InVivoMAb anti-mouse CD4

Catalog #BE0003-1
Product Citations:
500
Clone:
GK1.5
Reactivities:
Mouse

$164.00 - $4,280.00

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Product Details

The GK1.5 monoclonal antibody reacts with the mouse CD4. The CD4 antigen is a 55 kDa cell surface type I membrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD4 acts as a co-receptor which in cooperation with the T cell receptor (TCR) interacts with class II MHC molecules displayed by antigen presenting cells (APC). CD4 is expressed by the majority of thymocytes, most helper T cells, a subset of NK-T cells and weakly by dendritic cells and macrophages. CD4 plays an important role in the development of T cells and is required for mature T cells to function optimally. The GK1.5 antibody has been shown to compete with clones YTS 177 and YTS 191 for CD4 binding.

Specifications

Isotype Rat IgG2b, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb rat IgG2b isotype control, anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 6.5 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen Mouse CTL clone V4
Reported Applications in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion
Flow cytometry
Western blot
Formulation PBS, pH 6.5
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107636
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.

Additional Formats

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion, Flow Cytometry
Balogh, K. N., et al. (2018). "Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor protects cancer cells from immunogenic cell death and impairs anti-tumor immune responses" PLoS One 13(6): e0197702. PubMed

The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine that is overexpressed in a number of cancer types, with increased MIF expression often correlating with tumor aggressiveness and poor patient outcomes. In this study, we aimed to better understand the link between primary tumor expression of MIF and increased tumor growth. Using the MMTV-PyMT murine model of breast cancer, we observed that elevated MIF expression promoted tumor appearance and growth. Supporting this, we confirmed our previous observation that higher MIF expression supported tumor growth in the 4T1 murine model of breast cancer. We subsequently discovered that loss of MIF expression in 4T1 cells led to decreased cell numbers and increased apoptosis in vitro under reduced serum culture conditions. We hypothesized that this increase in cell death would promote detection by the host immune system in vivo, which could explain the observed impairment in tumor growth. Supporting this, we demonstrated that loss of MIF expression in the primary tumor led to an increased abundance of intra-tumoral IFNgamma-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and that depletion of T cells from mice bearing MIF-deficient tumors restored growth to the level of MIF-expressing tumors. Furthermore, we found that MIF depletion from the tumor cells resulted in greater numbers of activated intra-tumoral dendritic cells (DCs). Lastly, we demonstrated that loss of MIF expression led to a robust induction of a specialized form of cell death, immunogenic cell death (ICD), in vitro. Together, our data suggests a model in which MIF expression in the primary tumor dampens the anti-tumor immune response, promoting tumor growth.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion
Budda, S. A. and L. A. Zenewicz. (2018). "IL-22 deficiency increases CD4 T cell responses to mucosal immunization" Vaccine 36(25): 3694-3700. PubMed

Mucosal vaccines are a promising platform for combatting infectious diseases for which we still lack effective preventative measures. Optimizing these vaccines to generate the best protective immune responses with the least complicated immunization regimen is imperative. Mucosal barriers are the first line of defense against many pathogens and, as such, we looked to their biology for strategies to improve vaccine delivery. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a key cytokine in both healthy and inflamed mucosal tissues. IL-22 promotes epithelial cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, upregulates mucin and antimicrobial peptides, all of which promote mucosal barrier integrity. In this study, we find that IL-22 impairs the development of a T cell response during mucosal immunization. Compared to wild-type control mice, IL-22 deficient mice had increased antigen-specific CD4 T cell responses to intrarectal immunization using a protein and cholera toxin adjuvant vaccine. When immunized systemically with the same protein antigen adsorbed to alum, no differences in the CD4 T cell response between wild-type and IL-22 deficient mice were detected. This suggests that transiently inhibiting IL-22 during mucosal vaccination could enhance T cell responses. The broad-applicability of this proposed approach would allow for improvement of many existing mucosal vaccine regimens and have positive implications in the development of more efficacious mucosal vaccines.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion
Moynihan, K. D., et al. (2016). "Eradication of large established tumors in mice by combination immunotherapy that engages innate and adaptive immune responses" Nat Med. doi : 10.1038/nm.4200. PubMed

Checkpoint blockade with antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; also known as PD-1) elicits durable tumor regression in metastatic cancer, but these dramatic responses are confined to a minority of patients. This suboptimal outcome is probably due in part to the complex network of immunosuppressive pathways present in advanced tumors, which are unlikely to be overcome by intervention at a single signaling checkpoint. Here we describe a combination immunotherapy that recruits a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells to eliminate large tumor burdens in syngeneic tumor models and a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma; to our knowledge tumors of this size have not previously been curable by treatments relying on endogenous immunity. Maximal antitumor efficacy required four components: a tumor-antigen-targeting antibody, a recombinant interleukin-2 with an extended half-life, anti-PD-1 and a powerful T cell vaccine. Depletion experiments revealed that CD8+ T cells, cross-presenting dendritic cells and several other innate immune cell subsets were required for tumor regression. Effective treatment induced infiltration of immune cells and production of inflammatory cytokines in the tumor, enhanced antibody-mediated tumor antigen uptake and promoted antigen spreading. These results demonstrate the capacity of an elicited endogenous immune response to destroy large, established tumors and elucidate essential characteristics of combination immunotherapies that are capable of curing a majority of tumors in experimental settings typically viewed as intractable.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion
Vanpouille-Box, C., et al. (2015). "TGFbeta Is a Master Regulator of Radiation Therapy-Induced Antitumor Immunity" Cancer Res 75(11): 2232-2242. PubMed

T cells directed to endogenous tumor antigens are powerful mediators of tumor regression. Recent immunotherapy advances have identified effective interventions to unleash tumor-specific T-cell activity in patients who naturally develop them. Eliciting T-cell responses to a patient’s individual tumor remains a major challenge. Radiation therapy can induce immune responses to model antigens expressed by tumors, but it remains unclear whether it can effectively prime T cells specific for endogenous antigens expressed by poorly immunogenic tumors. We hypothesized that TGFbeta activity is a major obstacle hindering the ability of radiation to generate an in situ tumor vaccine. Here, we show that antibody-mediated TGFbeta neutralization during radiation therapy effectively generates CD8(+) T-cell responses to multiple endogenous tumor antigens in poorly immunogenic mouse carcinomas. Generated T cells were effective at causing regression of irradiated tumors and nonirradiated lung metastases or synchronous tumors (abscopal effect). Gene signatures associated with IFNgamma and immune-mediated rejection were detected in tumors treated with radiation therapy and TGFbeta blockade in combination but not as single agents. Upregulation of programmed death (PD) ligand-1 and -2 in neoplastic and myeloid cells and PD-1 on intratumoral T cells limited tumor rejection, resulting in rapid recurrence. Addition of anti-PD-1 antibodies extended survival achieved with radiation and TGFbeta blockade. Thus, TGFbeta is a fundamental regulator of radiation therapy’s ability to generate an in situ tumor vaccine. The combination of local radiation therapy with TGFbeta neutralization offers a novel individualized strategy for vaccinating patients against their tumors.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion
Zander, R. A., et al. (2015). "PD-1 Co-inhibitory and OX40 Co-stimulatory Crosstalk Regulates Helper T Cell Differentiation and Anti-Plasmodium Humoral Immunity" Cell Host Microbe 17(5): 628-641. PubMed

