InVivoPlus anti-mouse CTLA-4 (CD152)

Catalog #BP0164
Product Citations:
18
Clone:
9D9
Reactivities:
Mouse

$781.00 - $5,568.00

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Product Details

The 9D9 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4) also known as CD152. CTLA-4 is a 33 kDa cell surface receptor encoded by the Ctla4 gene that belongs to the CD28 family of the Ig superfamily. CTLA-4 is expressed on activated T and B lymphocytes. CTLA-4 is structurally similar to the T-cell co-stimulatory protein, CD28, and both molecules bind to the B7 family members B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86). Upon ligand binding, CTLA-4 negatively regulates cell-mediated immune responses. CTLA-4 plays roles in induction and/or maintenance of immunological tolerance, thymocyte development, and regulation of protective immunity. The critical role of CTLA-4 in immune down-regulation has been demonstrated in CTLA-4 deficient mice, which succumb at 3-5 weeks of age due to the development of a lymphoproliferative disease. CTLA-4 is among a group of inhibitory receptors being explored as cancer treatment targets through immune checkpoint blockade. This CTLA-4 antibody has been extensively used in blocking/neutralization experiments and findings from a range of tumor models have established that the in vivo treatment of 9D9 monoclonal antibody results in intra-tumoral regulatory T cell depletion.

Specifications

Isotype Mouse IgG2b
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoPlus mouse IgG2b isotype control, unknown specificity
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen Not available or unknown
Reported Applications in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Western blot
in vivo intra-tumoral regulatory T cell depletion
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Aggregation* <5%
Determined by SEC
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein A
RRID AB_10949609
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Murine Pathogen Tests* Ectromelia/Mousepox Virus: Negative
Hantavirus: Negative
K Virus: Negative
Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus: Negative
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus: Negative
Mouse Adenovirus: Negative
Mouse Cytomegalovirus: Negative
Mouse Hepatitis Virus: Negative
Mouse Minute Virus: Negative
Mouse Norovirus: Negative
Mouse Parvovirus: Negative
Mouse Rotavirus: Negative
Mycoplasma Pulmonis: Negative
Pneumonia Virus of Mice: Negative
Polyoma Virus: Negative
Reovirus Screen: Negative
Sendai Virus: Negative
Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis: Negative
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
* Additional quality control measures for our InVivoPlus™ products include advanced binding validation, murine pathogen screening, protein aggregation screening, and ultra-low endotoxin levels. The superior quality of our InVivoPlus™ products will meet and exceed the strict demands and rigorous standards required for in vivo research. Learn more about the InVivoPlus™ difference here.
in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Dai, M., et al. (2015). "Curing mice with large tumors by locally delivering combinations of immunomodulatory antibodies" Clin Cancer Res 21(5): 1127-1138. PubMed

PURPOSE: Immunomodulatory mAbs can treat cancer, but cures are rare except for small tumors. Our objective was to explore whether the therapeutic window increases by combining mAbs with different modes of action and injecting them into tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Combinations of mAbs to CD137/PD-1/CTLA-4 or CD137/PD-1/CTLA-4/CD19 were administrated intratumorally to mice with syngeneic tumors (B16 and SW1 melanoma, TC1 lung carcinoma), including tumors with a mean surface of approximately 80 mm(2). Survival and tumor growth were assessed. Immunologic responses were evaluated using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. RESULTS: More than 50% of tumor-bearing mice had complete regression and long-term survival after tumor injection with mAbs recognizing CD137/PD-1/CTLA-4/CD19 with similar responses in three models. Intratumoral injection was more efficacious than intraperitoneal injection in causing rejection also of untreated tumors in the same mice. The three-mAb combination could also induce regression, but was less efficacious. There were few side effects, and therapy-resistant tumors were not observed. Transplanted tumor cells rapidly caused a Th2 response with increased CD19 cells. Successful therapy shifted this response to the Th1 phenotype with decreased CD19 cells and increased numbers of long-term memory CD8 effector cells and T cells making IFNgamma and TNFalpha. CONCLUSIONS: Intratumoral injection of mAbs recognizing CD137/PD-1/CTLA-4/CD19 can eradicate established tumors and reverse a Th2 response with tumor-associated CD19 cells to Th1 immunity, whereas a combination lacking anti-CD19 is less effective. There are several human cancers for which a similar approach may provide clinical benefit.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Zippelius, A., et al. (2015). "Induced PD-L1 expression mediates acquired resistance to agonistic anti-CD40 treatment" Cancer Immunol Res 3(3): 236-244. PubMed

CD40 stimulation on antigen-presenting cells (APC) allows direct activation of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells, independent of CD4(+) T-cell help. Agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies have been demonstrated to induce beneficial antitumor T-cell responses in mouse models of cancer and early clinical trials. We report here that anti-CD40 treatment induces programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) upregulation on tumor-infiltrating monocytes and macrophages, which was strictly dependent on T cells and IFNgamma. PD-L1 expression could be counteracted by coadministration of antibodies blocking the PD-1 (programmed death-1)/PD-L1 axis as shown for T cells from tumor models and human donors. The combined treatment was highly synergistic and induced complete tumor rejection in about 50% of mice bearing MC-38 colon and EMT-6 breast tumors. Mechanistically, this was reflected by a strong increase of IFNgamma and granzyme-B production in intratumoral CD8(+) T cells. Concomitant CTLA-4 blockade further improved rejection of established tumors in mice. This study uncovers a novel mechanism of acquired resistance upon agonistic CD40 stimulation and proposes that the concomitant blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis is a viable therapeutic strategy to optimize clinical outcomes.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Redmond, W. L., et al. (2014). "Combined targeting of costimulatory (OX40) and coinhibitory (CTLA-4) pathways elicits potent effector T cells capable of driving robust antitumor immunity" Cancer Immunol Res 2(2): 142-153. PubMed

