InVivoMAb anti-mouse/human CD44

Catalog #BE0039
Product Citations:
17
Clone:
IM7
Reactivities:
Mouse, Human

$164.00 - $4,280.00

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Product Details

The IM7 monoclonal antibody reacts with human and mouse CD44 also known as Hermes, HCAM, and Pgp-1. CD44 is an 80-95 kDa glycoprotein that is expressed on all leukocytes, endothelial cells, hepatocytes, and mesenchymal cells. As an adhesion molecule, CD44 participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, and hematopoiesis. CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronic acid and can also interact with other ligands, such as osteopontin, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Additionally, CD44 is involved in tumor metastasis and targeting of CD44 by antibodies has been shown to reduce the malignant activities of various neoplasms. Interestingly, high levels of the adhesion molecule CD44 on leukemic cells are essential to generate leukemia. The IM7 antibody has been shown to neutralize CD44 in vivo

Specifications

Isotype Rat IgG2b, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb rat IgG2b isotype control, anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen Dexamethasone-induced myeloid leukemia M1 cells
Reported Applications in vivo CD44 neutralization
in vitro CD44 neutralization
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107649
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vivo CD44 neutralization
Lee, S. W., et al. (2020). "NiCHE Platform: Nature-Inspired Catechol-Conjugated Hyaluronic Acid Environment Platform for Salivary Gland Tissue Engineering" ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 12(4): 4285-4294. PubMed

Recently, there has been growing interest in replacing severely damaged salivary glands with artificial salivary gland functional units created in vitro by tissue engineering approaches. Although various materials such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), polylactic acid, poly(glycolic acid), and polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as scaffolds for salivary gland tissue engineering, none of them is effective enough to closely recapitulate the branched structural complexity and heterogeneous cell population of native salivary glands. Instead of discovering new biomaterial candidates, we synthesized hyaluronic acid-catechol (HACA) conjugates to establish a versatile hyaluronic acid coating platform named “NiCHE (nature-inspired catechol-conjugated hyaluronic acid environment)” for boosting the salivary gland tissue engineering efficacy of the previously reported biomaterials. By mimicking hyaluronic acid-rich niche in the mesenchyme of embryonic submandibular glands (eSMGs) with NiCHE coating on substrates including polycarbonate membrane, stiff agarose hydrogel, and polycaprolactone scaffold, we observed significantly enhanced cell adhesion, vascular endothelial and progenitor cell proliferation, and branching of in vitro-cultured eSMGs. High mechanical stiffness of the substrate is known to inhibit eSMG growth, but the NiCHE coating significantly reduced such stiffness-induced negative effects, leading to successful differentiation of progenitor cells to functional acinar and myoepithelial cells. These enhancement effects of the NiCHE coating were due to the increased proliferation of vascular endothelial cells via interaction between CD44 and surface-immobilized HAs. As such, our NiCHE coating platform renders any kind of material highly effective for salivary gland tissue culture by mimicking in vivo embryonic mesenchymal HA. Based on our results, we expect the NiCHE coating to expand the range of biomaterial candidates for salivary glands and other branching epithelial organs.

in vitro CD44 neutralization
Liu, S. and C. Cheng. (2017). "Akt Signaling Is Sustained by a CD44 Splice Isoform-Mediated Positive Feedback Loop" Cancer Res 77(14): 3791-3801. PubMed

Tumor cells nearly invariably evolve sustained PI3K/Akt signaling as an effective means to circumvent apoptosis and maintain survival. However, for those tumor cells that do not acquire PI3K/Akt mutations to achieve this end, the underlying mechanisms have remained obscure. Here, we describe the discovery of a splice isoform-dependent positive feedback loop that is essential to sustain PI3K/Akt signaling in breast cancer. Splice isoform CD44s promoted expression of the hyaluronan synthase HAS2 by activating the Akt signaling cascade. The HAS2 product hyaluronan further stimulated CD44s-mediated Akt signaling, creating a feed-forward signaling circuit that promoted tumor cell survival. Mechanistically, we identified FOXO1 as a bona fide transcriptional repressor of HAS2. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of FOXO1 relieved its suppression of HAS2 transcription, with FOXO1 phosphorylation status maintained by operation of the positive feedback loop. In clinical specimens of breast cancer, we established that the expression of CD44s and HAS2 was positively correlated. Our results establish a positive feedback mechanism that sustains PI3K/Akt signaling in tumor cells, further illuminating the nearly universal role of this pathway in cancer cell survival.

in vivo CD44 neutralization
Guidotti, L. G., et al. (2015). "Immunosurveillance of the liver by intravascular effector CD8(+) T cells" Cell 161(3): 486-500. PubMed

