacologica Sinica on 27 March 2024 by Jiao, J. Z., Zhang, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Immunosuppression by the tumor microenvironment is a pivotal factor contributing to tumor progression and immunotherapy resistance. Priming the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) has emerged as a promising strategy for improving the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. In this study we investigated the effects of noninvasive radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure on tumor progression and TIME phenotype, as well as the antitumor potential of PD-1 blockage in a model of pulmonary metastatic melanoma (PMM). Mouse model of PMM was established by tail vein injection of B16F10 cells. From day 3 after injection, the mice were exposed to RFR at an average specific absorption rate of 9.7 W/kg for 1 h per day for 14 days. After RFR exposure, lung tissues were harvested and RNAs were extracted for transcriptome sequencing; PMM-infiltrating immune cells were isolated for single-cell RNA-seq analysis. We showed that RFR exposure significantly impeded PMM progression accompanied by remodeled TIME of PMM via altering the proportion and transcription profile of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. RFR exposure increased the activation and cytotoxicity signatures of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells, particularly in the early activation subset with upregulated genes associated with T cell cytotoxicity. The PD-1 checkpoint pathway was upregulated by RFR exposure in CD8+ T cells. RFR exposure also augmented NK cell subsets with increased cytotoxic characteristics in PMM. RFR exposure enhanced the effector function of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells and NK cells, evidenced by increased expression of cytotoxic molecules. RFR-induced inhibition of PMM growth was mediated by RFR-activated CD8+ T cells and NK cells. We conclude that noninvasive RFR exposure induces antitumor remodeling of the TIME, leading to inhibition of tumor progression, which provides a promising novel strategy for TIME priming and potential combination with cancer immunotherapy. © 2024. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Roseburia intestinalis generated butyrate boosts anti-PD-1 efficacy in colorectal cancer by activating cytotoxic CD8+ T cells.

    In Gut on 1 November 2023 by Kang, X., Liu, C., et al.

    PubMed

    Roseburia intestinalis is a probiotic species that can suppress intestinal inflammation by producing metabolites. We aimed to study the role of R. intestinalis in colorectal tumourigenesis and immunotherapy. R. intestinalis abundance was evaluated in stools of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) (n=444) and healthy controls (n=575). The effects of R. intestinalis were studied in ApcMin/+ or azoxymethane (AOM)-induced CRC mouse models, and in syngeneic mouse xenograft models of CT26 (microsatellite instability (MSI)-low) or MC38 (MSI-high). The change of immune landscape was evaluated by multicolour flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry staining. Metabolites were profiled by metabolomic profiling. R. intestinalis was significantly depleted in stools of patients with CRC compared with healthy controls. R. intestinalis administration significantly inhibited tumour formation in ApcMin/+ mice, which was confirmed in mice with AOM-induced CRC. R. intestinalis restored gut barrier function as indicated by improved intestinal permeability and enhanced expression of tight junction proteins. Butyrate was identified as the functional metabolite generated by R. intestinalis. R. intestinalis or butyrate suppressed tumour growth by inducing cytotoxic granzyme B+, interferon (IFN)-γ+ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α+ CD8+ T cells in orthotopic mouse models of MC38 or CT26. R. intestinalis or butyrate also significantly improved antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) efficacy in mice bearing MSI-low CT26 tumours. Mechanistically, butyrate directly bound to toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) receptor on CD8+ T cells to induce its activity through activating nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling. R. intestinalis protects against colorectal tumourigenesis by producing butyrate, which could also improve anti-PD-1 efficacy by inducing functional CD8+ T cells. R. intestinalis is a potential adjuvant to augment anti-PD-1 efficacy against CRC. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    Ablation of ERO1A induces lethal endoplasmic reticulum stress responses and immunogenic cell death to activate anti-tumor immunity.