Ligation of the TNF receptor family costimulatory molecule OX40 (CD134) with an agonist anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) enhances antitumor immunity by augmenting T-cell differentiation as well as turning off the suppressive activity of the FoxP3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). In addition, antibody-mediated blockade of the checkpoint inhibitor CTLA-4 releases the “brakes” on T cells to augment tumor immunotherapy. However, monotherapy with these agents has limited therapeutic benefit particularly against poorly immunogenic murine tumors. Therefore, we examined whether the administration of agonist anti-OX40 therapy in the presence of CTLA-4 blockade would enhance tumor immunotherapy. Combined anti-OX40/anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy significantly enhanced tumor regression and the survival of tumor-bearing hosts in a CD4 and CD8 T cell-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies revealed that the combination immunotherapy directed the expansion of effector T-bet(high)/Eomes(high) granzyme B(+) CD8 T cells. Dual immunotherapy also induced distinct populations of Th1 [interleukin (IL)-2, IFN-gamma], and, surprisingly, Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) CD4 T cells exhibiting increased T-bet and Gata-3 expression. Furthermore, IL-4 blockade inhibited the Th2 response, while maintaining the Th1 CD4 and effector CD8 T cells that enhanced tumor-free survival. These data demonstrate that refining the global T-cell response during combination immunotherapy can further enhance the therapeutic efficacy of these agents.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Condamine, T., et al. (2014). "ER stress regulates myeloid-derived suppressor cell fate through TRAIL-R-mediated apoptosis" J Clin Invest 124(6): 2626-2639. PubMed

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) dampen the immune response thorough inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation and often are expanded in pathological conditions. Here, we studied the fate of MDSCs in cancer. Unexpectedly, MDSCs had lower viability and a shorter half-life in tumor-bearing mice compared with neutrophils and monocytes. The reduction of MDSC viability was due to increased apoptosis, which was mediated by increased expression of TNF-related apoptosis-induced ligand receptors (TRAIL-Rs) in these cells. Targeting TRAIL-Rs in naive mice did not affect myeloid cell populations, but it dramatically reduced the presence of MDSCs and improved immune responses in tumor-bearing mice. Treatment of myeloid cells with proinflammatory cytokines did not affect TRAIL-R expression; however, induction of ER stress in myeloid cells recapitulated changes in TRAIL-R expression observed in tumor-bearing hosts. The ER stress response was detected in MDSCs isolated from cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice, but not in control neutrophils or monocytes, and blockade of ER stress abrogated tumor-associated changes in TRAIL-Rs. Together, these data indicate that MDSC pathophysiology is linked to ER stress, which shortens the lifespan of these cells in the periphery and promotes expansion in BM. Furthermore, TRAIL-Rs can be considered as potential targets for selectively inhibiting MDSCs.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Muller, P., et al. (2014). "Microtubule-depolymerizing agents used in antibody-drug conjugates induce antitumor immunity by stimulation of dendritic cells" Cancer Immunol Res 2(8): 741-755. PubMed

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) are emerging as powerful treatment strategies with outstanding target-specificity and high therapeutic activity in patients with cancer. Brentuximab vedotin represents a first-in-class ADC directed against CD30(+) malignancies. We hypothesized that its sustained clinical responses could be related to the stimulation of an anticancer immune response. In this study, we demonstrate that the dolastatin family of microtubule inhibitors, from which the cytotoxic component of brentuximab vedotin is derived, comprises potent inducers of phenotypic and functional dendritic cell (DC) maturation. In addition to the direct cytotoxic effect on tumor cells, dolastatins efficiently promoted antigen uptake and migration of tumor-resident DCs to the tumor-draining lymph nodes. Exposure of murine and human DCs to dolastatins significantly increased their capacity to prime T cells. Underlining the requirement of an intact host immune system for the full therapeutic benefit of dolastatins, the antitumor effect was far less pronounced in immunocompromised mice. We observed substantial therapeutic synergies when combining dolastatins with tumor antigen-specific vaccination or blockade of the PD-1-PD-L1 and CTLA-4 coinhibitory pathways. Ultimately, treatment with ADCs using dolastatins induces DC homing and activates cellular antitumor immune responses in patients. Our data reveal a novel mechanism of action for dolastatins and provide a strong rationale for clinical treatment regimens combining dolastatin-based therapies, such as brentuximab vedotin, with immune-based therapies.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Bulliard, Y., et al. (2013). "Activating Fc gamma receptors contribute to the antitumor activities of immunoregulatory receptor-targeting antibodies" J Exp Med 210(9): 1685-1693. PubMed

Fc gamma receptor (FcgammaR) coengagement can facilitate antibody-mediated receptor activation in target cells. In particular, agonistic antibodies that target tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members have shown dependence on expression of the inhibitory FcgammaR, FcgammaRIIB. It remains unclear if engagement of FcgammaRIIB also extends to the activities of antibodies targeting immunoregulatory TNFRs expressed by T cells. We have explored the requirement for activating and inhibitory FcgammaRs for the antitumor effects of antibodies targeting the TNFR glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR; TNFRSF18; CD357) expressed on activated and regulatory T cells (T reg cells). We found that although FcgammaRIIB was dispensable for the in vivo efficacy of anti-GITR antibodies, in contrast, activating FcgammaRs were essential. Surprisingly, the dependence on activating FcgammaRs extended to an antibody targeting the non-TNFR receptor CTLA-4 (CD152) that acts as a negative regulator of T cell immunity. We define a common mechanism that correlated with tumor efficacy, whereby antibodies that coengaged activating FcgammaRs expressed by tumor-associated leukocytes facilitated the selective elimination of intratumoral T cell populations, particularly T reg cells. These findings may have broad implications for antibody engineering efforts aimed at enhancing the therapeutic activity of immunomodulatory antibodies.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Wei, H., et al. (2013). "Combinatorial PD-1 blockade and CD137 activation has therapeutic efficacy in murine cancer models and synergizes with cisplatin" PLoS One 8(12): e84927. PubMed