The differentiation and protective capacity of Plasmodium-specific T cells are regulated by both positive and negative signals during malaria, but the molecular and cellular details remain poorly defined. Here we show that malaria patients and Plasmodium-infected rodents exhibit atypical expression of the co-stimulatory receptor OX40 on CD4 T cells and that therapeutic enhancement of OX40 signaling enhances helper CD4 T cell activity, humoral immunity, and parasite clearance in rodents. However, these beneficial effects of OX40 signaling are abrogated following coordinate blockade of PD-1 co-inhibitory pathways, which are also upregulated during malaria and associated with elevated parasitemia. Co-administration of biologics blocking PD-1 and promoting OX40 signaling induces excessive interferon-gamma that directly limits helper T cell-mediated support of humoral immunity and decreases parasite control. Our results show that targeting OX40 can enhance Plasmodium control and that crosstalk between co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory pathways in pathogen-specific CD4 T cells can impact pathogen clearance.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion
Kim, J., et al. (2015). "Memory programming in CD8(+) T-cell differentiation is intrinsic and is not determined by CD4 help" Nat Commun 6: 7994. PubMed

CD8(+) T cells activated without CD4(+) T-cell help are impaired in memory expansion. To understand the underlying cellular mechanism, here we track the dynamics of helper-deficient CD8(+) T-cell response to a minor histocompatibility antigen by phenotypic and in vivo imaging analyses. Helper-deficient CD8(+) T cells show reduced burst expansion, rapid peripheral egress, delayed antigen clearance and continuous activation, and are eventually exhausted. Contrary to the general consensus that CD4 help encodes memory programmes in CD8(+) T cells and helper-deficient CD8(+) T cells are abortive, these cells can differentiate into effectors and memory precursors. Importantly, accelerating antigen clearance or simply increasing the burst effector size enables generation of memory cells by CD8(+) T cells, regardless of CD4 help. These results suggest that the memory programme is CD8(+) T-cell-intrinsic, and provide insight into the role of CD4 help in CD8(+) T-cell responses.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion
Guo, L., et al. (2015). "Innate immunological function of TH2 cells in vivo" Nat Immunol 16(10): 1051-1059. PubMed

Type 2 helper T cells (TH2 cells) produce interleukin 13 (IL-13) when stimulated by papain or house dust mite extract (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response is dependent on IL-33 but not T cell antigen receptors (TCRs). While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) are the dominant innate producers of IL-13 in naive mice, we found here that helminth-infected mice had more TH2 cells compared to uninfected mice, and thes e cells became major mediators of innate type 2 responses. TH2 cells made important contributions to HDM-induced antigen-nonspecific eosinophilic inflammation and protected mice recovering from infection with Ascaris suum against subsequent infection with the phylogenetically distant nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for effector TH2 cells during TCR-independent innate-like immune responses.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion, Flow Cytometry
Liu, G., et al. (2015). "IL-27 Signaling Is Crucial for Survival of Mice Infected with African Trypanosomes via Preventing Lethal Effects of CD4+ T Cells and IFN-gamma" PLoS Pathog 11(7): e1005065. PubMed

African trypanosomes are extracellular protozoan parasites causing a chronic debilitating disease associated with a persistent inflammatory response. Maintaining the balance of the inflammatory response via downregulation of activation of M1-type myeloid cells was previously shown to be crucial to allow prolonged survival. Here we demonstrate that infection with African trypanosomes of IL-27 receptor-deficient (IL-27R-/-) mice results in severe liver immunopathology and dramatically reduced survival as compared to wild-type mice. This coincides with the development of an exacerbated Th1-mediated immune response with overactivation of CD4+ T cells and strongly enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines including IFN-gamma. What is important is that IL-10 production was not impaired in infected IL-27R-/- mice. Depletion of CD4+ T cells in infected IL-27R-/- mice resulted in a dramatically reduced production of IFN-gamma, preventing the early mortality of infected IL-27R-/- mice. This was accompanied by a significantly reduced inflammatory response and a major amelioration of liver pathology. These results could be mimicked by treating IL-27R-/- mice with a neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma antibody. Thus, our data identify IL-27 signaling as a novel pathway to prevent early mortality via inhibiting hyperactivation of CD4+ Th1 cells and their excessive secretion of IFN-gamma during infection with African trypanosomes. These data are the first to demonstrate the essential role of IL-27 signaling in regulating immune responses to extracellular protozoan infections.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion
Christensen, A. D., et al. (2015). "Depletion of regulatory T cells in a hapten-induced inflammation model results in prolonged and increased inflammation driven by T cells" Clin Exp Immunol 179(3): 485-499. PubMed

Regulatory T cells (Tregs ) are known to play an immunosuppressive role in the response of contact hypersensitivity (CHS), but neither the dynamics of Tregs during the CHS response nor the exaggerated inflammatory response after depletion of Tregs has been characterized in detail. In this study we show that the number of Tregs in the challenged tissue peak at the same time as the ear-swelling reaches its maximum on day 1 after challenge, whereas the number of Tregs in the draining lymph nodes peaks at day 2. As expected, depletion of Tregs by injection of a monoclonal antibody to CD25 prior to sensitization led to a prolonged and sustained inflammatory response which was dependent upon CD8 T cells, and co-stimulatory blockade with cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4-immunoglobulin (CTLA-4-Ig) suppressed the exaggerated inflammation. In contrast, blockade of the interleukin (IL)-10-receptor (IL-10R) did not further increase the exaggerated inflammatory response in the Treg -depleted mice. In the absence of Tregs , the response changed from a mainly acute reaction with heavy infiltration of neutrophils to a sustained response with more chronic characteristics (fewer neutrophils and dominated by macrophages). Furthermore, depletion of Tregs enhanced the release of cytokines and chemokines locally in the inflamed ear and augmented serum levels of the systemic inflammatory mediators serum amyloid (SAP) and haptoglobin early in the response.