    In Cell Reports Medicine on 17 October 2023 by Liu, L., Li, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Immunophenotyping of the tumor microenvironment (TME) is essential for enhancing immunotherapy efficacy. However, strategies for characterizing the TME exhibit significant heterogeneity. Here, we show that endoplasmic reticular oxidoreductase-1α (ERO1A) mediates an immune-suppressive TME and attenuates the response to PD-1 blockade. Ablation of ERO1A in tumor cells substantially incites anti-tumor T cell immunity and promotes the efficacy of aPD-1 in therapeutic models. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analyses confirm that ERO1A correlates with immunosuppression and dysfunction of CD8+ T cells along anti-PD-1 treatment. In human lung cancer, high ERO1A expression is associated with a higher risk of recurrence following neoadjuvant immunotherapy. Mechanistically, ERO1A ablation impairs the balance between IRE1α and PERK signaling activities and induces lethal unfolded protein responses in tumor cells undergoing endoplasmic reticulum stress, thereby enhancing anti-tumor immunity via immunogenic cell death. These findings reveal how tumor ERO1A induces immunosuppression, highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    SGN-B7H4V, an investigational vedotin ADC directed to the immune checkpoint ligand B7-H4, shows promising activity in preclinical models.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 1 October 2023 by Gray, E. E., Ulrich, M., et al.

    PubMed

    SGN-B7H4V is a novel investigational vedotin antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) comprising a B7-H4-directed human monoclonal antibody conjugated to the cytotoxic payload monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) via a protease-cleavable maleimidocaproyl valine citrulline (mc-vc) linker. This vedotin linker-payload system has been clinically validated in multiple Food and Drug Administration approved agents including brentuximab vedotin, enfortumab vedotin, and tisotumab vedotin. B7-H4 is an immune checkpoint ligand with elevated expression on a variety of solid tumors, including breast, ovarian, and endometrial tumors, and limited normal tissue expression. SGN-B7H4V is designed to induce direct cytotoxicity against target cells by binding to B7-H4 on the surface of target cells and releasing the cytotoxic payload MMAE upon internalization of the B7-H4/ADC complex. B7-H4 expression was characterized by immunohistochemistry across multiple solid tumor types. The ability of SGN-B7H4V to kill B7-H4-expressing tumor cells in vitro and in vivo in a variety of xenograft tumor models was also evaluated. Finally, the antitumor activity of SGN-B7H4V as monotherapy and in combination with an anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) agent was evaluated using an immunocompetent murine B7-H4-expressing Renca tumor model. Immunohistochemistry confirmed B7-H4 expression across multiple solid tumors, with the highest prevalence in breast, endometrial, and ovarian tumors. In vitro, SGN-B7H4V killed B7-H4-expressing tumor cells by MMAE-mediated direct cytotoxicity and antibody-mediated effector functions including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis. In vivo, SGN-B7H4V demonstrated strong antitumor activity in multiple xenograft models of breast and ovarian cancer, including xenograft tumors with heterogeneous B7-H4 expression, consistent with the ability of vedotin ADCs to elicit a bystander effect. In an immunocompetent murine B7-H4-expressing tumor model, SGN-B7H4V drove robust antitumor activity as a monotherapy that was enhanced when combined with an anti-PD-1 agent. The immune checkpoint ligand B7-H4 is a promising molecular target expressed by multiple solid tumors. SGN-B7H4V demonstrates robust antitumor activity in preclinical models through multiple potential mechanisms. Altogether, these preclinical data support the evaluation of SGN-B7H4V as a monotherapy in the ongoing phase 1 study of SGN-B7H4V in advanced solid tumors (NCT05194072) and potential future clinical combinations with immunotherapies. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    • Cancer Research
    Intratumor Fusobacterium nucleatum promotes the progression of pancreatic cancer via the CXCL1-CXCR2 axis.

    In Cancer Science on 1 September 2023 by Hayashi, M., Ikenaga, N., et al.