90 days (and was probably curative) by a mechanism which included a systemic CD8(+) T cell response with tumor specificity and immunological memory. Strikingly, combined treatment of cisplatin and CD137/PD-1 mAb also gave rise to the long-term survival of mice with established TC1 lung tumors. A similar combination of the 2 mAbs and cisplatin should be considered for clinical ‘translation’.”}” data-sheets-userformat=”{“2″:14851,”3”:{“1″:0},”4”:{“1″:2,”2″:16777215},”12″:0,”14”:{“1″:2,”2″:1521491},”15″:”Roboto, sans-serif”,”16″:12}”>There is an urgent need for improved therapy for advanced ovarian carcinoma, which may be met by administering immune-modulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to generate a tumor-destructive immune response. Using the ID8 mouse ovarian cancer model, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of various mAb combinations in mice with intraperitoneal (i.p.) tumor established by transplanting 3 x 10(6) ID8 cells 10 days previously. While most of the tested mAbs were ineffective when given individually or together, the data confirm our previous finding that 2 i.p. injections of a combination of anti-CD137 with anti-PD-1 mAbs doubles overall survival. Mice treated with this mAb combination have a significantly increased frequency and total number of CD8(+) T cells both in the peritoneal lavage and spleens, and these cells are functional as demonstrated by antigen-specific cytolytic activity and IFN-gamma production. While administration of anti-CD137 mAb as a single agent similarly increases CD8(+) T cells, these have no functional activity, which may be attributed to up-regulation of co-inhibitory PD-1 and TIM-3 molecules induced by CD137. Addition of the anti-cancer drug cisplatin to the 2 mAb combination increased overall survival >90 days (and was probably curative) by a mechanism which included a systemic CD8(+) T cell response with tumor specificity and immunological memory. Strikingly, combined treatment of cisplatin and CD137/PD-1 mAb also gave rise to the long-term survival of mice with established TC1 lung tumors. A similar combination of the 2 mAbs and cisplatin should be considered for clinical ‘translation’.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Dai, M., et al. (2013). "Long-lasting complete regression of established mouse tumors by counteracting Th2 inflammation" J Immunother 36(4): 248-257. PubMed

40% of mice with SW1 tumors remained healthy >150 days after last treatment and are probably cured. Therapeutic efficacy was associated with a systemic immune response with memory and antigen specificity, required CD4 cells and involved CD8 cells and NK cells to a less extent. The 3 mAb combination significantly decreased CD19 cells at tumor sites, increased IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha producing CD4 and CD8 T cells and mature CD86 dendritic cells (DC), and it increased the ratios of effector CD4 and CD8 T cells to CD4Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells and to CD11bGr-1 myeloid suppressor cells (MDSC). This is consistent with shifting the tumor microenvironment from an immunosuppressive Th2 to an immunostimulatory Th1 type and is further supported by PCR data. Adding an anti-CD19 mAb to the 3 mAb combination in the SW1 model further increased therapeutic efficacy. Data from ongoing experiments show that intratumoral injection of a combination of mAbs to CD137PD-1CTLA4CD19 can induce complete regression and dramatically prolong survival also in the TC1 carcinoma and B16 melanoma models, suggesting that the approach has general validity.”}” data-sheets-userformat=”{“2″:14851,”3”:{“1″:0},”4”:{“1″:2,”2″:16777215},”12″:0,”14”:{“1″:2,”2″:1521491},”15″:”Roboto, sans-serif”,”16″:12}”>Mice with intraperitoneal ID8 ovarian carcinoma or subcutaneous SW1 melanoma were injected with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to CD137PD-1CTLA4 7-15 days after tumor initiation. Survival of mice with ID8 tumors tripled and >40% of mice with SW1 tumors remained healthy >150 days after last treatment and are probably cured. Therapeutic efficacy was associated with a systemic immune response with memory and antigen specificity, required CD4 cells and involved CD8 cells and NK cells to a less extent. The 3 mAb combination significantly decreased CD19 cells at tumor sites, increased IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha producing CD4 and CD8 T cells and mature CD86 dendritic cells (DC), and it increased the ratios of effector CD4 and CD8 T cells to CD4Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells and to CD11bGr-1 myeloid suppressor cells (MDSC). This is consistent with shifting the tumor microenvironment from an immunosuppressive Th2 to an immunostimulatory Th1 type and is further supported by PCR data. Adding an anti-CD19 mAb to the 3 mAb combination in the SW1 model further increased therapeutic efficacy. Data from ongoing experiments show that intratumoral injection of a combination of mAbs to CD137PD-1CTLA4CD19 can induce complete regression and dramatically prolong survival also in the TC1 carcinoma and B16 melanoma models, suggesting that the approach has general validity.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Hooijkaas, A., et al. (2012). "Selective BRAF inhibition decreases tumor-resident lymphocyte frequencies in a mouse model of human melanoma" Oncoimmunology 1(5): 609-617. PubMed

The development of targeted therapies and immunotherapies has markedly advanced the treatment of metastasized melanoma. While treatment with selective BRAF(V600E) inhibitors (like vemurafenib or dabrafenib) leads to high response rates but short response duration, CTLA-4 blocking therapies induce sustained responses, but only in a limited number of patients. The combination of these diametric treatment approaches may further improve survival, but pre-clinical data concerning this approach is limited. We investigated, using Tyr::CreER(T2)PTEN(F-/-)BRAF(F-V600E/+) inducible melanoma mice, whether BRAF(V600E) inhibition can synergize with anti-CTLA-4 mAb treatment, focusing on the interaction between the BRAF(V600E) inhibitor PLX4720 and the immune system. While PLX4720 treatment strongly decreased tumor growth, it did not induce cell death in BRAF(V600E)/PTEN(-/-) melanomas. More strikingly, PLX4720 treatment led to a decreased frequency of tumor-resident T cells, NK-cells, MDSCs and macrophages, which could not be restored by the addition of anti-CTLA-4 mAb. As this effect was not observed upon treatment of BRAF wild-type B16F10 tumors, we conclude that the decreased frequency of immune cells correlates to BRAF(V600E) inhibition in tumor cells and is not due to an off-target effect of PLX4720 on immune cells. Furthermore, anti-CTLA-4 mAb treatment of inducible melanoma mice treated with PLX4720 did not result in enhanced tumor control, while anti-CTLA-4 mAb treatment did improve the effect of tumor-vaccination in B16F10-inoculated mice. Our data suggest that vemurafenib may negatively affect the immune activity within the tumor. Therefore, the potential effect of targeted therapy on the tumor-microenvironment should be taken into consideration in the design of clinical trials combining targeted and immunotherapy.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Curran, M. A., et al. (2011). "Combination CTLA-4 blockade and 4-1BB activation enhances tumor rejection by increasing T-cell infiltration, proliferation, and cytokine production" PLoS One 6(4): e19499. PubMed