Effector CD8(+) T cells (CD8 TE) play a key role during hepatotropic viral infections. Here, we used advanced imaging in mouse models of hepatitis B virus (HBV) pathogenesis to understand the mechanisms whereby these cells home to the liver, recognize antigens, and deploy effector functions. We show that circulating CD8 TE arrest within liver sinusoids by docking onto platelets previously adhered to sinusoidal hyaluronan via CD44. After the initial arrest, CD8 TE actively crawl along liver sinusoids and probe sub-sinusoidal hepatocytes for the presence of antigens by extending cytoplasmic protrusions through endothelial fenestrae. Hepatocellular antigen recognition triggers effector functions in a diapedesis-independent manner and is inhibited by the processes of sinusoidal defenestration and capillarization that characterize liver fibrosis. These findings reveal the dynamic behavior whereby CD8 TE control hepatotropic pathogens and suggest how liver fibrosis might reduce CD8 TE immune surveillance toward infected or transformed hepatocytes.

in vivo CD44 neutralization
Mott, P. J. and A. H. Lazarus. (2013). "CD44 antibodies and immune thrombocytopenia in the amelioration of murine inflammatory arthritis" PLoS One 8(6): e65805. PubMed

Antibodies to CD44 have been used to successfully ameliorate murine models of autoimmune disease. The most often studied disease model has been murine inflammatory arthritis, where a clear mechanism for the efficacy of CD44 antibodies has not been established. We have recently shown in a murine passive-model of the autoimmune disease immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) that some CD44 antibodies themselves can induce thrombocytopenia in mice, and the CD44 antibody causing the most severe thrombocytopenia (IM7), also is known to be highly effective in ameliorating murine models of arthritis. Recent work in the K/BxN serum-induced model of arthritis demonstrated that antibody-induced thrombocytopenia reduced arthritis, causing us to question whether CD44 antibodies might primarily ameliorate arthritis through their thrombocytopenic effect. We evaluated IM7, IRAWB14.4, 5035-41.1D, KM201, KM114, and KM81, and found that while all could induce thrombocytopenia, the degree of protection against serum-induced arthritis was not closely related to the length or severity of the thrombocytopenia. CD44 antibody treatment was also able to reverse established inflammation, while thrombocytopenia induced by an anti-platelet antibody targeting the GPIIbIIIa platelet antigen, could not mediate this effect. While CD44 antibody-induced thrombocytopenia may contribute to some of its therapeutic effect against the initiation of arthritis, for established disease there are likely other mechanisms contributing to its efficacy. Humans are not known to express CD44 on platelets, and are therefore unlikely to develop thrombocytopenia after CD44 antibody treatment. An understanding of the relationship between arthritis, thrombocytopenia, and CD44 antibody treatment remains critical for continued development of CD44 antibody therapeutics.

in vivo CD44 neutralization
Hutas, G., et al. (2008). "CD44-specific antibody treatment and CD44 deficiency exert distinct effects on leukocyte recruitment in experimental arthritis" Blood 112(13): 4999-5006. PubMed

CD44, the leukocyte adhesion receptor for hyaluronan, has been considered a therapeutic target on the basis of the robust anti-inflammatory effect of CD44-specific antibodies in animal models of immune-mediated diseases. However, CD44 deficiency does not provide substantial protection against inflammation. Using intravital video microscopy in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis, we show that CD44 deficiency and anti-CD44 antibody treatment exert disparate effects on leukocyte recruitment in inflamed joints. Leukocyte rolling, which is increased in CD44-deficient mice, is promptly abrogated in anti-CD44-treated wild-type mice. CD44-specific antibodies also trigger platelet deposition on granulocytes and subsequent depletion of this leukocyte subset in the circulation. These in vivo effects require CD44 cross-linking and are reproducible with an antibody against Gr-1, a molecule that, like CD44, is highly expressed on granulocytes. Anticoagulant pretreatment, which prevents platelet deposition, mitigates both granulocyte depletion and the suppressive effect of CD44-specific antibody on joint swelling. Our observations suggest that cross-linking of prominent cell surface molecules, such as CD44 or Gr-1, can initiate a rapid self-elimination program in granulocytes through engagement of the coagulation system. We conclude that the robust anti-inflammatory effect of CD44-specific antibodies in arthritis is primarily the result of their ability to trigger granulocyte depletion.

    Melanocortin-4 receptor in macrophages attenuated angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice.

    In Scientific Reports on 13 November 2023 by Mori, K., Okuma, H., et al.