Evans, E. E., et al. (2015). "Antibody Blockade of Semaphorin 4D Promotes Immune Infiltration into Tumor and Enhances Response to Other Immunomodulatory Therapies" Cancer Immunol Res 3(6): 689-701. PubMed

Semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D, CD100) and its receptor plexin-B1 (PLXNB1) are broadly expressed in murine and human tumors, and their expression has been shown to correlate with invasive disease in several human tumors. SEMA4D normally functions to regulate the motility and differentiation of multiple cell types, including those of the immune, vascular, and nervous systems. In the setting of cancer, SEMA4D-PLXNB1 interactions have been reported to affect vascular stabilization and transactivation of ERBB2, but effects on immune-cell trafficking in the tumor microenvironment (TME) have not been investigated. We describe a novel immunomodulatory function of SEMA4D, whereby strong expression of SEMA4D at the invasive margins of actively growing tumors influences the infiltration and distribution of leukocytes in the TME. Antibody neutralization of SEMA4D disrupts this gradient of expression, enhances recruitment of activated monocytes and lymphocytes into the tumor, and shifts the balance of cells and cytokines toward a proinflammatory and antitumor milieu within the TME. This orchestrated change in the tumor architecture was associated with durable tumor rejection in murine Colon26 and ERBB2(+) mammary carcinoma models. The immunomodulatory activity of anti-SEMA4D antibody can be enhanced by combination with other immunotherapies, including immune checkpoint inhibition and chemotherapy. Strikingly, the combination of anti-SEMA4D antibody with antibody to CTLA-4 acts synergistically to promote complete tumor rejection and survival. Inhibition of SEMA4D represents a novel mechanism and therapeutic strategy to promote functional immune infiltration into the TME and inhibit tumor progression.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion
Krupnick, A. S., et al. (2014). "Central memory CD8+ T lymphocytes mediate lung allograft acceptance" J Clin Invest 124(3): 1130-1143. PubMed

Memory T lymphocytes are commonly viewed as a major barrier for long-term survival of organ allografts and are thought to accelerate rejection responses due to their rapid infiltration into allografts, low threshold for activation, and ability to produce inflammatory mediators. Because memory T cells are usually associated with rejection, preclinical protocols have been developed to target this population in transplant recipients. Here, using a murine model, we found that costimulatory blockade-mediated lung allograft acceptance depended on the rapid infiltration of the graft by central memory CD8+ T cells (CD44(hi)CD62L(hi)CCR7+). Chemokine receptor signaling and alloantigen recognition were required for trafficking of these memory T cells to lung allografts. Intravital 2-photon imaging revealed that CCR7 expression on CD8+ T cells was critical for formation of stable synapses with antigen-presenting cells, resulting in IFN-gamma production, which induced NO and downregulated alloimmune responses. Thus, we describe a critical role for CD8+ central memory T cells in lung allograft acceptance and highlight the need for tailored approaches for tolerance induction in the lung.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion
Xin, L., et al. (2014). "Commensal microbes drive intestinal inflammation by IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells through ICOSL and OX40L costimulation in the absence of B7-1 and B7-2" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(29): 10672-10677. PubMed

The costimulatory B7-1 (CD80)/B7-2 (CD86) molecules, along with T-cell receptor stimulation, together facilitate T-cell activation. This explains why in vivo B7 costimulation neutralization efficiently silences a variety of human autoimmune disorders. Paradoxically, however, B7 blockade also potently moderates accumulation of immune-suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) essential for protection against multiorgan systemic autoimmunity. Here we show that B7 deprivation in mice overrides the necessity for Tregs in averting systemic autoimmunity and inflammation in extraintestinal tissues, whereas peripherally induced Tregs retained in the absence of B7 selectively mitigate intestinal inflammation caused by Th17 effector CD4(+) T cells. The need for additional immune suppression in the intestine reflects commensal microbe-driven T-cell activation through the accessory costimulation molecules ICOSL and OX40L. Eradication of commensal enteric bacteria mitigates intestinal inflammation and IL-17 production triggered by Treg depletion in B7-deficient mice, whereas re-establishing intestinal colonization with Candida albicans primes expansion of Th17 cells with commensal specificity. Thus, neutralizing B7 costimulation uncovers an essential role for Tregs in selectively averting intestinal inflammation by Th17 CD4(+) T cells with commensal microbe specificity.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion, Flow Cytometry
Uddin, M. N., et al. (2014). "TNF-alpha-dependent hematopoiesis following Bcl11b deletion in T cells restricts metastatic melanoma" J Immunol 192(4): 1946-1953. PubMed

Using several tumor models, we demonstrate that mice deficient in Bcl11b in T cells, although having reduced numbers of T cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs, developed significantly less tumors compared with wild-type mice. Bcl11b(-/-) CD4(+) T cells, with elevated TNF-alpha levels, but not the Bcl11b(-/-) CD8(+) T cells, were required for the reduced tumor burden, as were NK1.1(+) cells, found in increased numbers in Bcl11b(F/F)/CD4-Cre mice. Among NK1.1(+) cells, the NK cell population was predominant in number and was the only population displaying elevated granzyme B levels and increased degranulation, although not increased proliferation. Although the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells was increased in the lungs with metastatic tumors of Bcl11b(F/F)/CD4-Cre mice, their arginase-1 levels were severely reduced. The increase in NK cell and myeloid-derived suppressor cell numbers was associated with increased bone marrow and splenic hematopoiesis. Finally, the reduced tumor burden, increased numbers of NK cells in the lung, and increased hematopoiesis in Bcl11b(F/F)/CD4-Cre mice were all dependent on TNF-alpha. Moreover, TNF-alpha treatment of wild-type mice also reduced the tumor burden and increased hematopoiesis and the numbers and activity of NK cells in the lung. In vitro treatment with TNF-alpha of lineage-negative hematopoietic progenitors increased NK and myeloid differentiation, further supporting a role of TNF-alpha in promoting hematopoiesis. These studies reveal a novel role for TNF-alpha in the antitumor immune response, specifically in stimulating hematopoiesis and increasing the numbers and activity of NK cells.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion
Church, S. E., et al. (2014). "Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells maintain effector and memory tumor-specific CD8+ T cells" Eur J Immunol 44(1): 69-79. PubMed

Immunotherapies that augment antitumor T cells have had recent success for treating patients with cancer. Here we examined whether tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells enhance CD8(+) T-cell adoptive immunotherapy in a lymphopenic environment. Our model employed physiological doses of tyrosinase-related protein 1-specific CD4(+) transgenic T cells-CD4(+) T cells and pmel-CD8(+) T cells that when transferred individually were subtherapeutic; however, when transferred together provided significant (p = 0.001) therapeutic efficacy. Therapeutic efficacy correlated with increased numbers of effector and memory CD8(+) T cells with tumor-specific cytokine expression. When combined with CD4(+) T cells, transfer of total (naive and effector) or effector CD8(+) T cells were highly effective, suggesting CD4(+) T cells can help mediate therapeutic effects by maintaining function of activated CD8(+) T cells. In addition, CD4(+) T cells had a pronounced effect in the early posttransfer period, as their elimination within the first 3 days significantly (p < 0.001) reduced therapeutic efficacy. The CD8(+) T cells recovered from mice treated with both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells had decreased expression of PD-1 and PD-1-blockade enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of pmel-CD8 alone, suggesting that CD4(+) T cells help reduce CD8(+) T-cell exhaustion. These data support combining immunotherapies that elicit both tumor-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells for treatment of patients with cancer.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion
Hervieu, A., et al. (2013). "Dacarbazine-mediated upregulation of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells activates NK and CD8 T cells and restrains melanoma growth" J Invest Dermatol 133(2): 499-508. PubMed