BACKGROUND: The co-inhibitory receptor Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) attenuates immune responses and prevent autoimmunity, however, tumors exploit this pathway to evade the host T-cell response. The T-cell co-stimulatory receptor 4-1BB is transiently upregulated on T-cells following activation and increases their proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production when engaged. Antibodies which block CTLA-4 or which activate 4-1BB can promote the rejection of some murine tumors, but fail to cure poorly immunogenic tumors like B16 melanoma as single agents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We find that combining alphaCTLA-4 and alpha4-1BB antibodies in the context of a Flt3-ligand, but not a GM-CSF, based B16 melanoma vaccine promoted synergistic levels of tumor rejection. 4-1BB activation elicited strong infiltration of CD8+ T-cells into the tumor and drove the proliferation of these cells, while CTLA-4 blockade did the same for CD4+ effector T-cells. Anti-4-1BB also depressed regulatory T-cell infiltration of tumors. 4-1BB activation strongly stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in the vaccine and tumor draining lymph nodes and in the tumor itself. The addition of CTLA-4 blockade further increased IFN-gamma production from CD4+ effector T-cells in the vaccine draining node and the tumor. Anti 4-1BB treatment, with or without CTLA-4 blockade, induced approximately 75% of CD8+ and 45% of CD4+ effector T-cells in the tumor to express the killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1). Tumors treated with combination antibody therapy showed 1.7-fold greater infiltration by these KLRG1+CD4+ effector T-cells than did those treated with alpha4-1BB alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that combining T-cell co-inhibitory blockade with alphaCTLA-4 and active co-stimulation with alpha4-1BB promotes rejection of B16 melanoma in the context of a suitable vaccine. In addition, we identify KLRG1 as a useful marker for monitoring the anti-tumor immune response elicited by this therapy. These findings should aid in the design of future trials for the immunotherapy of melanoma.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Balachandran, V. P., et al. (2011). "Imatinib potentiates antitumor T cell responses in gastrointestinal stromal tumor through the inhibition of Ido" Nat Med 17(9): 1094-1100. PubMed

Imatinib mesylate targets mutated KIT oncoproteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and produces a clinical response in 80% of patients. The mechanism is believed to depend predominantly on the inhibition of KIT-driven signals for tumor-cell survival and proliferation. Using a mouse model of spontaneous GIST, we found that the immune system contributes substantially to the antitumor effects of imatinib. Imatinib therapy activated CD8(+) T cells and induced regulatory T cell (T(reg) cell) apoptosis within the tumor by reducing tumor-cell expression of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido). Concurrent immunotherapy augmented the efficacy of imatinib in mouse GIST. In freshly obtained human GIST specimens, the T cell profile correlated with imatinib sensitivity and IDO expression. Thus, T cells are crucial to the antitumor effects of imatinib in GIST, and concomitant immunotherapy may further improve outcomes in human cancers treated with targeted agents.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2-mediated aldehyde metabolism promotes tumor immune evasion by regulating the NOD/VISTA axis.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 7 December 2023 by Chen, Y., Sun, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a crucial enzyme involved in endogenous aldehyde detoxification and has been implicated in tumor progression. However, its role in tumor immune evasion remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the relationship between ALDH2 expression and antitumor immune features in multiple cancers. ALDH2 knockout tumor cells were then established using CRISPR/Cas9 system. In immunocompetent breast cancer EMT6 and melanoma B16-F10 mouse models, we investigated the impact of ALDH2 blockade on cytotoxic T lymphocyte function and tumor immune microenvironment by flow cytometry, mass cytometry, Luminex liquid suspension chip detection, and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, RNA sequencing, flow cytometry, western blot, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and luciferase reporter assays were employed to explore the detailed mechanism of ALDH2 involved in tumor immune evasion. Lastly, the synergistic therapeutic efficacy of blocking ALDH2 by genetic depletion or its inhibitor disulfiram in combination with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) was investigated in mouse models. In our study, we uncovered a positive correlation between the expression level of ALDH2 and T-cell dysfunction in multiple cancers. Furthermore, blocking ALDH2 significantly suppressed tumor growth by enhancing cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells and reshaping the immune landscape and cytokine milieu of tumors in vivo. Mechanistically, inhibiting ALDH2-mediated metabolism of aldehyde downregulated the expression of V-domain Ig suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) via inactivating the nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)/nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. As a result, the cytotoxic function of CD8+ T cells was revitalized. Importantly, ALDH2 blockade markedly reinforced the efficacy of ICB treatment. Our data delineate that ALDH2-mediated aldehyde metabolism drives tumor immune evasion by activating the NOD/NF-κB/VISTA axis. Targeting ALDH2 provides an effective combinatorial therapeutic strategy for immunotherapy. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Immune checkpoint activity regulates polycystic kidney disease progression.

    In JCI Insight on 22 June 2023 by Kleczko, E. K., Nguyen, D. T., et al.

    PubMed

    Innate and adaptive immune cells modulate the severity of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a common kidney disease with inadequate treatment options. ADPKD has parallels with cancer, in which immune checkpoint inhibitors have been shown to reactivate CD8+ T cells and slow tumor growth. We have previously shown that in PKD, CD8+ T cell loss worsens disease. This study used orthologous early-onset and adult-onset ADPKD models (Pkd1 p.R3277C) to evaluate the role of immune checkpoints in PKD. Flow cytometry of kidney cells showed increased levels of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) on T cells and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)/CD80 on macrophages and epithelial cells in Pkd1RC/RC mice versus WT, paralleling disease severity. PD-L1/CD80 was also upregulated in ADPKD human cells and patient kidney tissue versus controls. Genetic PD-L1 loss or treatment with an anti-PD-1 antibody did not impact PKD severity in early-onset or adult-onset ADPKD models. However, treatment with anti-PD-1 plus anti-CTLA-4, blocking 2 immune checkpoints, improved PKD outcomes in adult-onset ADPKD mice; neither monotherapy altered PKD severity. Combination therapy resulted in increased kidney CD8+ T cell numbers/activation and decreased kidney regulatory T cell numbers correlative with PKD severity. Together, our data suggest that immune checkpoint activation is an important feature of and potential novel therapeutic target in ADPKD.