    PubMed

    Obesity is recognized as an independent risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). While mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene is the most common cause of obesity caused by mutations in a single gene, the link between MC4R function and vascular disease has still remained unclear. Here, by using melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) deficient mice, we confirmed MC4R deficiency promotes AAA and atherosclerosis. We demonstrated the contribution of two novel factors towards vascular vulnerability in this model: leptin signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and loss of MC4R signaling in macrophages. Leptin was shown to promote vascular vulnerability via PI3K-dependent upregulation of Spp1 expression in VSMC. Additionally, Ang II-induced AAA incidence was significantly reduced when MC4R gene expression was myeloid cell-specifically rescued in MC4R deficient (MC4RTB/TB) mice. Ex vivo analysis showed a suppression in NF-κB activity in bone marrow-derived macrophages from LysM(+);MC4RTB/TB mice compared to LysM(-);MC4RTB/TB mice, which exaggerates with endogenous MC4R ligand treatment; α-MSH. These results suggest that MC4R signaling in macrophages attenuates AAA by inhibiting NF-κB activity and subsequent vascular inflammation. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • In Vitro
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Important functional role of the protein osteopontin in the progression of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 3 July 2023 by Digifico, E., Erreni, M., et al.

    PubMed

    Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer of the mesothelial lining associated with exposure to airborne non-degradable asbestos fibers. Its poor response to currently available treatments prompted us to explore the biological mechanisms involved in its progression. MPM is characterized by chronic non-resolving inflammation; in this study we investigated which inflammatory mediators are mostly expressed in biological tumor samples from MPM patients, with a focus on inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and matrix components. Expression and quantification of Osteopontin (OPN) was detected in tumor and plasma samples of MPM patients by mRNA, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The functional role of OPN was investigated in mouse MPM cell lines in vivo using an orthotopic syngeneic mouse model. In patients with MPM, the protein OPN was significantly more expressed in tumors than in normal pleural tissues and predominantly produced by mesothelioma cells; plasma levels were elevated in patients and associated with poor prognosis. However, modulation of OPN levels was not significantly different in a series of 18 MPM patients receiving immunotherapy with durvalumab alone or with pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy, some of whom achieved a partial clinical response. Two established murine mesothelioma cell lines: AB1 and AB22 of sarcomatoid and epithelioid histology, respectively, spontaneously produced high levels of OPN. Silencing of the OPN gene (Spp1) dramatically inhibited tumor growth in vivo in an orthotopic model, indicating that OPN has an important promoting role in the proliferation of MPM cells. Treatment of mice with anti-CD44 mAb, blocking a major OPN receptor, significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo. These results demonstrate that OPN is an endogenous growth factor for mesothelial cells and inhibition of its signaling may be helpful to restrain tumor progression in vivo. These findings have translational potential to improve the therapeutic response of human MPM. Copyright © 2023 Digifico, Erreni, Mannarino, Marchini, Ummarino, Anfray, Bertola, Recordati, Pistillo, Roncalli, Bossi, Zucali, D’Incalci, Belgiovine and Allavena.

    • Conjugation
    • ,
    • Homo sapiens (Human)
    Versatile and Robust Method for Antibody Conjugation to Nanoparticles with High Targeting Efficiency.

    In Pharmaceutics on 14 December 2021 by Van Zundert, I., Bravo, M., et al.

    PubMed

    The application of antibodies in nanomedicine is now standard practice in research since it represents an innovative approach to deliver chemotherapy agents selectively to tumors. The variety of targets or markers that are overexpressed in different types of cancers results in a high demand for antibody conjugated-nanoparticles, which are versatile and easily customizable. Considering up-scaling, the synthesis of antibody-conjugated nanoparticles should be simple and highly reproducible. Here, we developed a facile coating strategy to produce antibody-conjugated nanoparticles using 'click chemistry' and further evaluated their selectivity towards cancer cells expressing different markers. Our approach was consistently repeated for the conjugation of antibodies against CD44 and EGFR, which are prominent cancer cell markers. The functionalized particles presented excellent cell specificity towards CD44 and EGFR overexpressing cells, respectively. Our results indicated that the developed coating method is reproducible, versatile, and non-toxic, and can be used for particle functionalization with different antibodies. This grafting strategy can be applied to a wide range of nanoparticles and will contribute to the development of future targeted drug delivery systems.

    Cell-Matrix Interactions Regulate Functional Extracellular Vesicle Secretion from Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    In ACS Nano on 23 November 2021 by Lenzini, S., Debnath, K., et al.

