InVivoPlus anti-mouse CTLA-4 (CD152)

Catalog #BP0032
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Product Details

The UC10-4F10-11 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4) also known as CD152. CTLA-4 is a 33 kDa cell surface receptor encoded by the Ctla4 gene that belongs to the CD28 family of the Ig superfamily. CTLA-4 is expressed on activated T and B lymphocytes. CTLA-4 is structurally similar to the T-cell co-stimulatory protein, CD28, and both molecules bind to the B7 family members B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86). Upon ligand binding, CTLA-4 negatively regulates cell-mediated immune responses. CTLA-4 plays roles in induction and/or maintenance of immunological tolerance, thymocyte development, and regulation of protective immunity. The critical role of CTLA-4 in immune down-regulation has been demonstrated in CTLA-4 deficient mice, which succumb at 3-5 weeks of age due to the development of a lymphoproliferative disease. CTLA-4 is among a group of inhibitory receptors being explored as cancer treatment targets through immune checkpoint blockade. The UC10-4F10-11 antibody has been shown to promote T cell co-stimulation by blocking CTLA-4 binding to the B7 co-receptors, allowing for CD28 binding.


Isotype Armenian hamster IgG
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoPlus polyclonal Armenian hamster IgG
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 6.5 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen Mouse CTLA-4 IgG2a fusion protein
Reported Applications in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
in vitro CTLA-4 neutralization
Flow cytometry
Western blot
Formulation PBS, pH 6.5
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin* <1EU/mg (<0.001EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Aggregation* <5%
Determined by SEC
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 μM filtered
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107598
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Murine Pathogen Tests* Ectromelia/Mousepox Virus: Negative
Hantavirus: Negative
K Virus: Negative
Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus: Negative
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus: Negative
Mouse Adenovirus: Negative
Mouse Cytomegalovirus: Negative
Mouse Hepatitis Virus: Negative
Mouse Minute Virus: Negative
Mouse Norovirus: Negative
Mouse Parvovirus: Negative
Mouse Rotavirus: Negative
Mycoplasma Pulmonis: Negative
Pneumonia Virus of Mice: Negative
Polyoma Virus: Negative
Reovirus Screen: Negative
Sendai Virus: Negative
Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis: Negative
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
* Additional quality control measures for our InVivoPlus™ products include advanced binding validation, murine pathogen screening, protein aggregation screening, and ultra-low endotoxin levels. The superior quality of our InVivoPlus™ products will meet and exceed the strict demands and rigorous standards required for in vivo research. Learn more about the InVivoPlus™ difference here.

Additional Formats

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Triplett, T. A., et al. (2018). "Reversal of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-mediated cancer immune suppression by systemic kynurenine depletion with a therapeutic enzyme" Nat Biotechnol 36(8): 758-764. PubMed

Increased tryptophan (Trp) catabolism in the tumor microenvironment (TME) can mediate immune suppression by upregulation of interferon (IFN)-gamma-inducible indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) and/or ectopic expression of the predominantly liver-restricted enzyme tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Whether these effects are due to Trp depletion in the TME or mediated by the accumulation of the IDO1 and/or TDO (hereafter referred to as IDO1/TDO) product kynurenine (Kyn) remains controversial. Here we show that administration of a pharmacologically optimized enzyme (PEGylated kynureninase; hereafter referred to as PEG-KYNase) that degrades Kyn into immunologically inert, nontoxic and readily cleared metabolites inhibits tumor growth. Enzyme treatment was associated with a marked increase in the tumor infiltration and proliferation of polyfunctional CD8(+) lymphocytes. We show that PEG-KYNase administration had substantial therapeutic effects when combined with approved checkpoint inhibitors or with a cancer vaccine for the treatment of large B16-F10 melanoma, 4T1 breast carcinoma or CT26 colon carcinoma tumors. PEG-KYNase mediated prolonged depletion of Kyn in the TME and reversed the modulatory effects of IDO1/TDO upregulation in the TME.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization, Flow Cytometry
Pletinckx, K., et al. (2015). "Immature dendritic cells convert anergic nonregulatory T cells into Foxp3- IL-10+ regulatory T cells by engaging CD28 and CTLA-4" Eur J Immunol 45(2): 480-491. PubMed