    PubMed

    Intratumor bacteria modify the tumor immune microenvironment and influence outcomes of various tumors. Periodontal pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum has been detected in pancreatic cancer tissues and is associated with poor prognosis. However, it remains unclear how F. nucleatum affects pancreatic cancer. Here, we compared clinical features with F. nucleatum colonization in pancreatic cancer tissues. F. nucleatum was detected in 15.5% (13/84) of pancreatic cancer patients. The tumor size was significantly larger in the F. nucleatum-positive group than in the negative group. To clarify the biological effect of intratumor F. nucleatum on pancreatic cancer progression, we performed migration/invasion assays and cytokine array analysis of cancer cells cocultured with F. nucleatum. F. nucleatum promoted CXCL1 secretion from pancreatic cancer cells, leading to cancer progression through autocrine signaling. Intratumor F. nucleatum suppressed tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells by recruiting myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to the tumor in an F. nucleatum-injected subcutaneous pancreatic cancer mouse model, resulting in tumor progression. Furthermore, tumor growth accelerated by F. nucleatum was suppressed by MDSC depletion or cytokine inhibitors. Intratumor F. nucleatum promoted pancreatic cancer progression through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms of the CXCL1-CXCR2 axis. Blockade of the CXCL1-CXCR2 axis may be a novel therapeutic approach for patients with intratumor F. nucleatum-positive pancreatic cancer. © 2023 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Low molecular weight heparin synergistically enhances the efficacy of adoptive and anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy by increasing lymphocyte infiltration in colorectal cancer.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 1 August 2023 by Quan, Y., He, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Immunotherapy, including adoptive cell therapy (ACT) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), has a limited effect in most patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and the efficacy is further limited in patients with liver metastasis. Lack of antitumor lymphocyte infiltration could be a major cause, and there remains an urgent need for more potent and safer therapies for CRC. In this study, the antitumoral synergism of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) combined with immunotherapy in the microsatellite stable (MSS) highly aggressive murine model of CRC was fully evaluated. Dual LMWH and ACT objectively mediated the stagnation of tumor growth and inhibition of liver metastasis, neither LMWH nor ACT alone had any antitumoral activity on them. The combination of LMWH and ACT obviously increased the infiltration of intratumor CD8+ T cells, as revealed by multiplex immunohistochemistry, purified CD8+ T-cell transfer assay, and IVIM in vivo imaging. Mechanistically, evaluation of changes in the tumor microenvironment revealed that LMWH improved tumor vascular normalization and facilitated the trafficking of activated CD8+ T cells into tumors. Similarly, LMWH combined with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy provided superior antitumor activity as compared with the single PD-1 blockade in murine CT26 tumor models. LMWH could enhance ACT and ICIs-based immunotherapy by increasing lymphocyte infiltration into tumors, especially cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. These results indicate that combining LMWH with an immunotherapy strategy presents a promising and safe approach for CRC treatment, especially in MSS tumors. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Stem Cells and Developmental Biology
    Mesenchymal stem cells, as glioma exosomal immunosuppressive signal multipliers, enhance MDSCs immunosuppressive activity through the miR-21/SP1/DNMT1 positive feedback loop.

    In Journal of Nanobiotechnology on 22 July 2023 by Qiu, W., Guo, Q., et al.

    PubMed

    The immunosuppressive microenvironment in glioma induces immunotherapy resistance and is associated with poor prognosis. Glioma-associated mesenchymal stem cells (GA-MSCs) play an important role in the formation of the immunosuppressive microenvironment, but the mechanism is still not clear. We found that GA-MSCs promoted the expression of CD73, an ectonucleotidase that drives immunosuppressive microenvironment maintenance by generating adenosine, on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) through immunosuppressive exosomal miR-21 signaling. This process was similar to the immunosuppressive signaling mediated by glioma exosomal miR-21 but more intense. Further study showed that the miR-21/SP1/DNMT1 positive feedback loop in MSCs triggered by glioma exosomal CD44 upregulated MSC exosomal miR-21 expression, amplifying the glioma exosomal immunosuppressive signal. Modified dendritic cell-derived exosomes (Dex) carrying miR-21 inhibitors could target GA-MSCs and reduce CD73 expression on MDSCs, synergizing with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Overall, this work reveals the critical role of MSCs in the glioma microenvironment as signal multipliers to enhance immunosuppressive signaling of glioma exosomes, and disrupting the positive feedback loop in MSCs with modified Dex could improve PD-1 blockade therapy. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Genetics
    Functional interrogation of lymphocyte subsets in alopecia areata using single-cell RNA sequencing.