    • Cancer Research
    Hyaluronan driven by epithelial aPKC deficiency remodels the microenvironment and creates a vulnerability in mesenchymal colorectal cancer.

    In Cancer Cell on 13 February 2023 by Martinez-Ordoñez, A., Duran, A., et al.

    PubMed

    Mesenchymal colorectal cancer (mCRC) is microsatellite stable (MSS), highly desmoplastic, with CD8+ T cells excluded to the stromal periphery, resistant to immunotherapy, and driven by low levels of the atypical protein kinase Cs (aPKCs) in the intestinal epithelium. We show here that a salient feature of these tumors is the accumulation of hyaluronan (HA) which, along with reduced aPKC levels, predicts poor survival. HA promotes epithelial heterogeneity and the emergence of a tumor fetal metaplastic cell (TFMC) population endowed with invasive cancer features through a network of interactions with activated fibroblasts. TFMCs are sensitive to HA deposition, and their metaplastic markers have prognostic value. We demonstrate that in vivo HA degradation with a clinical dose of hyaluronidase impairs mCRC tumorigenesis and liver metastasis and enables immune checkpoint blockade therapy by promoting the recruitment of B and CD8+ T cells, including a proportion with resident memory features, and by blocking immunosuppression. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Pharmaceutical targeting Th2-mediated immunity enhances immunotherapy response in breast cancer.

    In Journal of Translational Medicine on 23 December 2022 by Chen, Y., Sun, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Breast cancer is a complex disease with a highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, and has limited clinical response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. T-helper 2 (Th2) cells, an important component of the tumor microenvironment (TME), play an essential role in regulation of tumor immunity. However, the deep relationship between Th2-mediated immunity and immune evasion in breast cancer remains enigmatic. Here, we first used bioinformatics analysis to explore the correlation between Th2 infiltration and immune landscape in breast cancer. Suplatast tosilate (IPD-1151 T, IPD), an inhibitor of Th2 function, was then employed to investigate the biological effects of Th2 blockade on tumor growth and immune microenvironment in immunocompetent murine breast cancer models. The tumor microenvironment was analyzed by flow cytometry, mass cytometry, and immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, we examined the efficacy of IPD combination with ICB treatment by evaluating TME, tumor growth and mice survival. Our bioinformatics analysis suggested that higher infiltration of Th2 cells indicates a tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment in breast cancer. In three murine breast cancer models (EO771, 4T1 and EMT6), IPD significantly inhibited the IL-4 secretion by Th2 cells, promoted Th2 to Th1 switching, remodeled the immune landscape and inhibited tumor growth. Remarkably, CD8+ T cell infiltration and the cytotoxic activity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) in tumor tissues were evidently enhanced after IPD treatment. Furthermore, increased effector CD4+ T cells and decreased myeloid-derived suppressor cells and M2-like macrophages were also demonstrated in IPD-treated tumors. Importantly, we found IPD reinforced the therapeutic response of ICB without increasing potential adverse effects. Our findings demonstrate that pharmaceutical inhibition of Th2 cell function improves ICB response via remodeling immune landscape of TME, which illustrates a promising combinatorial immunotherapy. © 2022. The Author(s).

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Immune cells and their inflammatory mediators modify β cells and cause checkpoint inhibitor-induced diabetes.

    In JCI Insight on 8 September 2022 by Perdigoto, A. L., Deng, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) targeting programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) have revolutionized cancer treatment but can trigger autoimmune complications, including CPI-induced diabetes mellitus (CPI-DM), which occurs preferentially with PD-1 blockade. We found evidence of pancreatic inflammation in patients with CPI-DM with shrinkage of pancreases, increased pancreatic enzymes, and in a case from a patient who died with CPI-DM, peri-islet lymphocytic infiltration. In the NOD mouse model, anti-PD-L1 but not anti-CTLA-4 induced diabetes rapidly. RNA sequencing revealed that cytolytic IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells infiltrated islets with anti-PD-L1. Changes in β cells were predominantly driven by IFN-γ and TNF-α and included induction of a potentially novel β cell population with transcriptional changes suggesting dedifferentiation. IFN-γ increased checkpoint ligand expression and activated apoptosis pathways in human β cells in vitro. Treatment with anti-IFN-γ and anti-TNF-α prevented CPI-DM in anti-PD-L1-treated NOD mice. CPIs targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway resulted in transcriptional changes in β cells and immune infiltrates that may lead to the development of diabetes. Inhibition of inflammatory cytokines can prevent CPI-DM, suggesting a strategy for clinical application to prevent this complication.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Antitumor efficacy of 90Y-NM600 targeted radionuclide therapy and PD-1 blockade is limited by regulatory T cells in murine prostate tumors.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 1 August 2022 by Potluri, H. K., Ferreira, C. A., et al.