Anergic T cells can survive for long time periods passively in a hyporesponsive state without obvious active functions. Thus, the immunological reason for their maintenance is unclear. Here, we induced peptide-specific anergy in T cells from mice by coculturing these cells with immature murine dendritic cells (DCs). We found that these anergic, nonsuppressive IL-10(-) Foxp3(-) CTLA-4(+) CD25(low) Egr2(+) T cells could be converted into suppressive IL-10(+) Foxp3(-) CTLA-4(+) CD25(high) Egr2(+) cells resembling type-1 Treg cells (Tr1) when stimulated a second time by immature DCs in vitro. Addition of TGF-beta during anergy induction favored Foxp3(+) Treg-cell induction, while TGF-beta had little effect when added to the second stimulation. Expression of both CD28 and CTLA-4 molecules on anergic T cells was required to allow their conversion into Tr1-like cells. Suppressor activity was enabled via CD28-mediated CD25 upregulation, acting as an IL-2 sink, together with a CTLA-4-mediated inhibition of NFATc1/alpha activation to shut down IL-2-mediated proliferation. Together, these data provide evidence and mechanistical insights into how persistent anergic T cells may serve as a resting memory pool for Tr1-like cells.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Welten, S. P., et al. (2015). "The viral context instructs the redundancy of costimulatory pathways in driving CD8(+) T cell expansion" Elife 4. doi : 10.7554/eLife.07486. PubMed

Signals delivered by costimulatory molecules are implicated in driving T cell expansion. The requirements for these signals, however, vary from dispensable to essential in different infections. We examined the underlying mechanisms of this differential T cell costimulation dependence and found that the viral context determined the dependence on CD28/B7-mediated costimulation for expansion of naive and memory CD8(+) T cells, indicating that the requirement for costimulatory signals is not imprinted. Notably, related to the high-level costimulatory molecule expression induced by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), CD28/B7-mediated costimulation was dispensable for accumulation of LCMV-specific CD8(+) T cells because of redundancy with the costimulatory pathways induced by TNF receptor family members (i.e., CD27, OX40, and 4-1BB). Type I IFN signaling in viral-specific CD8(+) T cells is slightly redundant with costimulatory signals. These results highlight that pathogen-specific conditions differentially and uniquely dictate the utilization of costimulatory pathways allowing shaping of effector and memory antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Makkouk, A., et al. (2015). "Three steps to breaking immune tolerance to lymphoma: a microparticle approach" Cancer Immunol Res 3(4): 389-398. PubMed

In situ immunization aims at generating antitumor immune responses through manipulating the tumor microenvironment. On the basis of recent advances in the understanding of antitumor immunity, we designed a three-step approach to in situ immunization to lymphoma: (i) inducing immunogenic tumor cell death with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. Doxorubicin enhances the expression of “eat-me” signals by dying tumor cells, facilitating their phagocytosis by dendritic cells (DC). Because of the vesicant activity of doxorubicin, microparticles made of biodegradable polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) or PLGA can safely deliver doxorubicin intratumorally and are effective vaccine adjuvants, (ii) enhancing T-cell activation using anti-OX40 and (iii) sustaining T-cell responses by checkpoint blockade using anti-CTLA-4. In vitro, doxorubicin microparticles were less cytotoxic to DCs than to B lymphoma cells, did not require internalization by tumor cells, and significantly enhanced phagocytosis of tumor cells by DCs as compared with soluble doxorubicin. In mice, this three-step therapy induced CD4- and CD8-dependent systemic immune responses that enhanced T-cell infiltration into distant tumors, leading to their eradication and significantly improving survival. Our findings demonstrate that systemic antitumor immune responses can be generated locally by three-step therapy and merit further investigation as an immunotherapy for patients with lymphoma.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Mittal, D., et al. (2014). "Antimetastatic effects of blocking PD-1 and the adenosine A2A receptor" Cancer Res 74(14): 3652-3658. PubMed