    In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America on 18 July 2023 by Lee, E. Y., Dai, Z., et al.

    PubMed

    Alopecia areata (AA) is among the most prevalent autoimmune diseases, but the development of innovative therapeutic strategies has lagged due to an incomplete understanding of the immunological underpinnings of disease. Here, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) of skin-infiltrating immune cells from the graft-induced C3H/HeJ mouse model of AA, coupled with antibody-based depletion to interrogate the functional role of specific cell types in AA in vivo. Since AA is predominantly T cell-mediated, we focused on dissecting lymphocyte function in AA. Both our scRNAseq and functional studies established CD8+ T cells as the primary disease-driving cell type in AA. Only the depletion of CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells, NK, B, or γδ T cells, was sufficient to prevent and reverse AA. Selective depletion of regulatory T cells (Treg) showed that Treg are protective against AA in C3H/HeJ mice, suggesting that failure of Treg-mediated immunosuppression is not a major disease mechanism in AA. Focused analyses of CD8+ T cells revealed five subsets, whose heterogeneity is defined by an "effectorness gradient" of interrelated transcriptional states that culminate in increased effector function and tissue residency. scRNAseq of human AA skin showed that CD8+ T cells in human AA follow a similar trajectory, underscoring that shared mechanisms drive disease in both murine and human AA. Our study represents a comprehensive, systematic interrogation of lymphocyte heterogeneity in AA and uncovers a novel framework for AA-associated CD8+ T cells with implications for the design of future therapeutics.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Endocrinology and Physiology
    • ,
    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals enhanced antitumor immunity after combined application of PD-1 inhibitor and Shenmai injection in non-small cell lung cancer.

    In Cell Communication and Signaling : CCS on 10 July 2023 by Yu, D., Yang, P., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have altered the clinical management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the low response rate, severe immune-related adverse events (irAEs), and hyperprogressive disease following ICIs monotherapy require attention. Combination therapy may overcome these limitations and traditional Chinese medicine with immunomodulatory effects provides a promising approach. Shenmai injection (SMI) is a clinically effective adjuvant treatment for cancer with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore, the combined effects and mechanisms of SMI and programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor against NSCLC was focused on this study. A Lewis lung carcinoma mouse model and a lung squamous cell carcinoma humanized mouse model were used to investigate the combined efficacy and safety of SMI and PD-1 inhibitor. The synergistic mechanisms of the combination therapy against NSCLC were explored using single-cell RNA sequencing. Validation experiments were performed using immunofluorescence analysis, in vitro experiment, and bulk transcriptomic datasets. In both models, combination therapy alleviated tumor growth and prolonged survival without increasing irAEs. The GZMAhigh and XCL1high natural killer (NK) cell subclusters with cytotoxic and chemokine signatures increased in the combination therapy, while malignant cells from combination therapy were mainly in the apoptotic state, suggesting that mediating tumor cell apoptosis through NK cells is the main synergistic mechanisms of combination therapy. In vitro experiment confirmed that combination therapy increased secretion of Granzyme A by NK cells. Moreover, we discovered that PD-1 inhibitor and SMI combination blocked inhibitory receptors on NK and T cells and restores their antitumoral activity in NSCLC better than PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy, and immune and stromal cells exhibited a decrease of angiogenic features and attenuated cancer metabolism reprogramming in microenvironment of combination therapy. This study demonstrated that SMI reprograms tumor immune microenvironment mainly by inducing NK cells infiltration and synergizes with PD-1 inhibitor against NSCLC, suggested that targeting NK cells may be an important strategy for combining with ICIs. Video Abstract. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Immune checkpoint activity regulates polycystic kidney disease progression.