Dacarbazine (DTIC) is a cytotoxic drug widely used for melanoma treatment. However, the putative contribution of anticancer immune responses in the efficacy of DTIC has not been evaluated. By testing how DTIC affects host immune responses to cancer in a mouse model of melanoma, we unexpectedly found that both natural killer (NK) and CD8(+) T cells were indispensable for DTIC therapeutic effect. Although DTIC did not directly affect immune cells, it triggered the upregulation of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells, leading to NK cell activation and IFNgamma secretion in mice and humans. NK cell-derived IFNgamma subsequently favored upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on tumor cells, rendering them sensitive to cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. Accordingly, DTIC markedly enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 inhibition efficacy in vivo in an NK-dependent manner. These results underscore the immunogenic properties of DTIC and provide a rationale to combine DTIC with immunotherapeutic agents that relieve immunosuppression in vivo.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion, Flow Cytometry
Dai, M., et al. (2013). "Long-lasting complete regression of established mouse tumors by counteracting Th2 inflammation" J Immunother 36(4): 248-257. PubMed

40% of mice with SW1 tumors remained healthy >150 days after last treatment and are probably cured. Therapeutic efficacy was associated with a systemic immune response with memory and antigen specificity, required CD4 cells and involved CD8 cells and NK cells to a less extent. The 3 mAb combination significantly decreased CD19 cells at tumor sites, increased IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha producing CD4 and CD8 T cells and mature CD86 dendritic cells (DC), and it increased the ratios of effector CD4 and CD8 T cells to CD4Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells and to CD11bGr-1 myeloid suppressor cells (MDSC). This is consistent with shifting the tumor microenvironment from an immunosuppressive Th2 to an immunostimulatory Th1 type and is further supported by PCR data. Adding an anti-CD19 mAb to the 3 mAb combination in the SW1 model further increased therapeutic efficacy. Data from ongoing experiments show that intratumoral injection of a combination of mAbs to CD137PD-1CTLA4CD19 can induce complete regression and dramatically prolong survival also in the TC1 carcinoma and B16 melanoma models, suggesting that the approach has general validity.”}” data-sheets-userformat=”{“2″:14851,”3”:{“1″:0},”4”:{“1″:2,”2″:16777215},”12″:0,”14”:{“1″:2,”2″:1521491},”15″:”Roboto, sans-serif”,”16″:12}”>Mice with intraperitoneal ID8 ovarian carcinoma or subcutaneous SW1 melanoma were injected with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to CD137PD-1CTLA4 7-15 days after tumor initiation. Survival of mice with ID8 tumors tripled and >40% of mice with SW1 tumors remained healthy >150 days after last treatment and are probably cured. Therapeutic efficacy was associated with a systemic immune response with memory and antigen specificity, required CD4 cells and involved CD8 cells and NK cells to a less extent. The 3 mAb combination significantly decreased CD19 cells at tumor sites, increased IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha producing CD4 and CD8 T cells and mature CD86 dendritic cells (DC), and it increased the ratios of effector CD4 and CD8 T cells to CD4Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells and to CD11bGr-1 myeloid suppressor cells (MDSC). This is consistent with shifting the tumor microenvironment from an immunosuppressive Th2 to an immunostimulatory Th1 type and is further supported by PCR data. Adding an anti-CD19 mAb to the 3 mAb combination in the SW1 model further increased therapeutic efficacy. Data from ongoing experiments show that intratumoral injection of a combination of mAbs to CD137PD-1CTLA4CD19 can induce complete regression and dramatically prolong survival also in the TC1 carcinoma and B16 melanoma models, suggesting that the approach has general validity.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion
Butler, N. S., et al. (2012). "Therapeutic blockade of PD-L1 and LAG-3 rapidly clears established blood-stage Plasmodium infection" Nat Immunol 13(2): 188-195. PubMed

Infection of erythrocytes with Plasmodium species induces clinical malaria. Parasite-specific CD4(+) T cells correlate with lower parasite burdens and severity of human malaria and are needed to control blood-stage infection in mice. However, the characteristics of CD4(+) T cells that determine protection or parasite persistence remain unknown. Here we show that infection of humans with Plasmodium falciparum resulted in higher expression of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 associated with T cell dysfunction. In vivo blockade of the PD-1 ligand PD-L1 and the inhibitory receptor LAG-3 restored CD4(+) T cell function, amplified the number of follicular helper T cells and germinal-center B cells and plasmablasts, enhanced protective antibodies and rapidly cleared blood-stage malaria in mice. Thus, chronic malaria drives specific T cell dysfunction, and proper function can be restored by inhibitory therapies to enhance parasite control.

in vivo CD4+ T cell depletion, Flow Cytometry
Krieg, C., et al. (2010). "Improved IL-2 immunotherapy by selective stimulation of IL-2 receptors on lymphocytes and endothelial cells" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(26): 11906-11911. PubMed

IL-2 immunotherapy is an attractive treatment option for certain metastatic cancers. However, administration of IL-2 to patients can lead, by ill-defined mechanisms, to toxic adverse effects including severe pulmonary edema. Here, we show that IL-2-induced pulmonary edema is caused by direct interaction of IL-2 with functional IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) on lung endothelial cells in vivo. Treatment of mice with high-dose IL-2 led to efficient expansion of effector immune cells expressing high levels of IL-2Rbetagamma, including CD8(+) T cells and natural killer cells, which resulted in a considerable antitumor response against s.c. and pulmonary B16 melanoma nodules. However, high-dose IL-2 treatment also affected immune cell lineage marker-negative CD31(+) pulmonary endothelial cells via binding to functional alphabetagamma IL-2Rs, expressed at low to intermediate levels on these cells, thus causing pulmonary edema. Notably, IL-2-mediated pulmonary edema was abrogated by a blocking antibody to IL-2Ralpha (CD25), genetic disruption of CD25, or the use of IL-2Rbetagamma-directed IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes, thereby interfering with IL-2 binding to IL-2Ralphabetagamma(+) pulmonary endothelial cells. Moreover, IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes led to vigorous activation of IL-2Rbetagamma(+) effector immune cells, which generated a dramatic antitumor response. Thus, IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes might improve current strategies of IL-2-based tumor immunotherapy.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    A tetravalent nanovaccine that inhibits growth of HPV-associated head and neck carcinoma via dendritic and T cell activation.