    PubMed

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-secreted particles with broad potential to treat tissue injuries by delivering cargo to program target cells. However, improving the yield of functional EVs on a per cell basis remains challenging due to an incomplete understanding of how microenvironmental cues regulate EV secretion at the nanoscale. We show that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) seeded on engineered hydrogels that mimic the elasticity of soft tissues with a lower integrin ligand density secrete ∼10-fold more EVs per cell than MSCs seeded on a rigid plastic substrate, without compromising their therapeutic activity or cargo to resolve acute lung injury in mice. Mechanistically, intracellular CD63+ multivesicular bodies (MVBs) transport faster within MSCs on softer hydrogels, leading to an increased frequency of MVB fusion with the plasma membrane to secrete more EVs. Actin-related protein 2/3 complex but not myosin-II limits MVB transport and EV secretion from MSCs on hydrogels. The results provide a rational basis for biomaterial design to improve EV secretion while maintaining their functionality.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    Expeditious recruitment of circulating memory CD8 T cells to the liver facilitates control of malaria.

    In Cell Reports on 2 November 2021 by Lefebvre, M. N., Surette, F. A., et al.

    PubMed

    Circulating memory CD8 T cell trafficking and protective capacity during liver-stage malaria infection remains undefined. We find that effector memory CD8 T cells (Tem) infiltrate the liver within 6 hours after malarial or bacterial infections and mediate pathogen clearance. Tem recruitment coincides with rapid transcriptional upregulation of inflammatory genes in Plasmodium-infected livers. Recruitment requires CD8 T cell-intrinsic LFA-1 expression and the presence of liver phagocytes. Rapid Tem liver infiltration is distinct from recruitment to other non-lymphoid tissues in that it occurs both in the absence of liver tissue resident memory "sensing-and-alarm" function and ∼42 hours earlier than in lung infection by influenza virus. These data demonstrate relevance for Tem in protection against malaria and provide generalizable mechanistic insights germane to control of liver infections.Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Versatile and Robust method for Antibody Conjugation to Nanoparticles with High Targeting Efficiency

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 29 September 2021 by Van Zundert, I., Bravo, M., et al.

    PubMed

    The application of antibodies in nanomedicine is now standard practice in research since it represents an innovative approach to deliver chemotherapy agents selectively to tumours. The variety of targets or markers that are overexpressed in different types of cancers results in a high demand for antibody conjugated nanoparticles which are versatile and easily customizable. Considering upscaling, the synthesis of antibody conjugated nanoparticles should be simple and highly reproducible. Here, we developed a facile coating strategy to produce antibody conjugated nanoparticles using ‘click chemistry’ and further evaluated their selectivity towards cancer cells expressing different markers. Our approach was consistently repeated for the conjugation of antibodies against CD44 and EGFR, which are prominent cancer cell markers. The functionalized particles presented excellent cell specificity towards CD44 and EGFR overexpressing cells, respectively. Our results indicated that the developed coating method is reproducible, versatile, non-toxic, and can be used for particle functionalization with different antibodies. This grafting strategy can be applied to a wide range of nanoparticles and will contribute to the development of future targeted drug delivery systems.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Homo sapiens (Human)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    Serglycin induces osteoclastogenesis and promotes tumor growth in giant cell tumor of bone.

    In Cell Death & Disease on 23 September 2021 by He, Y., Cheng, D., et al.

    PubMed

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is an aggressive osteolytic bone tumor characterized by the within-tumor presence of osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells (MGCs), which are induced by the neoplastic stromal cells and lead to extensive bone destruction. However, the underlying mechanism of the pathological process of osteoclastogenesis in GCTB is poorly understood. Here we show that the proteoglycan Serglycin (SRGN) secreted by neoplastic stromal cells plays a crucial role in the formation of MGCs and tumorigenesis in GCTB. Upregulated SRGN expression and secretion are observed in GCTB tumor cells and patients. Stromal-derived SRGN promotes osteoclast differentiation from monocytes. SRGN knockdown in stromal cells inhibits tumor growth and bone destruction in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft model of mice. Mechanistically SRGN interacts with CD44 on the cell surface of monocytes and thus activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK), leading to osteoclast differentiation. Importantly, blocking CD44 with a neutralizing antibody reduces the number of MGCs and suppresses tumorigenesis in vivo. Overall, our data reveal a mechanism of MGC induction in GCTB and support CD44-targeting approaches for GCTB treatment. © 2021. The Author(s).

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Cluster of Differentiation 44 Promotes Liver Fibrosis and Serves as a Biomarker in Congestive Hepatopathy.

    In Hepatology Communications on 1 August 2021 by Osawa, Y., Kawai, H., et al.

