InVivoSIM anti-human PD-1 (Pembrolizumab Biosimilar)

Catalog #SIM0010
Product Citations:
2
Clone:
Pembrolizumab
Reactivities:
Human

$224.00 - $7,752.00

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Product Details

This non-therapeutic biosimilar antibody uses the same variable regions from the therapeutic antibody Pembrolizumab making it ideal for research use. This Pembrolizumab biosimilar reacts with human PD-1 (programmed death-1) also known as CD279. PD-1 is a 50-55 kDa cell surface receptor encoded by the Pdcd1 gene that belongs to the CD28 family of the Ig superfamily. PD-1 is transiently expressed on CD4 and CD8 thymocytes as well as activated T and B lymphocytes and myeloid cells. PD-1 expression declines after successful elimination of antigen. Additionally, Pdcd1 mRNA is expressed in developing B lymphocytes during the pro-B-cell stage. PD-1’s structure includes a ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif) suggesting that PD-1 negatively regulates TCR signals. PD-1 signals via binding its two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2 both members of the B7 family. Upon ligand binding, PD-1 signaling inhibits T-cell activation, leading to reduced proliferation, cytokine production, and T-cell death. Additionally, PD-1 is known to play key roles in peripheral tolerance and prevention of autoimmune disease. Induced PD-L1 expression is common in many tumors including squamous cell carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, and breast adenocarcinoma. PD-L1 overexpression results in increased resistance of tumor cells to CD8 T cell mediated lysis. PD-L1 overexpression results in increased resistance of tumor cells to CD8 T cell mediated lysis. In experimental models of melanoma, tumor growth can be transiently arrested via treatment with antibodies which block the interaction between PD-L1 and its receptor PD-1. For these reasons anti-PD-1 mediated immunotherapies are currently being used as cancer treatments. Pembrolizumab binds to PD-1 on activated immune cells to selectively block the interaction of PD-1 with its ligands.

Specifications

Isotype Human IgG4
Recommended Isotype Control(s) RecombiMAb human IgG4 (S228P) isotype control, anti-hen egg lysozyme
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Mutations S228P
Immunogen Human PD-1
Reported Applications Blocking of PD-1/PD-L signaling
Functional assays
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <1EU/mg (<0.001EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Aggregation <5%
Determined by SEC
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein A
RRID AB_2894731
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Murine Pathogen Tests Ectromelia/Mousepox Virus: Negative
Hantavirus: Negative
K Virus: Negative
Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus: Negative
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus: Negative
Mouse Adenovirus: Negative
Mouse Cytomegalovirus: Negative
Mouse Hepatitis Virus: Negative
Mouse Minute Virus: Negative
Mouse Norovirus: Negative
Mouse Parvovirus: Negative
Mouse Rotavirus: Negative
Mycoplasma Pulmonis: Negative
Pneumonia Virus of Mice: Negative
Polyoma Virus: Negative
Reovirus Screen: Negative
Sendai Virus: Negative
Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis: Negative
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vivo blocking of PD-1/PD-L signaling
Yu W, He J, Wang F, He Q, Shi Y, Tao X, Sun B. (2023). "NR4A1 mediates NK-cell dysfunction in hepatocellular carcinoma via the IFN-γ/p-STAT1/IRF1 pathway" Immunology 169(1):69-82. PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most fatal tumours worldwide and has a high recurrence rate. Nevertheless, the mechanism of HCC genesis remains partly unexplored, while the efficiency of HCC treatments remains limited. The present study analysed the expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1) in tumour-infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells derived from both human patients with HCC and tumour-bearing mouse models, as well as the features of NR4A1high and NR4A1low NK cells. In addition, knockout of NR4A1 by CRISPR/Cas9 and adoptive transfer experiments were applied to verify the function of NR4A1 in both tumour-infiltrating NK cells and anti-PD-1 therapy. The present study found that NR4A1 was significantly highly expressed in tumour-infiltrating NK cells, which mediated the dysfunction of tumour-infiltrating NK cells by regulating the IFN-γ/p-STAT1/IRF1 signalling pathway. Knockout of NR4A1 in NK cells not only restored the antitumour function of NK cells but also enhanced the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy. The present findings suggest a regulatory role of NR4A1 in the immune progress of NK cells against HCC, which may provide a new direction for immunotherapies of HCC.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    E3 ligase TRIM28 promotes anti-PD-1 resistance in non-small cell lung cancer by enhancing the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    In Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research : CR on 21 October 2023 by Liang, M., Sun, Z., et al.

    PubMed

    Alterations in several tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) family proteins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. TRIM28, a member of the TRIM E3 ligase family, has been associated with tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, and inflammation. However, little is known about TRIM28 expression and its role in the immune microenvironment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We assessed the clinical significance of TRIM28 in tissue microarrays and TCGA cohorts. We investigated the function of TRIM28 in syngeneic mouse tumor models, the KrasLSL-G12D/+; Tp53fl/fl (KP) mouse model, and humanized mice. Immune cell composition was analyzed using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Our findings revealed a positive correlation between TRIM28 expression and the infiltration of suppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in NSCLC. Moreover, silencing TRIM28 enhanced the efficacy of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy by reshaping the inflamed tumor microenvironment. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that TRIM28 could physically interact with receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and promote K63-linked ubiquitination of RIPK1, which is crucial for sustaining activation of the NF-κB pathway. Mutagenesis of the E3 ligase domain corroborated the essential role of E3 ligase activity in TRIM28-mediated NF-κB activation. Further experiments revealed that TRIM28 could upregulate the expression of CXCL1 by activating NF-κB signaling. CXCL1 could bind to CXCR2 on MDSCs and promote their migration to the tumor microenvironment. TRIM28 knockdown increased responsiveness to anti-PD-1 therapy in immunocompetent mice, characterized by increased CD8+T tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and decreased MDSCs. The present study identified TRIM28 as a promoter of chemokine-driven recruitment of MDSCs through RIPK1-mediated NF-κB activation, leading to the suppression of infiltrating activated CD8+T cells and the development of anti-PD-1 resistance. Understanding the regulation of MDSC recruitment and function by TRIM28 provides crucial insights into the association between TRIM28 signaling and the development of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. These insights may inform the development of combination therapies to enhance the effectiveness of immune checkpoint blockade therapy in NSCLC. © 2023. Italian National Cancer Institute ‘Regina Elena’.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    NR4A1 mediates NK-cell dysfunction in hepatocellular carcinoma via the IFN-γ/p-STAT1/IRF1 pathway.

    In Immunology on 1 May 2023 by Yu, W., He, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most fatal tumours worldwide and has a high recurrence rate. Nevertheless, the mechanism of HCC genesis remains partly unexplored, while the efficiency of HCC treatments remains limited. The present study analysed the expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1) in tumour-infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells derived from both human patients with HCC and tumour-bearing mouse models, as well as the features of NR4A1high and NR4A1low NK cells. In addition, knockout of NR4A1 by CRISPR/Cas9 and adoptive transfer experiments were applied to verify the function of NR4A1 in both tumour-infiltrating NK cells and anti-PD-1 therapy. The present study found that NR4A1 was significantly highly expressed in tumour-infiltrating NK cells, which mediated the dysfunction of tumour-infiltrating NK cells by regulating the IFN-γ/p-STAT1/IRF1 signalling pathway. Knockout of NR4A1 in NK cells not only restored the antitumour function of NK cells but also enhanced the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy. The present findings suggest a regulatory role of NR4A1 in the immune progress of NK cells against HCC, which may provide a new direction for immunotherapies of HCC. © 2022 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.