Adenosine targeting is an attractive new approach to cancer treatment, but no clinical study has yet examined adenosine inhibition in oncology despite the safe clinical profile of adenosine A2A receptor inhibitors (A2ARi) in Parkinson disease. Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and therefore we have studied experimental and spontaneous mouse models of melanoma and breast cancer metastasis to demonstrate the efficacy and mechanism of a combination of A2ARi in combination with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). This combination significantly reduces metastatic burden and prolongs the life of mice compared with either monotherapy alone. Importantly, the combination was only effective when the tumor expressed high levels of CD73, suggesting a tumor biomarker that at a minimum could be used to stratify patients that might receive this combination. The mechanism of the combination therapy was critically dependent on NK cells and IFNgamma, and to a lesser extent, CD8(+) T cells and the effector molecule, perforin. Overall, these results provide a strong rationale to use A2ARi with anti-PD-1 mAb for the treatment of minimal residual and metastatic disease.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Zhu, Y., et al. (2014). "CSF1/CSF1R blockade reprograms tumor-infiltrating macrophages and improves response to T-cell checkpoint immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer models" Cancer Res 74(18): 5057-5069. PubMed

Cancer immunotherapy generally offers limited clinical benefit without coordinated strategies to mitigate the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment. Critical drivers of immune escape in the tumor microenvironment include tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which not only mediate immune suppression, but also promote metastatic dissemination and impart resistance to cytotoxic therapies. Thus, strategies to ablate the effects of these myeloid cell populations may offer great therapeutic potential. In this report, we demonstrate in a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) that inhibiting signaling by the myeloid growth factor receptor CSF1R can functionally reprogram macrophage responses that enhance antigen presentation and productive antitumor T-cell responses. Investigations of this response revealed that CSF1R blockade also upregulated T-cell checkpoint molecules, including PDL1 and CTLA4, thereby restraining beneficial therapeutic effects. We found that PD1 and CTLA4 antagonists showed limited efficacy as single agents to restrain PDAC growth, but that combining these agents with CSF1R blockade potently elicited tumor regressions, even in larger established tumors. Taken together, our findings provide a rationale to reprogram immunosuppressive myeloid cell populations in the tumor microenvironment under conditions that can significantly empower the therapeutic effects of checkpoint-based immunotherapeutics.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Rabenstein, H., et al. (2014). "Differential kinetics of antigen dependency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells" J Immunol 192(8): 3507-3517. PubMed

Ag recognition via the TCR is necessary for the expansion of specific T cells that then contribute to adaptive immunity as effector and memory cells. Because CD4+ and CD8+ T cells differ in terms of their priming APCs and MHC ligands we compared their requirements of Ag persistence during their expansion phase side by side. Proliferation and effector differentiation of TCR transgenic and polyclonal mouse T cells were thus analyzed after transient and continuous TCR signals. Following equally strong stimulation, CD4+ T cell proliferation depended on prolonged Ag presence, whereas CD8+ T cells were able to divide and differentiate into effector cells despite discontinued Ag presentation. CD4+ T cell proliferation was neither affected by Th lineage or memory differentiation nor blocked by coinhibitory signals or missing inflammatory stimuli. Continued CD8+ T cell proliferation was truly independent of self-peptide/MHC-derived signals. The subset divergence was also illustrated by surprisingly broad transcriptional differences supporting a stronger propensity of CD8+ T cells to programmed expansion. These T cell data indicate an intrinsic difference between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells regarding the processing of TCR signals for proliferation. We also found that the presentation of a MHC class II-restricted peptide is more efficiently prolonged by dendritic cell activation in vivo than a class I bound one. In summary, our data demonstrate that CD4+ T cells require continuous stimulation for clonal expansion, whereas CD8+ T cells can divide following a much shorter TCR signal.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization, Flow Cytometry
Honda, T., et al. (2014). "Tuning of antigen sensitivity by T cell receptor-dependent negative feedback controls T cell effector function in inflamed tissues" Immunity 40(2): 235-247. PubMed