    In IScience on 19 April 2024 by Josi, R., Speiser, D. E., et al.

    PubMed

    The global incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck carcinoma is on the rise, in response to this a tetravalent therapeutic vaccine named Qβ-HPVag was developed. This vaccine, utilizing virus-like particles (VLPs) loaded with toll-like receptor ligands and chemically coupled to four HPV16-derived peptides, demonstrated strong anti-tumor effects in a murine head and neck cancer model. Qβ-HPVag impeded tumor progression, increased infiltration of HPV-specific T cells, and significantly improved survival. The vaccine`s efficacy was associated with immune repolarization in the tumor microenvironment, characterized by expanded activated dendritic cell subsets (cDC1, cDC2, DC3). Notably, mice responding to treatment exhibited a higher percentage of migratory DC3 cells expressing CCR7. These findings suggest promising prospects for optimized VLP-based vaccines in treating HPV-associated head and neck cancer. © 2024 The Author(s).

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    CCR2 and CCR5 co-inhibition modulates immunosuppressive myeloid milieu in glioma and synergizes with anti-PD-1 therapy.

    In Oncoimmunology on 9 April 2024 by Pant, A., Hwa-Lin Bergsneider, B., et al.

    PubMed

    Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of cancers. Reinvigorating lymphocytes with checkpoint blockade has become a cornerstone of immunotherapy for multiple tumor types, but the treatment of glioblastoma has not yet shown clinical efficacy. A major hurdle to treat GBM with checkpoint blockade is the high degree of myeloid-mediated immunosuppression in brain tumors that limits CD8 T-cell activity. A potential strategy to improve anti-tumor efficacy against glioma is to use myeloid-modulating agents to target immunosuppressive cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the tumor microenvironment. We found that the co-inhibition of the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5 in murine model of glioma improves the survival and synergizes robustly with anti-PD-1 therapy. Moreover, the treatment specifically reduced the infiltration of monocytic-MDSCs (M-MDSCs) into brain tumors and increased lymphocyte abundance and cytokine secretion by tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells. The depletion of T-cell subsets and myeloid cells abrogated the effects of CCR2 and CCR5 blockade, indicating that while broad depletion of myeloid cells does not improve survival, specific reduction in the infiltration of immunosuppressive myeloid cells, such as M-MDSCs, can boost the anti-tumor immune response of lymphocytes. Our study highlights the potential of CCR2/CCR5 co-inhibition in reducing myeloid-mediated immunosuppression in GBM patients. © 2024 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Mi-2β promotes immune evasion in melanoma by activating EZH2 methylation.

    In Nature Communications on 9 March 2024 by Li, C., Wang, Z., et al.

    PubMed

    Recent development of new immune checkpoint inhibitors has been particularly successfully in cancer treatment, but still the majority patients fail to benefit. Converting resistant tumors to immunotherapy sensitive will provide a significant improvement in patient outcome. Here we identify Mi-2β as a key melanoma-intrinsic effector regulating the adaptive anti-tumor immune response. Studies in genetically engineered mouse melanoma models indicate that loss of Mi-2β rescues the immune response to immunotherapy in vivo. Mechanistically, ATAC-seq analysis shows that Mi-2β controls the accessibility of IFN-γ-stimulated genes (ISGs). Mi-2β binds to EZH2 and promotes K510 methylation of EZH2, subsequently activating the trimethylation of H3K27 to inhibit the transcription of ISGs. Finally, we develop an Mi-2β-targeted inhibitor, Z36-MP5, which reduces Mi-2β ATPase activity and reactivates ISG transcription. Consequently, Z36-MP5 induces a response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in otherwise resistant melanoma models. Our work provides a potential therapeutic strategy to convert immunotherapy resistant melanomas to sensitive ones. © 2024. The Author(s).

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    A viral-specific CD4+ T cell response protects female mice from Coxsackievirus B3 infection.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 26 January 2024 by Pattnaik, A., Dhalech, A. H., et al.

    PubMed

    Biological sex plays an integral role in the immune response to various pathogens. The underlying basis for these sex differences is still not well defined. Here, we show that Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) induces a viral-specific CD4+ T cell response that can protect female mice from mortality. We inoculated C57BL/6 Ifnar-/- mice with CVB3. We investigated the T cell response in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes in male and female mice following infection. We found that CVB3 can induce expansion of CD62Llo CD4+ T cells in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen of female but not male mice as early as 5 days post-inoculation, indicative of activation. Using a recombinant CVB3 virus expressing a model CD4+ T cell epitope, we found that this response is due to viral antigen and not bystander activation. Finally, the depletion of CD4+ T cells before infection increased mortality in female mice, indicating that CD4+ T cells play a protective role against CVB3 in our model. Overall, these data demonstrated that CVB3 can induce an early CD4 response in female but not male mice and further emphasize how sex differences in immune responses to pathogens affect disease. Copyright © 2024 Pattnaik, Dhalech, Condotta, Corn, Richer, Snell and Robinson.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • COVID-19
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Pathology
    Adaptive immune cells are necessary for SARS-CoV-2-induced pathology.

    In Science Advances on 5 January 2024 by Imbiakha, B., Sahler, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing the ongoing global pandemic associated with morbidity and mortality in humans. Although disease severity correlates with immune dysregulation, the cellular mechanisms of inflammation and pathogenesis of COVID-19 remain relatively poorly understood. Here, we used mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain MA10 to investigate the role of adaptive immune cells in disease. We found that while infected wild-type mice lost ~10% weight by 3 to 4 days postinfection, rag-/- mice lacking B and T lymphocytes did not lose weight. Infected lungs at peak weight loss revealed lower pathology scores, fewer neutrophils, and lower interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in rag-/- mice. Mice lacking αβ T cells also had less severe weight loss, but adoptive transfer of T and B cells into rag-/- mice did not significantly change the response. Collectively, these findings suggest that while adaptive immune cells are important for clearing SARS-CoV-2 infection, this comes at the expense of increased inflammation and pathology.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    A partial human LCK defect causes a T cell immunodeficiency with intestinal inflammation.

    In The Journal of Experimental Medicine on 1 January 2024 by Lui, V. G., Hoenig, M., et al.