    PubMed

    Systemic radiation treatments that preferentially irradiate cancer cells over normal tissue, known as targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), have shown significant potential for treating metastatic prostate cancer. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to sensitize tumors to T cell checkpoint blockade. Combining TRT approaches with immunotherapy may be more feasible than combining with EBRT to treat widely metastatic disease, however the effects of TRT on the prostate tumor microenvironment alone and in combinfation with checkpoint blockade have not yet been studied. C57BL/6 mice-bearing TRAMP-C1 tumors and FVB/NJ mice-bearing Myc-CaP tumors were treated with a single intravenous administration of either low-dose or high-dose 90Y-NM600 TRT, and with or without anti-PD-1 therapy. Groups of mice were followed for tumor growth while others were used for tissue collection and immunophenotyping of the tumors via flow cytometry. 90Y-NM600 TRT was safe at doses that elicited a moderate antitumor response. TRT had multiple effects on the tumor microenvironment including increasing CD8 +T cell infiltration, increasing checkpoint molecule expression on CD8 +T cells, and increasing PD-L1 expression on myeloid cells. However, PD-1 blockade with TRT treatment did not improve antitumor efficacy. Tregs remained functional up to 1 week following TRT, but CD8 +T cells were not, and the suppressive function of Tregs increased when anti-PD-1 was present in in vitro studies. The combination of anti-PD-1 and TRT was only effective in vivo when Tregs were depleted. Our data suggest that the combination of 90Y-NM600 TRT and PD-1 blockade therapy is ineffective in these prostate cancer models due to the activating effect of anti-PD-1 on Tregs. This finding underscores the importance of thorough understanding of the effects of TRT and immunotherapy combinations on the tumor immune microenvironment prior to clinical investigation. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Engineering immunoproteasome-expressing mesenchymal stromal cells: A potent cellular vaccine for lymphoma and melanoma in mice.

    In Cell Reports Medicine on 21 December 2021 by Abusarah, J., Khodayarian, F., et al.

    PubMed

    Dendritic cells (DCs) excel at cross-presenting antigens, but their effectiveness as cancer vaccine is limited. Here, we describe a vaccination approach using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) engineered to express the immunoproteasome complex (MSC-IPr). Such modification instills efficient antigen cross-presentation abilities associated with enhanced major histocompatibility complex class I and CD80 expression, de novo production of interleukin-12, and higher chemokine secretion. This cross-presentation capacity of MSC-IPr is highly dependent on their metabolic activity. Compared with DCs, MSC-IPr hold the ability to cross-present a vastly different epitope repertoire, which translates into potent re-activation of T cell immunity against EL4 and A20 lymphomas and B16 melanoma tumors. Moreover, therapeutic vaccination of mice with pre-established tumors efficiently controls cancer growth, an effect further enhanced when combined with antibodies targeting PD-1, CTLA4, LAG3, or 4-1BB under both autologous and allogeneic settings. Therefore, MSC-IPr constitute a promising subset of non-hematopoietic antigen-presenting cells suitable for designing universal cell-based cancer vaccines. © 2021 The Authors.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    A radioenhancing nanoparticle mediated immunoradiation improves survival and generates long-term antitumor immune memory in an anti-PD1-resistant murine lung cancer model.

    In Journal of Nanobiotechnology on 11 December 2021 by Hu, Y., Paris, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Combining radiotherapy with PD1 blockade has had impressive antitumor effects in preclinical models of metastatic lung cancer, although anti-PD1 resistance remains problematic. Here, we report results from a triple-combination therapy in which NBTXR3, a clinically approved nanoparticle radioenhancer, is combined with high-dose radiation (HDXRT) to a primary tumor plus low-dose radiation (LDXRT) to a secondary tumor along with checkpoint blockade in a mouse model of anti-PD1-resistant metastatic lung cancer. Mice were inoculated with 344SQR cells in the right legs on day 0 (primary tumor) and the left legs on day 3 (secondary tumor). Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including anti-PD1 (200 μg) and anti-CTLA4 (100 μg) were given intraperitoneally. Primary tumors were injected with NBTXR3 on day 6 and irradiated with 12-Gy (HDXRT) on days 7, 8, and 9; secondary tumors were irradiated with 1-Gy (LDXRT) on days 12 and 13. The survivor mice at day 178 were rechallenged with 344SQR cells and tumor growth monitored thereafter. NBTXR3  +  HDXRT  +  LDXRT  +  ICIs had significant antitumor effects against both primary and secondary tumors, improving the survival rate from 0 to 50%. Immune profiling of the secondary tumors revealed that NBTXR3  +  HDXRT  +  LDXRT increased CD8 T-cell infiltration and decreased the number of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Finally, none of the re-challenged mice developed tumors, and they had higher percentages of CD4 memory T cells and CD4 and CD8 T cells in both blood and spleen relative to untreated mice. NBTXR3 nanoparticle in combination with radioimmunotherapy significantly improves anti-PD1 resistant lung tumor control via promoting antitumor immune response. © 2021. The Author(s).

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Conditional PD-1/PD-L1 Probody Therapeutics Induce Comparable Antitumor Immunity but Reduced Systemic Toxicity Compared with Traditional Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Agents.

    In Cancer Immunology Research on 1 December 2021 by Assi, H. H., Wong, C., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune-checkpoint blockade has revolutionized cancer treatment. However, most patients do not respond to single-agent therapy. Combining checkpoint inhibitors with other immune-stimulating agents increases both efficacy and toxicity due to systemic T-cell activation. Protease-activatable antibody prodrugs, known as Probody therapeutics (Pb-Tx), localize antibody activity by attenuating capacity to bind antigen until protease activation in the tumor microenvironment. Herein, we show that systemic administration of anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (anti-PD-L1) and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) Pb-Tx to tumor-bearing mice elicited antitumor activity similar to that of traditional PD-1/PD-L1-targeted antibodies. Pb-Tx exhibited reduced systemic activity and an improved nonclinical safety profile, with markedly reduced target occupancy on peripheral T cells and reduced incidence of early-onset autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Our results confirm that localized PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition by Pb-Tx can elicit robust antitumor immunity and minimize systemic immune-mediated toxicity. These data provide further preclinical rationale to support the ongoing development of the anti-PD-L1 Pb-Tx CX-072, which is currently in clinical trials.©2021 The Authors; Published by the American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Secreted gelsolin inhibits DNGR-1-dependent cross-presentation and cancer immunity.

    In Cell on 22 July 2021 by Giampazolias, E., Schulz, O., et al.