Activated T cells must mediate effector responses sufficiently to clear pathogens while avoiding excessive tissue damage. Here we have combined dynamic intravital microscopy with ex vivo assessments of T cell cytokine responses to generate a detailed spatiotemporal picture of CD4(+) T cell effector regulation in the skin. In response to antigen, effector T cells arrested transiently on antigen-presenting cells, briefly producing cytokine and then resuming migration. Antigen recognition led to upregulation of the programmed death-1 (PD-1) glycoprotein by T cells and blocking its canonical ligand, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), lengthened the duration of migration arrest and cytokine production, showing that PD-1 interaction with PD-L1 is a major negative feedback regulator of antigen responsiveness. We speculate that the immune system employs T cell recruitment, transient activation, and rapid desensitization to allow the T cell response to rapidly adjust to changes in antigen presentation and minimize collateral injury to the host.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Allard, B., et al. (2013). "Targeting CD73 enhances the antitumor activity of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 mAbs" Clin Cancer Res 19(20): 5626-5635. PubMed

PURPOSE: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that block programmed death (PD)-1 or cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4) receptors have been associated with durable clinical responses against a variety of cancer types and hold great potential as novel cancer therapeutics. Recent evidence suggest that targeted blockade of multiple immunosuppressive pathways can induce synergistic antitumor responses. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study, we investigated whether targeted blockade of CD73, an ectonucleotidase that catabolizes the hydrolysis of extracellular adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine, can enhance the antitumor activity of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 mAbs against transplanted and chemically induced mouse tumors. RESULTS: Anti-CD73 mAb significantly enhanced the activity of both anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 mAbs against MC38-OVA (colon) and RM-1 (prostate) subcutaneous tumors, and established metastatic 4T1.2 breast cancer. Anti-CD73 mAb also significantly enhanced the activity of anti-PD-1 mAb against 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced fibrosarcomas. Gene-targeted mice revealed that single-agent therapies and combinatorial treatments were dependent on host IFN-gamma and CD8(+) T cells, but independent of perforin. Interestingly, anti-CD73 mAb preferentially synergized with anti-PD-1 mAb. We investigated the effect of extracellular adenosine on tumor-infiltrating T cells and showed that activation of A2A adenosine receptor enhances PD-1 expression, but not CTLA-4 expression, on tumor-specific CD8+ T cells and CD4+ Foxp3+ T regulatory cells. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our study revealed that targeted blockade of CD73 can enhance the therapeutic activity of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 mAbs and may thus potentiate therapeutic strategies targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors in general.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Hafalla, J. C., et al. (2012). "The CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitory pathways independently regulate host resistance to Plasmodium-induced acute immune pathology" PLoS Pathog 8(2): e1002504. PubMed

The balance between pro-inflammatory and regulatory immune responses in determining optimal T cell activation is vital for the successful resolution of microbial infections. This balance is maintained in part by the negative regulators of T cell activation, CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L, which dampen effector responses during chronic infections. However, their role in acute infections, such as malaria, remains less clear. In this study, we determined the contribution of CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L to the regulation of T cell responses during Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-induced experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in susceptible (C57BL/6) and resistant (BALB/c) mice. We found that the expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 on T cells correlates with the extent of pro-inflammatory responses induced during PbA infection, being higher in C57BL/6 than in BALB/c mice. Thus, ECM develops despite high levels of expression of these inhibitory receptors. However, antibody-mediated blockade of either the CTLA-4 or PD-1/PD-L1, but not the PD-1/PD-L2, pathways during PbA-infection in ECM-resistant BALB/c mice resulted in higher levels of T cell activation, enhanced IFN-gamma production, increased intravascular arrest of both parasitised erythrocytes and CD8(+) T cells to the brain, and augmented incidence of ECM. Thus, in ECM-resistant BALB/c mice, CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 represent essential, independent and non-redundant pathways for maintaining T cell homeostasis during a virulent malaria infection. Moreover, neutralisation of IFN-gamma or depletion of CD8(+) T cells during PbA infection was shown to reverse the pathologic effects of regulatory pathway blockade, highlighting that the aetiology of ECM in the BALB/c mice is similar to that in C57BL/6 mice. In summary, our results underscore the differential and complex regulation that governs immune responses to malaria parasites.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Haque, A., et al. (2010). "CD4+ natural regulatory T cells prevent experimental cerebral malaria via CTLA-4 when expanded in vivo" PLoS Pathog 6(12): e1001221. PubMed