    PubMed

    Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK) is essential for T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated signal transduction. Here, we report two siblings homozygous for a novel LCK variant (c.1318C>T; P440S) characterized by T cell lymphopenia with skewed memory phenotype, infant-onset recurrent infections, failure to thrive, and protracted diarrhea. The patients' T cells show residual TCR signal transduction and proliferation following anti-CD3/CD28 and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation. We demonstrate in mouse models that complete (Lck-/-) versus partial (LckP440S/P440S) loss-of-function LCK causes disease with differing phenotypes. While both Lck-/- and LckP440S/P440S mice exhibit arrested thymic T cell development and profound T cell lymphopenia, only LckP440S/P440S mice show residual T cell proliferation, cytokine production, and intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, the intestinal disease in the LckP440S/P440S mice is prevented by CD4+ T cell depletion or regulatory T cell transfer. These findings demonstrate that P440S LCK spares sufficient T cell function to allow the maturation of some conventional T cells but not regulatory T cells-leading to intestinal inflammation. © 2023 Lui et al.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    • ,
    • Stem Cells and Developmental Biology
    Human neural stem cells restore spatial memory in a transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model by an immunomodulating mechanism.

    In Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience on 29 December 2023 by Chen, K. S., Noureldein, M. H., et al.

    PubMed

    Stem cells are a promising therapeutic in Alzheimer's disease (AD) given the complex pathophysiologic pathways involved. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of stem cells remain unclear. Here, we used spatial transcriptomics to elucidate therapeutic mechanisms of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) in an animal model of AD. hNSCs were transplanted into the fimbria fornix of the hippocampus using the 5XFAD mouse model. Spatial memory was assessed by Morris water maze. Amyloid plaque burden was quantified. Spatial transcriptomics was performed and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified both globally and within the hippocampus. Subsequent pathway enrichment and ligand-receptor network analysis was performed. hNSC transplantation restored learning curves of 5XFAD mice. However, there were no changes in amyloid plaque burden. Spatial transcriptomics showed 1,061 DEGs normalized in hippocampal subregions. Plaque induced genes in microglia, along with populations of stage 1 and stage 2 disease associated microglia (DAM), were normalized upon hNSC transplantation. Pathologic signaling between hippocampus and DAM was also restored. hNSCs normalized many dysregulated genes, although this was not mediated by a change in amyloid plaque levels. Rather, hNSCs appear to exert beneficial effects in part by modulating microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and signaling in AD. Copyright © 2023 Chen, Noureldein, McGinley, Hayes, Rigan, Kwentus, Mason, Mendelson, Savelieff and Feldman.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Lactose blocks intercellular spreading of Galectin-1 from cancer cells to T-cells and activates tumor immunological control

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 20 December 2023 by Hong, Y., Si, X., et al.

    PubMed

    Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system surveils cancer is the key to developing better tumor immunotherapy strategies. By CRISPR/Cas9 screenings, we identified that inactivation of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-1 (B4GALT1), a key enzyme in glycoconjugate biosynthesis, leads to enhanced T-cell receptor (TCR) activation and functions of CD8 + T-cells. Via proximity-dependent-intercellular-protein-spreading (PDICPS), cancer cells transfer surface-bound galectin-1 (Gal-1) proteins, which recognize and bind galactosylated membrane proteins, to CD8 + T-cells, thereby suppressing T-cell-mediated cytolysis. B4GALT1-deficiency leads to reduced cell-surface galactosylation and Gal-1 binding of CD8 + T-cells. Proteomic analysis revealed reduced binding of Gal-1 with TCR and its coreceptor CD8 on B4GALT1-deficient CD8 + T-cells, leading to enhanced TCR-CD8 colocalization and T-cell activation. Lactose, a structure-mimicking competitive inhibitor of N-glycan galactosylation, enhances the functions of CD8 + T-cells and tumor immunosurveillance. Results from various preclinical tumor models demonstrate that lactose and its derivatives are a new class of immune checkpoint inhibitors for tumor immunotherapy.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    The origins of IgA-secreting cells in the acinar structures of the nasal turbinates

    Preprint on Research Square on 15 December 2023 by Shulman, Z., Liu, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Nasal vaccination elicits a humoral immune response that provides protection from airborne pathogens, yet the origins and specific immune niches of antigen-specific IgA-secreting cells in the upper airways remain unknown. Here, we define glandular acinus structures of the nasal turbinates as an immunological niche that recruits IgA-secreting plasma cells from the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) in response to intranasal vaccination. Using intact organ imaging to visualize cognate T and B cells in the upper airways, we demonstrate that nasal vaccination induced extensive B cell expansion in the subepithelial dome (SED) of the NALT, followed by invasion into commensal bacteria-driven chronic germinal centers (GCs) in a T cell-dependent manner. Antigen-specific B cell response in the NALT required pre-expansion of cognate T cells, which initiate the immune response in the inter-follicular regions of the NALT, and occurred effectively in the presence of Monophosphoryl-Lipid A (MPLA), a synthetic, non-toxic TLR-4 agonist. NALT ablation and blockade of PSGL-1 demonstrated that intranasal vaccination generates IgA-expressing plasma cells that home to the nasal turbinates through the blood circulation where they are positioned primarily around glandular acinus structures. Thus, the glandular part of the nasal turbinate is an immunological niche that hosts NALT-derived IgA-secreting cells. These cellular events can be manipulated to design vaccines against inhaled pathogens or in the treatment of upper airway allergic responses.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Differential requirements for CD4+ T cells in the efficacy of the anti-PD-1+LAG-3 and anti-PD-1+CTLA-4 combinations in melanoma flank and brain metastasis models.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 6 December 2023 by Phadke, M. S., Li, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Although the anti-PD-1+LAG-3 and the anti-PD-1+CTLA-4 combinations are effective in advanced melanoma, it remains unclear whether their mechanisms of action overlap. We used single cell (sc) RNA-seq, flow cytometry and IHC analysis of responding SM1, D4M-UV2 and B16 melanoma flank tumors and SM1 brain metastases to explore the mechanism of action of the anti-PD-1+LAG-3 and the anti-PD-1+CTLA-4 combination. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell depletion, tetramer binding assays and ELISPOT assays were used to demonstrate the unique role of CD4+T cell help in the antitumor effects of the anti-PD-1+LAG-3 combination. The anti-PD-1+CTLA-4 combination was associated with the infiltration of FOXP3+regulatory CD4+ cells (Tregs), fewer activated CD4+T cells and the accumulation of a subset of IFNγ secreting cytotoxic CD8+T cells, whereas the anti-PD-1+LAG-3 combination led to the accumulation of CD4+T helper cells that expressed CXCR4, TNFSF8, IL21R and a subset of CD8+T cells with reduced expression of cytotoxic markers. T cell depletion studies showed a requirement for CD4+T cells for the anti-PD-1+LAG-3 combination, but not the PD-1-CTLA-4 combination at both flank and brain tumor sites. In anti-PD-1+LAG-3 treated tumors, CD4+T cell depletion was associated with fewer activated (CD69+) CD8+T cells and impaired IFNγ release but, conversely, increased numbers of activated CD8+T cells and IFNγ release in anti-PD-1+CTLA-4 treated tumors. Together these studies suggest that these two clinically relevant immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combinations have differential effects on CD4+T cell polarization, which in turn, impacted cytotoxic CD8+T cell function. Further insights into the mechanisms of action/resistance of these clinically-relevant ICI combinations will allow therapy to be further personalized. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Mice with FVB-derived sequence on chromosome 17 succumb to disseminated virus infection due to aberrant NK cell and T cell responses.