    PubMed

    Cross-presentation of antigens from dead tumor cells by type 1 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1s) is thought to underlie priming of anti-cancer CD8+ T cells. cDC1 express high levels of DNGR-1 (a.k.a. CLEC9A), a receptor that binds to F-actin exposed by dead cell debris and promotes cross-presentation of associated antigens. Here, we show that secreted gelsolin (sGSN), an extracellular protein, decreases DNGR-1 binding to F-actin and cross-presentation of dead cell-associated antigens by cDC1s. Mice deficient in sGsn display increased DNGR-1-dependent resistance to transplantable tumors, especially ones expressing neoantigens associated with the actin cytoskeleton, and exhibit greater responsiveness to cancer immunotherapy. In human cancers, lower levels of intratumoral sGSN transcripts, as well as presence of mutations in proteins associated with the actin cytoskeleton, are associated with signatures of anti-cancer immunity and increased patient survival. Our results reveal a natural barrier to cross-presentation of cancer antigens that dampens anti-tumor CD8+ T cell responses.Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Cytotoxic lymphocytes target characteristic biophysical vulnerabilities in cancer.

    In Immunity on 11 May 2021 by Tello-Lafoz, M., Srpan, K., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune cells identify and destroy tumors by recognizing cellular traits indicative of oncogenic transformation. In this study, we found that myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs), which promote migration and metastatic invasion, also sensitize cancer cells to the immune system. Melanoma and breast cancer cells with high MRTF expression were selectively eliminated by cytotoxic lymphocytes in mouse models of metastasis. This immunosurveillance phenotype was further enhanced by treatment with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) antibodies. We also observed that high MRTF signaling in human melanoma is associated with ICB efficacy in patients. Using biophysical and functional assays, we showed that MRTF overexpression rigidified the filamentous actin cytoskeleton and that this mechanical change rendered mouse and human cancer cells more vulnerable to cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that immunosurveillance has a mechanical dimension, which we call mechanosurveillance, that is particularly relevant for the targeting of metastatic disease. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    DNA Sensing in Mismatch Repair-Deficient Tumor Cells Is Essential for Anti-tumor Immunity.

    In Cancer Cell on 11 January 2021 by Lu, C., Guan, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Increased neoantigens in hypermutated cancers with DNA mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) are proposed as the major contributor to the high objective response rate in anti-PD-1 therapy. However, the mechanism of drug resistance is not fully understood. Using tumor models defective in the MMR gene Mlh1 (dMLH1), we show that dMLH1 tumor cells accumulate cytosolic DNA and produce IFN-β in a cGAS-STING-dependent manner, which renders dMLH1 tumors slowly progressive and highly sensitive to checkpoint blockade. In neoantigen-fixed models, dMLH1 tumors potently induce T cell priming and lose resistance to checkpoint therapy independent of tumor mutational burden. Accordingly, loss of STING or cGAS in tumor cells decreases tumor infiltration of T cells and endows resistance to checkpoint blockade. Clinically, downregulation of cGAS/STING in human dMMR cancers correlates with poor prognosis. We conclude that DNA sensing within tumor cells is essential for dMMR-triggered anti-tumor immunity. This study provides new mechanisms and biomarkers for anti-dMMR-cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Immunostimulatory TLR7 agonist-nanoparticles together with checkpoint blockade for effective cancer immunotherapy.

    In Advanced Therapeutics on 1 June 2020 by Huang, C. H., Mendez, N., et al.

    PubMed

    Mono- or dual-checkpoint inhibitors for immunotherapy have changed the paradigm of cancer care; however, only a minority of patients responds to such treatment. Combining small molecule immuno-stimulators can improve treatment efficacy, but they are restricted by poor pharmacokinetics. In this study, TLR7 agonists conjugated onto silica nanoparticles showed extended drug localization after intratumoral injection. The nanoparticle-based TLR7 agonist increased immune stimulation by activating the TLR7 signaling pathway. When treating CT26 colon cancer, nanoparticle conjugated TLR7 agonists increased T cell infiltration into the tumors by > 4× and upregulated expression of the interferon γ gene compared to its unconjugated counterpart by ~2×. Toxicity assays established that the conjugated TLR7 agonist is a safe agent at the effective dose. When combined with checkpoint inhibitors that target programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), a 10-100× increase in immune cell migration was observed; furthermore, 100 mm3 tumors were treated and a 60% remission rate was observed including remission at contralateral non-injected tumors. The data show that nanoparticle based TLR7 agonists are safe and can potentiate the effectiveness of checkpoint inhibitors in immunotherapy resistant tumor models and promote a long-term specific memory immune function.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Multimodel preclinical platform predicts clinical response of melanoma to immunotherapy.

    In Nature Medicine on 1 May 2020 by Pérez-Guijarro, E., Yang, H. H., et al.

    PubMed

    Although immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment, only a subset of patients demonstrate durable clinical benefit. Definitive predictive biomarkers and targets to overcome resistance remain unidentified, underscoring the urgency to develop reliable immunocompetent models for mechanistic assessment. Here we characterize a panel of syngeneic mouse models, representing a variety of molecular and phenotypic subtypes of human melanomas and exhibiting their diverse range of responses to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Comparative analysis of genomic, transcriptomic and tumor-infiltrating immune cell profiles demonstrated alignment with clinical observations and validated the correlation of T cell dysfunction and exclusion programs with resistance. Notably, genome-wide expression analysis uncovered a melanocytic plasticity signature predictive of patient outcome in response to ICB, suggesting that the multipotency and differentiation status of melanoma can determine ICB benefit. Our comparative preclinical platform recapitulates melanoma clinical behavior and can be employed to identify mechanisms and treatment strategies to improve patient care.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Simplified Admix Archaeal Glycolipid Adjuvanted Vaccine and Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy Combination Enhances Protection from Murine Melanoma.

    In Biomedicines on 23 November 2019 by Stark, F. C., Agbayani, G., et al.