    In JCI Insight on 22 June 2023 by Kleczko, E. K., Nguyen, D. T., et al.

    PubMed

    Innate and adaptive immune cells modulate the severity of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a common kidney disease with inadequate treatment options. ADPKD has parallels with cancer, in which immune checkpoint inhibitors have been shown to reactivate CD8+ T cells and slow tumor growth. We have previously shown that in PKD, CD8+ T cell loss worsens disease. This study used orthologous early-onset and adult-onset ADPKD models (Pkd1 p.R3277C) to evaluate the role of immune checkpoints in PKD. Flow cytometry of kidney cells showed increased levels of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) on T cells and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)/CD80 on macrophages and epithelial cells in Pkd1RC/RC mice versus WT, paralleling disease severity. PD-L1/CD80 was also upregulated in ADPKD human cells and patient kidney tissue versus controls. Genetic PD-L1 loss or treatment with an anti-PD-1 antibody did not impact PKD severity in early-onset or adult-onset ADPKD models. However, treatment with anti-PD-1 plus anti-CTLA-4, blocking 2 immune checkpoints, improved PKD outcomes in adult-onset ADPKD mice; neither monotherapy altered PKD severity. Combination therapy resulted in increased kidney CD8+ T cell numbers/activation and decreased kidney regulatory T cell numbers correlative with PKD severity. Together, our data suggest that immune checkpoint activation is an important feature of and potential novel therapeutic target in ADPKD.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    EZH2 inhibition promotes tumor immunogenicity in lung squamous cell carcinomas

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 8 June 2023 by DuCote, T. J., Song, X., et al.

    PubMed

    ABSTRACT Two important factors that contribute to resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are an immune-suppressive microenvironment and limited antigen presentation by tumor cells. In this study, we examine if inhibition of the methyltransferase EZH2 can increase ICI response in lung squamous cell carcinomas (LSCCs). Our in vitro experiments using 2D human cancer cell lines as well as 3D murine and patient derived organoids treated with two inhibitors of the EZH2 plus interferon-γ (IFNγ) showed that EZH2 inhibition leads to expression of both major histocompatibility complex class I and II (MHCI/II) expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. ChIP-sequencing confirmed loss of EZH2-mediated histone marks and gain of activating histone marks at key loci. Further, we demonstrate strong tumor control in models of both autochthonous and syngeneic LSCC treated with anti-PD1 immunotherapy with EZH2 inhibition. Single-cell RNA sequencing and immune cell profiling demonstrated phenotypic changes towards more tumor suppressive phenotypes in EZH2 inhibitor treated tumors. These results indicate that this therapeutic modality could increase ICI responses in patients undergoing treatment for LSCC.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Genetics
    DNA based neoepitope vaccination induces tumor control in syngeneic mouse models.

    In NPJ Vaccines on 27 May 2023 by Viborg, N., Pavlidis, M. A., et al.

    PubMed

    Recent findings have positioned tumor mutation-derived neoepitopes as attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. Cancer vaccines that deliver neoepitopes via various vaccine formulations have demonstrated promising preliminary results in patients and animal models. In the presented work, we assessed the ability of plasmid DNA to confer neoepitope immunogenicity and anti-tumor effect in two murine syngeneic cancer models. We demonstrated that neoepitope DNA vaccination led to anti-tumor immunity in the CT26 and B16F10 tumor models, with the long-lasting presence of neoepitope-specific T-cell responses in blood, spleen, and tumors after immunization. We further observed that engagement of both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments was essential to hamper tumor growth. Additionally, combination therapy with immune checkpoint inhibition provided an additive effect, superior to either monotherapy. DNA vaccination offers a versatile platform that allows the encoding of multiple neoepitopes in a single formulation and is thus a feasible strategy for personalized immunotherapy via neoepitope vaccination. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Pleiotrophin drives a prometastatic immune niche in breast cancer.