Studies in malaria patients indicate that higher frequencies of peripheral blood CD4(+) Foxp3(+) CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells correlate with increased blood parasitemia. This observation implies that Treg cells impair pathogen clearance and thus may be detrimental to the host during infection. In C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, depletion of Foxp3(+) cells did not improve parasite control or disease outcome. In contrast, elevating frequencies of natural Treg cells in vivo using IL-2/anti-IL-2 complexes resulted in complete protection against severe disease. This protection was entirely dependent upon Foxp3(+) cells and resulted in lower parasite biomass, impaired antigen-specific CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell responses that would normally promote parasite tissue sequestration in this model, and reduced recruitment of conventional T cells to the brain. Furthermore, Foxp3(+) cell-mediated protection was dependent upon CTLA-4 but not IL-10. These data show that T cell-mediated parasite tissue sequestration can be reduced by regulatory T cells in a mouse model of malaria, thereby limiting malaria-induced immune pathology.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization
Rowe, J. H., et al. (2009). "Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 blockade augments the T-cell response primed by attenuated Listeria monocytogenes resulting in more rapid clearance of virulent bacterial challenge" Immunology 128(1 Suppl): e471-478. PubMed

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) uniformly suppresses antigen-specific T cells during chronic infection with bacterial, parasitic or viral pathogens. However, the importance of CTLA-4 in controlling the T-cell response during acute infection or after priming with live attenuated vaccine vectors has not been well characterized. Since strategies aimed at blocking CTLA-4 are being actively developed to therapeutically augment T-cell-mediated immunity, the effects of CTLA-4 blockade on T-cell activation during these conditions need to be more clearly defined. We have examined the role of CTLA-4 in a prime-challenge model of acute bacterial infection using both attenuated and virulent strains of the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Although Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T cells are the predominant CTLA-4-expressing cell type in naive mice, antigen-specific Foxp3(-) CD4(+) cells upregulate CTLA-4 expression after primary L. monocytogenes infection. Blockade of CTLA-4 results in increased numbers of L. monocytogenes-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells after primary infection with attenuated L. monocytogenes, and confers more rapid bacterial clearance after secondary challenge with virulent L. monocytogenes. Accordingly, CTLA-4 plays an important suppressive role in T-cell priming and protective immunity in a prime-challenge model of acute bacterial infection.

in vivo CTLA-4 neutralization, in vitro CTLA-4 neutralization
Noval Rivas, M., et al. (2009). "Reviving function in CD4+ T cells adapted to persistent systemic antigen" J Immunol 183(7): 4284-4291. PubMed

In bone marrow-transplanted patients, chronic graft-versus-host disease is a complication that results from the persistent stimulation of recipient minor histocompatibility Ag (mHA)-specific T cells contained within the graft. In this study, we developed a mouse model where persistent stimulation of donor T cells by recipient’s mHA led to multiorgan T cell infiltration. Exposure to systemic mHA, however, deeply modified T cell function and chronically stimulated T cells developed a long-lasting state of unresponsiveness, or immune adaptation, characterized by their inability to mediate organ immune damages in vivo. However, analysis of the gene expression profile of adapted CD4+ T cells revealed the specific coexpression of genes known to promote differentiation and function of Th1 effector cells as well as genes coding for proteins that control T cell activity, such as cell surface-negative costimulatory molecules and regulatory cytokines. Strikingly, blockade of negative costimulation abolished T cell adaptation and stimulated strong IFN-gamma production and severe multiorgan wasting disease. Negative costimulation was also shown to control lethal LPS-induced toxic shock in mice with adapted T cells, as well as the capacity of adapted T cells to reject skin graft. Our results demonstrate that negative costimulation is the molecular mechanism used by CD4+ T cells to adapt their activity in response to persistent antigenic stimulation. The effector function of CD4+ T cells that have adapted to chronic Ag presentation can be activated by stimuli strong enough to overcome regulatory signals delivered to the T cells by negative costimulation.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cardiovascular biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Fasting mimicking diet in mice delays cancer growth and reduces immunotherapy-associated cardiovascular and systemic side effects.