    PubMed

    Archaeosomes are liposomes composed of natural or synthetic archaeal lipids that when used as adjuvants induce strong long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against entrapped antigens. However, traditional entrapped archaeosome formulations have only low entrapment efficiency, therefore we have developed a novel admixed formulation which offers many advantages, including reduced loss of antigen, consistency of batch-to-batch production as well as providing the option to formulate the vaccine immediately before use, which is beneficial for next generation cancer therapy platforms that include patient specific neo-antigens or for use with antigens that are less stable. Herein, we demonstrate that, when used in combination with anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 checkpoint therapy, this novel admixed archaeosome formulation, comprised of preformed sulfated lactosyl archaeol (SLA) archaeosomes admixed with OVA antigen (SLA-OVA (adm)), was as effective at inducing strong CD8+ T cell responses and protection from a B16-OVA melanoma tumor challenge as the traditionally formulated archaeosomes with encapsulated OVA protein. Furthermore, archaeosome vaccine formulations combined with anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 therapy, induced OVA-CD8+ T cells within the tumor and immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of CD8+ T cells associated with dying or dead tumor cells as well as within or around tumor blood vessels. Overall, archaeosomes constitute an attractive option for use with combinatorial checkpoint inhibitor cancer therapy platforms.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Multi-model preclinical platform predicts clinical response of melanoma to immunotherapy

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 6 August 2019 by Pérez-Guijarro, E., Yang, H. H., et al.

    PubMed

    Although immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment, only a subset of patients demonstrates durable clinical benefit. Definitive predictive biomarkers and targets to overcome resistance remain unidentified, underscoring the urgency to develop reliable immunocompetent models for mechanistic assessment. Here we characterize a panel of syngeneic mouse models representing the main molecular and phenotypic subtypes of human melanomas and exhibiting their range of responses to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Comparative analysis of genomic, transcriptomic and tumor-infiltrating immune cell profiles demonstrated alignment with clinical observations and validated the correlation of T cell dysfunction and exclusion programs with resistance. Notably, genome-wide expression analysis uncovered a melanocytic plasticity signature predictive of patient outcome in response to ICB, suggesting that the multipotency and differentiation status of melanoma can determine ICB benefit. Our comparative preclinical platform recapitulates melanoma clinical behavior and can be employed to identify new mechanisms and treatment strategies to improve patient care.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Mass spectrometry driven exploration reveals nuances of neoepitope-driven tumor rejection.

    In JCI Insight on 20 June 2019 by Ebrahimi-Nik, H., Michaux, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Neoepitopes are the only truly tumor-specific antigens. Although potential neoepitopes can be readily identified using genomics, the neoepitopes that mediate tumor rejection constitute a small minority, and there is little consensus on how to identify them. Here, for the first time, we use a combination of genomics, unbiased discovery MS immunopeptidomics and targeted MS to directly identify neoepitopes that elicit actual tumor rejection in mice. We report that MS-identified neoepitopes are an astonishingly rich source of tumor rejection mediating neoepitopes. MS has also demonstrated unambiguously the presentation by MHC I, of confirmed tumor rejection neoepitopes which bind weakly to MHC I; this was done using DCs exogenously loaded with long peptides containing the weakly binding neoepitopes. Such weakly MHC I-binding neoepitopes are routinely excluded from analysis, and our demonstration of their presentation, and their activity in tumor rejection, reveals a broader universe of tumor-rejection neoepitopes than presently imagined. Modeling studies show that a mutation in the active neoepitope alters its conformation such that its T cell receptor-facing surface is significantly altered, increasing its exposed hydrophobicity. No such changes are observed in the inactive neoepitope. These results broaden our understanding of antigen presentation and help prioritize neoepitopes for personalized cancer immunotherapy.

    • Neutralization
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    High-Dimensional Analysis Delineates Myeloid and Lymphoid Compartment Remodeling during Successful Immune-Checkpoint Cancer Therapy.

    In Cell on 1 November 2018 by Gubin, M. M., Esaulova, E., et al.

    PubMed

    Although current immune-checkpoint therapy (ICT) mainly targets lymphoid cells, it is associated with a broader remodeling of the tumor micro-environment. Here, using complementary forms of high-dimensional profiling, we define differences across all hematopoietic cells from syngeneic mouse tumors during unrestrained tumor growth or effective ICT. Unbiased assessment of gene expression of tumor-infiltrating cells by single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) and longitudinal assessment of cellular protein expression by mass cytometry (CyTOF) revealed significant remodeling of both the lymphoid and myeloid intratumoral compartments. Surprisingly, we observed multiple subpopulations of monocytes/macrophages, distinguishable by the markers CD206, CX3CR1, CD1d, and iNOS, that change over time during ICT in a manner partially dependent on IFNγ. Our data support the hypothesis that this macrophage polarization/activation results from effects on circulatory monocytes and early macrophages entering tumors, rather than on pre-polarized mature intratumoral macrophages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    The expression of mCTLA-4 in skin lesion inversely correlates with the severity of psoriasis.

    In Journal of Dermatological Science on 1 March 2018 by Liu, P., He, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and increased T cell infiltration. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a key factor that affects T cell function and immune response. However, whether the expression of CTLA-4 affects the severity of psoriasis is still unknown. The aim of the project was to investigate the correlation between the expression of CTLA-4 and the severity of psoriasis. The plasma soluble CTLA-4 levels and membrane CTLA-4 expression were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry analysis in mild, moderate and severe psoriasis patients, respectively. Imiquimod-induced mouse model of psoriasis was treated with CTLA-4 immunoglobulin fusion protein (CTLA-4 Ig) or anti-CTLA-4 antibody. Epidermal thickness and infiltrating CD3+ T cell counts were evaluated. The plasma soluble CTLA-4 levels had no significant difference among mild, moderate, and severe patients (p > 0.05). However, the membrane CTLA-4 expression in skin was significantly higher in mild psoriasis patients compared to moderate and severe psoriasis patients (17652.86 ± 18095.66 vs 6901.36 ± 4400.77 vs 3970.24 ± 5509.15, p  0.001). Furthermore, in imiquimod-induced mouse model of psoriasis, the results showed that mimicking CTLA-4 function improved the skin phenotype and reduced epidermal thickness (172.87 ± 28.25 vs 245.87 ± 36.61 μm, n = 6, p  0.01) as well as infiltrating CD3+ T cell counts (5.09 ± 3.45 vs 13.45 ± 4.70, p  0.01) compared to control group. However, blocking CTLA-4 function aggregated the skin phenotype including enhanced epidermal thickness and infiltrating CD3+ T cell counts compared to control group. These results indicated that the expression of mCTLA-4 in skin lesion inversely correlated with the severity of psoriasis and CTLA-4 might play a critical role in the disease severity of psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.