    In IScience on 17 November 2023 by Tibbs, T. N., Donoghue, L. J., et al.

    PubMed

    Zoonotic arenavirus infections can result in viral hemorrhagic disease, characterized by platelet loss, petechia, and multi-organ injury. The mechanisms governing these outcomes are likely impacted by virus strain and infection dose, as well as an individual's genetic background and immune constitution. To better understand the processes leading to severe pathogenesis, we compared two strains of inbred mice, C57BL/6J (B6) and FVB/NJ (FVB), that have diametrically opposed outcomes during disseminated lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Infection caused minimal pathogenesis in B6 mice, whereas FVB mice developed acute hepatitis and perished due, in part, to aberrant NK cell and T cell responses. Susceptible mice showed an outgrowth of cytolytic CD4+ T cells and loss of Treg cells. B6 congenic mice with the FVB allele at a 25Mb locus on chromosome 17 recapitulated FVB pathogenesis upon infection. A locus containing a limited number of variants in immune-related genes greatly impacts survival during infection. © 2023 The Author(s).

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    TIM-3 blockade in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma models promotes tumor regression and antitumor immune memory.

    In Cancer Cell on 13 November 2023 by Ausejo-Mauleon, I., Labiano, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive brain stem tumor and the leading cause of pediatric cancer-related death. To date, these tumors remain incurable, underscoring the need for efficacious therapies. In this study, we demonstrate that the immune checkpoint TIM-3 (HAVCR2) is highly expressed in both tumor cells and microenvironmental cells, mainly microglia and macrophages, in DIPG. We show that inhibition of TIM-3 in syngeneic models of DIPG prolongs survival and produces long-term survivors free of disease that harbor immune memory. This antitumor effect is driven by the direct effect of TIM-3 inhibition in tumor cells, the coordinated action of several immune cell populations, and the secretion of chemokines/cytokines that create a proinflammatory tumor microenvironment favoring a potent antitumor immune response. This work uncovers TIM-3 as a bona fide target in DIPG and supports its clinical translation. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    • ,
    • Stem Cells and Developmental Biology
    Human neural stem cells restore spatial memory in a transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mouse model by an immunomodulating mechanism

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 4 November 2023 by Chen, K. S., Noureldein, M. H., et al.

    PubMed

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Stem cells are a promising therapeutic in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) given the complex pathophysiologic pathways involved. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of stem cells remain unclear. Here, we used spatial transcriptomics to elucidate therapeutic mechanisms of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) in an animal model of AD. METHODS hNSCs were transplanted into the fimbria fornix of the hippocampus using the 5XFAD mouse model. Spatial memory was assessed by Morris water maze. Amyloid plaque burden was quantified. Spatial transcriptomics was performed and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified both globally and within the hippocampus. Subsequent pathway enrichment and ligand-receptor network analysis was performed. RESULTS hNSC transplantation restored learning curves of 5XFAD mice. However, there were no changes in amyloid plaque burden. Spatial transcriptomics showed 1061 DEGs normalized in hippocampal subregions. Plaque induced genes in microglia, along with populations of stage 1 and stage 2 disease associated microglia (DAM), were normalized upon hNSC transplantation. Pathologic signaling between hippocampus and DAM was also restored. DISCUSSION hNSCs normalized many dysregulated genes, although this was not mediated by a change in amyloid plaque levels. Rather, hNSCs appear to exert beneficial effects in part by modulating microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and signaling in AD.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    BCL2 Inhibition Reveals a Dendritic Cell-Specific Immune Checkpoint That Controls Tumor Immunosurveillance.

    In Cancer Discovery on 1 November 2023 by Zhao, L., Liu, P., et al.

    PubMed

    We developed a phenotypic screening platform for the functional exploration of dendritic cells (DC). Here, we report a genome-wide CRISPR screen that revealed BCL2 as an endogenous inhibitor of DC function. Knockout of BCL2 enhanced DC antigen presentation and activation as well as the capacity of DCs to control tumors and to synergize with PD-1 blockade. The pharmacologic BCL2 inhibitors venetoclax and navitoclax phenocopied these effects and caused a cDC1-dependent regression of orthotopic lung cancers and fibrosarcomas. Thus, solid tumors failed to respond to BCL2 inhibition in mice constitutively devoid of cDC1, and this was reversed by the infusion of DCs. Moreover, cDC1 depletion reduced the therapeutic efficacy of BCL2 inhibitors alone or in combination with PD-1 blockade and treatment with venetoclax caused cDC1 activation, both in mice and in patients. In conclusion, genetic and pharmacologic BCL2 inhibition unveils a DC-specific immune checkpoint that restrains tumor immunosurveillance. BCL2 inhibition improves the capacity of DCs to stimulate anticancer immunity and restrain cancer growth in an immunocompetent context but not in mice lacking cDC1 or mature T cells. This study indicates that BCL2 blockade can be used to sensitize solid cancers to PD-1/PD-L1-targeting immunotherapy. This article is featured in Selected Articles from This Issue, p. 2293. ©2023 American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Endothelial cells are a key target of IFN-g during response to combined PD-1/CTLA-4 ICB treatment in a mouse model of bladder cancer.

    In IScience on 20 October 2023 by Freshour, S. L., Chen, T. H., et al.

    PubMed

    To explore mechanisms of response to combined PD-1/CTLA-4 immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) treatment in individual cell types, we generated scRNA-seq using a mouse model of invasive urothelial carcinoma with three conditions: untreated tumor, treated tumor, and tumor treated after CD4+ T cell depletion. After classifying tumor cells based on detection of somatic variants and assigning non-tumor cell types using SingleR, we performed differential expression analysis, overrepresentation analysis, and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) within each cell type. GSEA revealed that endothelial cells were enriched for upregulated IFN-g response genes when comparing treated cells to both untreated cells and cells treated after CD4+ T cell depletion. Functional analysis showed that knocking out IFNgR1 in endothelial cells inhibited treatment response. Together, these results indicated that IFN-g signaling in endothelial cells is a key mediator of ICB induced anti-tumor activity. © 2023 The Authors.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Endocrinology and Physiology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Angiopoietin-2 blockade suppresses growth of liver metastases from pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors by promoting T cell recruitment.