    In Nature Communications on 8 September 2023 by Cortellino, S., Quagliariello, V., et al.


    Immune checkpoint inhibitors cause side effects ranging from autoimmune endocrine disorders to severe cardiotoxicity. Periodic Fasting mimicking diet (FMD) cycles are emerging as promising enhancers of a wide range of cancer therapies including immunotherapy. Here, either FMD cycles alone or in combination with anti-OX40/anti-PD-L1 are much more effective than immune checkpoint inhibitors alone in delaying melanoma growth in mice. FMD cycles in combination with anti-OX40/anti-PD-L1 also show a trend for increased effects against a lung cancer model. As importantly, the cardiac fibrosis, necrosis and hypertrophy caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors are prevented/reversed by FMD treatment in both cancer models whereas immune infiltration of CD3+ and CD8+ cells in myocardial tissues and systemic and myocardial markers of oxidative stress and inflammation are reduced. These results indicate that FMD cycles in combination with immunotherapy can delay cancer growth while reducing side effects including cardiotoxicity. © 2023. Springer Nature Limited.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Decoupled neoantigen cross-presentation by dendritic cells limits anti-tumor immunity against tumors with heterogeneous neoantigen expression.

    In eLife on 7 August 2023 by Nguyen, K. B., Roerden, M., et al.


    Cancer immunotherapies, in particular checkpoint blockade immunotherapy (CBT), can induce control of cancer growth, with a fraction of patients experiencing durable responses. However, the majority of patients currently do not respond to CBT and the molecular determinants of resistance have not been fully elucidated. Mounting clinical evidence suggests that the clonal status of neoantigens (NeoAg) impacts the anti-tumor T cell response. High intratumor heterogeneity (ITH), where the majority of NeoAgs are expressed subclonally, is correlated with poor clinical response to CBT and poor infiltration with tumor-reactive T cells. However, the mechanism by which ITH blunts tumor-reactive T cells is unclear. We developed a transplantable murine lung cancer model to characterize the immune response against a defined set of NeoAgs expressed either clonally or subclonally to model low or high ITH, respectively. Here we show that clonal expression of a weakly immunogenic NeoAg with a relatively strong NeoAg increased the immunogenicity of tumors with low but not high ITH. Mechanistically we determined that clonal NeoAg expression allowed cross-presenting dendritic cells to acquire and present both NeoAgs. Dual NeoAg presentation by dendritic cells was associated with a more mature DC phenotype and a higher stimulatory capacity. These data suggest that clonal NeoAg expression can induce more potent anti-tumor responses due to more stimulatory dendritic cell:T cell interactions. Therapeutic vaccination targeting subclonally expressed NeoAgs could be used to boost anti-tumor T cell responses. © 2023, Nguyen et al.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Inhibition of renalase drives tumour rejection by promoting T cell activation.

    In European Journal of Cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) on 1 April 2022 by Guo, X., Jessel, S., et al.