    In The Journal of Experimental Medicine on 1 May 2023 by Ganguly, D., Schmidt, M. O., et al.

    PubMed

    Metastatic cancer cells adapt to thrive in secondary organs. To investigate metastatic adaptation, we performed transcriptomic analysis of metastatic and non-metastatic murine breast cancer cells. We found that pleiotrophin (PTN), a neurotrophic cytokine, is a metastasis-associated factor that is expressed highly by aggressive breast cancers. Moreover, elevated PTN in plasma correlated significantly with metastasis and reduced survival of breast cancer patients. Mechanistically, we find that PTN activates NF-κB in cancer cells leading to altered cytokine production, subsequent neutrophil recruitment, and an immune suppressive microenvironment. Consequently, inhibition of PTN, pharmacologically or genetically, reduces the accumulation of tumor-associated neutrophils and reverts local immune suppression, resulting in increased T cell activation and attenuated metastasis. Furthermore, inhibition of PTN significantly enhanced the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade and chemotherapy in reducing metastatic burden in mice. These findings establish PTN as a previously unrecognized driver of a prometastatic immune niche and thus represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. © 2023 Ganguly et al.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Genetics
    Lysine catabolism reprograms tumour immunity through histone crotonylation.

    In Nature on 1 May 2023 by Yuan, H., Wu, X., et al.

    PubMed

    Cancer cells rewire metabolism to favour the generation of specialized metabolites that support tumour growth and reshape the tumour microenvironment1,2. Lysine functions as a biosynthetic molecule, energy source and antioxidant3-5, but little is known about its pathological role in cancer. Here we show that glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) reprogram lysine catabolism through the upregulation of lysine transporter SLC7A2 and crotonyl-coenzyme A (crotonyl-CoA)-producing enzyme glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) with downregulation of the crotonyl-CoA hydratase enoyl-CoA hydratase short chain 1 (ECHS1), leading to accumulation of intracellular crotonyl-CoA and histone H4 lysine crotonylation. A reduction in histone lysine crotonylation by either genetic manipulation or lysine restriction impaired tumour growth. In the nucleus, GCDH interacts with the crotonyltransferase CBP to promote histone lysine crotonylation. Loss of histone lysine crotonylation promotes immunogenic cytosolic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and dsDNA generation through enhanced H3K27ac, which stimulates the RNA sensor MDA5 and DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) to boost type I interferon signalling, leading to compromised GSC tumorigenic potential and elevated CD8+ T cell infiltration. A lysine-restricted diet synergized with MYC inhibition or anti-PD-1 therapy to slow tumour growth. Collectively, GSCs co-opt lysine uptake and degradation to shunt the production of crotonyl-CoA, remodelling the chromatin landscape to evade interferon-induced intrinsic effects on GSC maintenance and extrinsic effects on immune response. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Neutrophil extracellular traps formed during chemotherapy confer treatment resistance via TGF-β activation.

    In Cancer Cell on 10 April 2023 by Mousset, A., Lecorgne, E., et al.

    PubMed

    Metastasis is the major cause of cancer death, and the development of therapy resistance is common. The tumor microenvironment can confer chemotherapy resistance (chemoresistance), but little is known about how specific host cells influence therapy outcome. We show that chemotherapy induces neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, which reduces therapy response in mouse models of breast cancer lung metastasis. We reveal that chemotherapy-treated cancer cells secrete IL-1β, which in turn triggers NET formation. Two NET-associated proteins are required to induce chemoresistance: integrin-αvβ1, which traps latent TGF-β, and matrix metalloproteinase 9, which cleaves and activates the trapped latent TGF-β. TGF-β activation causes cancer cells to undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and correlates with chemoresistance. Our work demonstrates that NETs regulate the activities of neighboring cells by trapping and activating cytokines and suggests that chemoresistance in the metastatic setting can be reduced or prevented by targeting the IL-1β-NET-TGF-β axis. Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus molossinus (Japanese house mouse)
    CMTR1 promotes colorectal cancer cell growth and immune evasion by transcriptionally regulating STAT3.