    In The Journal of Clinical Investigation on 16 October 2023 by Lee, E., O'Keefe, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Improving the management of metastasis in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) is critical, as nearly half of patients with PanNETs present with liver metastases, and this accounts for the majority of patient mortality. We identified angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) as one of the most upregulated angiogenic factors in RNA-Seq data from human PanNET liver metastases and found that higher ANGPT2 expression correlated with poor survival rates. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that ANGPT2 was localized to the endothelial cells of blood vessels in PanNET liver metastases. We observed an association between the upregulation of endothelial ANGPT2 and liver metastatic progression in both patients and transgenic mouse models of PanNETs. In human and mouse PanNET liver metastases, ANGPT2 upregulation coincided with poor T cell infiltration, indicative of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Notably, both pharmacologic inhibition and genetic deletion of ANGPT2 in PanNET mouse models slowed the growth of PanNET liver metastases. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of ANGPT2 promoted T cell infiltration and activation in liver metastases, improving the survival of mice with metastatic PanNETs. These changes were accompanied by reduced plasma leakage and improved vascular integrity in metastases. Together, these findings suggest that ANGPT2 blockade may be an effective strategy for promoting T cell infiltration and immunostimulatory reprogramming to reduce the growth of liver metastases in PanNETs.

    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Spleen-targeted neoantigen DNA vaccine for personalized immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    In EMBO Molecular Medicine on 11 October 2023 by Wu, M., Luo, Z., et al.

    PubMed

    Neoantigens are emerging as attractive targets to develop personalized cancer vaccines, but their immunization efficacy is severely hampered by their restricted accessibility to lymphoid tissues where immune responses are initiated. Leveraging the capability of red blood cells (RBCs) to capture and present pathogens in peripheral blood to the antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in spleen, we developed a RBC-driven spleen targeting strategy to deliver DNA vaccine encoding hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) neoantigen. The DNA vaccine-encapsulating polymeric nanoparticles that were intentionally hitchhiked on the preisolated RBCs could preferentially accumulate in the spleen to promote the neoantigen expression by APCs, resulting in the burst of neoantigen-specific T-cell immunity to prevent tumorigenesis in a personalized manner, and slow down tumor growth in the established aggressively growing HCC. Remarkably, when combined with anti-PD-1, the vaccine achieved complete tumor regression and generated a robust systemic immune response with long-term tumor-specific immunological memory, which thoroughly prevented tumor recurrence and spontaneous lung metastasis. This study offers a prospective strategy to develop personalized neoantigen vaccines for augmenting cancer immunotherapy efficiency in immune "cold" HCC. © 2023 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Adenosine A2A receptor is a tumor suppressor of NASH-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

    In Cell Reports Medicine on 19 September 2023 by Allard, B., Jacoberger-Foissac, C., et al.

    PubMed

    Inhibition of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy currently evaluated in several clinical trials. We here report that anti-obesogenic and anti-inflammatory functions of A2AR, however, significantly restrain hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Adora2a deletion in mice triggers obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and systemic inflammation, leading to spontaneous HCC and promoting dimethylbenzyl-anthracene (DMBA)- or diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC. Conditional Adora2a deletion reveals critical roles of myeloid and hepatocyte-derived A2AR signaling in restraining HCC by limiting hepatic inflammation and steatosis. Remarkably, the impact of A2AR pharmacological blockade on HCC development is dependent on pre-existing NASH. In support of our animal studies, low ADORA2A gene expression in human HCC is associated with cirrhosis, hepatic inflammation, and poor survival. Together, our study uncovers a previously unappreciated tumor-suppressive function for A2AR in the liver and suggests caution in the use of A2AR antagonists in patients with NASH and NASH-associated HCC. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Assessing the role of T cells in response to retinal injury to uncover new therapeutic targets for the treatment of retinal degeneration.

    In Journal of Neuroinflammation on 9 September 2023 by Conedera, F. M., Runnels, J. M., et al.

    PubMed

    Retinal degeneration is a disease affecting the eye, which is an immune-privileged site because of its anatomical and physiological properties. Alterations in retinal homeostasis-because of injury, disease, or aging-initiate inflammatory cascades, where peripheral leukocytes (PL) infiltrate the parenchyma, leading to retinal degeneration. So far, research on PL's role in retinal degeneration was limited to observing a few cell types at specific times or sectioning the tissue. This restricted our understanding of immune cell interactions and response duration. In vivo microscopy in preclinical mouse models can overcome these limitations enabling the spatio-temporal characterization of PL dynamics. Through in vivo imaging, we assessed structural and fluorescence changes in response to a focal injury at a defined location over time. We also utilized minimally invasive techniques, pharmacological interventions, and knockout (KO) mice to determine the role of PL in local inflammation. Furthermore, we investigated PL abundance and localization during retinal degeneration in human eyes by histological analysis to assess to which extent our preclinical study translates to human retinal degeneration. We demonstrate that PL, especially T cells, play a detrimental role during retinal injury response. In mice, we observed the recruitment of helper and cytotoxic T cells in the parenchyma post-injury, and T cells also resided in the macula and peripheral retina in pathological conditions in humans. Additionally, we found that the pharmacological PL reduction and genetic depletion of T-cells reduced injured areas in murine retinas and rescued the blood-retina barrier (BRB) integrity. Both conditions promoted morphological changes of Cx3cr1+ cells, including microglial cells, toward an amoeboid phenotype during injury response. Interestingly, selective depletion of CD8+ T cells accelerated recovery of the BRB compared to broader depletions. After anti-CD8 treatment, the retinal function improved, concomitant to a beneficial immune response. Our data provide novel insights into the adaptive immune response to retinal injury in mice and human retinal degeneration. Such information is fundamental to understanding retinal disorders and developing therapeutics to modulate immune responses to retinal degeneration safely. © 2023. BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    The pseudokinase Trib1 regulates the transition of exhausted T cells to a KLR+ CD8+ effector state, and its deletion improves checkpoint blockade.

    In Cell Reports on 29 August 2023 by McClory, S. E., Bardhan, O., et al.

    PubMed

    CD8+ T cell exhaustion (TEX) impairs the ability of T cells to clear chronic infection or cancer. While TEX are hypofunctional, some TEX retain effector gene signatures, a feature associated with killer lectin-like receptor (KLR) expression. Although KLR+ TEX (TKLR) may improve control of chronic antigen, the signaling molecules regulating this population are poorly understood. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), flow cytometry, RNA velocity, and single-cell T cell receptor sequencing (scTCR-seq), we demonstrate that deleting the pseudokinase Trib1 shifts TEX toward CX3CR1+ intermediates with robust enrichment of TKLR via clonal T cell expansion. Adoptive transfer studies demonstrate this shift toward CD8+ TKLR in Trib1-deficient cells is CD8 intrinsic, while CD4-depletion studies demonstrate CD4+ T cells are required for improved viral control in Trib1 conditional knockout mice. Further, Trib1 loss augments anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade to improve viral clearance. These data identify Trib1 as an important regulator of CD8+ TEX whose targeting enhances the TKLR effector state and improves checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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