    Although programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors have revolutionised treatment for advanced melanoma, not all patients respond. We previously showed that inhibition of the flavoprotein renalase (RNLS) in preclinical melanoma models decreases tumour growth. We hypothesised that RNLS inhibition promotes tumour rejection by effects on the tumour microenvironment (TME). We used two distinct murine melanoma models, studied in RNLS knockout (KO) or wild-type (WT) mice. WT mice were treated with the anti-RNLS antibody, m28, with or without anti-PD-1. 10X single-cell RNA-sequencing was used to identify transcriptional differences between treatment groups, and tumour cell content was interrogated by flow cytometry. Samples from patients treated with immunotherapy were examined for RNLS expression by quantitative immunofluorescence. RNLS KO mice injected with wild-type melanoma cells reject their tumours, supporting the importance of RNLS in cells in the TME. This effect was blunted by anti-cluster of differentiation 3. However, MØ-specific RNLS ablation was insufficient to abrogate tumour formation. Anti-RNLS antibody treatment of melanoma-bearing mice resulted in enhanced T cell infiltration and activation and resulted in immune memory on rechallenging mice with injection of melanoma cells. At the single-cell level, treatment with anti-RNLS antibodies resulted in increased tumour density of MØ, neutrophils and lymphocytes and increased expression of IFNγ and granzyme B in natural killer cells and T cells. Intratumoural Forkhead Box P3 + CD4 cells were decreased. In two distinct murine melanoma models, we showed that melanoma-bearing mice treated with anti-RNLS antibodies plus anti-PD-1 had superior tumour shrinkage and survival than with either treatment alone. Importantly, in pretreatment samples from patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors, high RNLS expression was associated with decreased survival (log-rank P = 0.006), independent of other prognostic variables. RNLS KO results in melanoma tumour regression in a T-cell-dependent fashion. Anti-RNLS antibodies enhance anti-PD-1 activity in two distinct aggressive murine melanoma models resistant to PD-1 inhibitors, supporting the development of anti-RNLS antibodies with PD-1 inhibitors as a novel approach for melanomas poorly responsive to anti-PD-1. Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
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    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Expansion of tumor-associated Treg cells upon disruption of a CTLA-4-dependent feedback loop.

    In Cell on 22 July 2021 by Marangoni, F., Zhakyp, A., et al.


    Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells promote immunological tumor tolerance, but how their immune-suppressive function is regulated in the tumor microenvironment (TME) remains unknown. Here, we used intravital microscopy to characterize the cellular interactions that provide tumor-infiltrating Treg cells with critical activation signals. We found that the polyclonal Treg cell repertoire is pre-enriched to recognize antigens presented by tumor-associated conventional dendritic cells (cDCs). Unstable cDC contacts sufficed to sustain Treg cell function, whereas T helper cells were activated during stable interactions. Contact instability resulted from CTLA-4-dependent downregulation of co-stimulatory B7-family proteins on cDCs, mediated by Treg cells themselves. CTLA-4-blockade triggered CD28-dependent Treg cell hyper-proliferation in the TME, and concomitant Treg cell inactivation was required to achieve tumor rejection. Therefore, Treg cells self-regulate through a CTLA-4- and CD28-dependent feedback loop that adjusts their population size to the amount of local co-stimulation. Its disruption through CTLA-4-blockade may off-set therapeutic benefits in cancer patients. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Immune mechanisms orchestrate tertiary lymphoid structures in tumors via cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    In Cell Reports on 20 July 2021 by Rodriguez, A. B., Peske, J. D., et al.


    Tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures (TA-TLS) are associated with enhanced patient survival and responsiveness to cancer therapies, but the mechanisms underlying their development are unknown. We show here that TA-TLS development in murine melanoma is orchestrated by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) with characteristics of lymphoid tissue organizer cells that are induced by tumor necrosis factor receptor signaling. CAF organization into reticular networks is mediated by CD8 T cells, while CAF accumulation and TA-TLS expansion depend on CXCL13-mediated recruitment of B cells expressing lymphotoxin-α1β2. Some of these elements are also overrepresented in human TA-TLS. Additionally, we demonstrate that immunotherapy induces more and larger TA-TLS that are more often organized with discrete T and B cell zones, and that TA-TLS presence, number, and size are correlated with reduced tumor size and overall response to checkpoint immunotherapy. This work provides a platform for manipulating TA-TLS development as a cancer immunotherapy strategy. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.