    In Cell Death & Disease on 6 April 2023 by You, A. B., Yang, H., et al.

    PubMed

    CMTR1, also called IFN-stimulated gene 95 kDa protein (ISG95), is elevated by viral infection in a variety of cells. However, the functions of CMTR1 in colorectal cancer (CRC), especially its roles in tumorigenesis and immune regulation, remain unclear. Here, we first identified CMTR1 as a novel oncogene in colorectal cancer. Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database exploration and human tissue microarray (TMA) analysis, we found that CMTR1 expression was markedly higher in CRC tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. High CMTR1 expression was correlated with poor prognosis in CRC patients. Knockdown (KD) of CMTR1 significantly suppressed cell proliferation and tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo, whereas overexpression of CMTR1 resulted in the opposite effects. KEGG pathway analysis revealed differential enrichment in the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in colorectal cancer cells with CMTR1 KD. Mechanistically, suppression of CMTR1 expression inhibited RNAPII recruitment to the transcription start site (TSS) of STAT3 and suppressed STAT3 expression and activation. Furthermore, the efficacy of PD1 blockade immunotherapy was prominently enhanced in the presence of CMTR1 KD via increased infiltration of CD8 + T cells into the tumor microenvironment. Overall, it appears that CMTR1 plays a key role in regulating tumor cell proliferation and antitumor immunity. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Cholesterol sulfate limits neutrophil recruitment and gut inflammation during mucosal injury.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 4 April 2023 by Morino, K., Kunimura, K., et al.

    PubMed

    During mucosal injury, intestinal immune cells play a crucial role in eliminating invading bacteria. However, as the excessive accumulation of immune cells promotes inflammation and delays tissue repair, it is essential to identify the mechanism that limits the infiltration of immune cells to the mucosal-luminal interface. Cholesterol sulfate (CS) is the lipid product of the sulfotransferase SULT2B1 and suppresses immune reactions by inhibiting DOCK2-mediated Rac activation. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the physiological role of CS in the intestinal tract. We found that, in the small intestine and colon, CS is predominantly produced in the epithelial cells close to the lumen. While dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was exacerbated in Sult2b1-deficient mice with increased prevalence of neutrophils, the elimination of either neutrophils or intestinal bacteria in Sult2b1-deficient mice attenuated disease development. Similar results were obtained when the Dock2 was genetically deleted in Sult2b1-deficient mice. In addition, we also show that indomethacin-induced ulcer formation in the small intestine was exacerbated in Sult2b1-deficient mice and was ameliorated by CS administration. Thus, our results uncover that CS acts on inflammatory neutrophils, and prevents excessive gut inflammation by inhibiting the Rac activator DOCK2. The administration of CS may be a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced ulcers. Copyright © 2023 Morino, Kunimura, Sugiura, Izumi, Matsubara, Akiyoshi, Maeda, Hirotani, Sakata, Mizuno, Takahashi, Bamba, Uruno and Fukui.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Targeting ULK1 Decreases IFNγ-Mediated Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

    In Molecular Cancer Research on 1 April 2023 by Fenton, S. E., Zannikou, M., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have transformed the treatment of melanoma. However, the majority of patients have primary or acquired resistance to ICIs, limiting durable responses and patient survival. IFNγ signaling and the expression of IFNγ-stimulated genes correlate with either response or resistance to ICIs, in a context-dependent manner. While IFNγ-inducible immunostimulatory genes are required for response to ICIs, chronic IFNγ signaling induces the expression of immunosuppressive genes, promoting resistance to these therapies. Here, we show that high levels of Unc-51 like kinase 1 (ULK1) correlate with poor survival in patients with melanoma and overexpression of ULK1 in melanoma cells enhances IFNγ-induced expression of immunosuppressive genes, with minimal effects on the expression of immunostimulatory genes. In contrast, genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of ULK1 reduces expression of IFNγ-induced immunosuppressive genes. ULK1 binds IRF1 in the nuclear compartment of melanoma cells, controlling its binding to the programmed death-ligand 1 promoter region. In addition, pharmacologic inhibition of ULK1 in combination with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 therapy further reduces melanoma tumor growth in vivo. Our data suggest that targeting ULK1 represses IFNγ-dependent immunosuppression. These findings support the combination of ULK1 drug-targeted inhibition with ICIs for the treatment of patients with melanoma to improve response rates and patient outcomes. This study identifies ULK1, activated downstream of IFNγ signaling, as a druggable target to overcome resistance mechanisms to ICI therapy in metastatic melanoma. ©2022 American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Pharmacology
    Pexidartinib synergize PD-1 antibody through inhibiting treg infiltration by reducing TAM-derived CCL22 in lung adenocarcinoma.

    In Frontiers in Pharmacology on 28 March 2023 by Zhang, W., Jiang, X., et al.

    PubMed

    There is a crosstalk between Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and tumor-infiltrating T cells in tumor environment. TAM could inhibit the activity of cytotoxic T cells; TAM could also regulate the composition of T cells in tumor immune environment. The combination therapy for TAM and tumor infiltrated T cells has been widely noticed, but the crosstalk between TAM and tumor infiltrated T cells remains unclear in the process of combination therapy. We treated lung adenocarcinoma tumor models with pexidartinib, which targets macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR) and c-kit tyrosine kinase, to inhibited TAM. Pexidartinib inhibited the ratio of macrophages in the tumor and also altered macrophage polarization. In addition to reprogram TAM, pexidartinib also changed the composition of tumor-invasive T cells. After pexidartinib treatment, the total number of T cells, CD8+ T cells and Treg cells were all decreased, the ratio of CD8+T/Treg increased significantly. According to the analysis of cytokines and chemokines during the treatment of pexidartinib, CCL22, as a chemokine for Treg recruitment, significantly decreased after the treatment of pexidartinib. Base on the above observation, the combination of pexidartinib and PD-1 antibody were used in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma subcutaneous tumor model, the combination therapy has significantly improved the efficacy of tumor treatment compared with the monotherapy. Meanwhile, compared with pexidartinib monotherapy, the combination treatment further switches the polarization status of tumor-associated macrophages. In summary, our results showed that the combination of pexidartinib and PD-1 antibody showed a synergy and significantly improved the anti-tumor efficacy, through pexidartinib increasing CD8T/Treg ratio by reducing TAM-derived CCL22. Copyright © 2023 Zhang, Jiang, Zou, Yuan and Wang.

    • Stem Cells and Developmental Biology
    Testicular macrophages are recruited during a narrow fetal time window and promote organ-specific developmental functions.

    In Nature Communications on 15 March 2023 by Gu, X. W., Heinrich, A., et al.

    PubMed

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that fetal-derived tissue-resident macrophages have developmental functions. It has been proposed that macrophages promote testicular functions, but which macrophage populations are involved is unclear. Previous studies showed that macrophages play critical roles in fetal testis morphogenesis and described two adult testicular macrophage populations, interstitial and peritubular. There has been debate regarding the hematopoietic origins of testicular macrophages and whether distinct macrophage populations promote specific testicular functions. Here our hematopoietic lineage-tracing studies in mice show that yolk-sac-derived macrophages comprise the earliest testicular macrophages, while fetal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate monocytes that colonize the gonad during a narrow time window in a Sertoli-cell-dependent manner and differentiate into adult testicular macrophages. Finally, we show that yolk-sac-derived versus HSC-derived macrophages have distinct functions during testis morphogenesis, while interstitial macrophages specifically promote adult Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Our findings provide insight into testicular macrophage origins and their tissue-specific roles. © 2023. The Author(s).

1 2 3 4 5 6