    PubMed

    Congestive hepatopathy (CH) with chronic passive congestion is characterized by the progression of liver fibrosis without prominent inflammation and hepatocellular damage. Currently, the lack of reliable biomarkers for liver fibrosis in CH often precludes the clinical management of patients with CH. To explore fibrosis biomarkers, we performed proteome analysis on serum exosomes isolated from patients with CH after the Fontan procedure. Exosomal cluster of differentiation (CD)44 levels were increased in patients with CH compared to healthy volunteers and was accompanied by increases in serum levels of soluble CD44 and CD44 expression in the liver. To address the roles of CD44 in CH, we established a mouse model of chronic liver congestion by partial inferior vena cava ligation (pIVCL) that mimics CH by fibrosis progression with less inflammation and cellular damage. In the pIVCL mice, enhanced CD44 expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and deposition of its ligand hyaluronan were observed in the liver. Blood levels of soluble CD44 were correlated with liver fibrosis. The blockade of CD44 with specific antibody inhibited liver fibrosis in pIVCL mice and was accompanied by a reduction in S100 calcium-binding protein A4 expression following activation of HSCs. Conclusion: Chronic liver congestion promotes fibrosis through CD44. This identifies CD44 as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target of liver fibrosis in patients with CH. © 2021 The Authors. Hepatology Communications published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    The soluble glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB) produced by macrophages induces cancer stemness and metastasis via CD44 and IL-33.

    In Cellular Molecular Immunology on 1 March 2021 by Liguori, M., Digifico, E., et al.

    PubMed

    In cancer, myeloid cells have tumor-supporting roles. We reported that the protein GPNMB (glycoprotein nonmetastatic B) was profoundly upregulated in macrophages interacting with tumor cells. Here, using mouse tumor models, we show that macrophage-derived soluble GPNMB increases tumor growth and metastasis in Gpnmb-mutant mice (DBA/2J). GPNMB triggers in the cancer cells the formation of self-renewing spheroids, which are characterized by the expression of cancer stem cell markers, prolonged cell survival and increased tumor-forming ability. Through the CD44 receptor, GPNMB mechanistically activates tumor cells to express the cytokine IL-33 and its receptor IL-1R1L. We also determined that recombinant IL-33 binding to IL-1R1L is sufficient to induce tumor spheroid formation with features of cancer stem cells. Overall, our results reveal a new paracrine axis, GPNMB and IL-33, which is activated during the cross talk of macrophages with tumor cells and eventually promotes cancer cell survival, the expansion of cancer stem cells and the acquisition of a metastatic phenotype.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Increased Immunogenicity of a Minimally Immunogenic Tumor after Cancer-Targeting Near Infrared Photoimmunotherapy.

    In Cancers on 12 December 2020 by Wakiyama, H., Furusawa, A., et al.

    PubMed

    Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a highly selective cancer treatment that employs an antibody photoabsorber conjugate (APC) composed of a targeting monoclonal antibody (mAb) conjugated with a photoactivatable phthalocyanine-derivative dye. Once injected and allowed to bind to a tumor, the APC is activated by local near-infrared light which kills cancer cells and induces a strong immune response in the tumor microenvironment by unmasking of new tumor antigens emerging from damaged tumor cells. Due to its ability to incite an immune reaction, even in poorly immunogenic tumors, NIR-PIT has the potential to enhance immunogenicity in tumors especially after immune checkpoint inhibition. In this study, we employ a poorly immunogenic MOC2-luc syngeneic tumor model and evaluate the efficacy of cancer-targeting CD44-targeted NIR-PIT. Increased infiltration of CD8+ T cells observed after NIR-PIT suggested an enhanced immune environment. Next, we evaluated tumor progression and survival after the combination of CD44-targeted NIR-PIT and short-term administration of an anti-PD1 immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) to further activate CD8+ T cells. Additionally, in mice in which the tumors were eradicated by this combination therapy, a re-challenge with fresh MOC2-luc cells demonstrated failure of tumor implantation implying acquired long-term immunity against the cancer cells. Combination therapy decreased tumor progression and prolonged survival significantly. Therefore, we concluded that NIR-PIT was able to convert a minimally immunogenic tumor unresponsive to anti-PD-1 ICI into a highly immunogenic tumor responsive to anti-PD-1 ICI, and this therapy was capable of inducing long-term immunity against the treated cancer.

    • IHC-P
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Near-Infrared Photoimmunotherapy Combined with CTLA4 Checkpoint Blockade in Syngeneic Mouse Cancer Models.

    In Vaccines on 14 September 2020 by Maruoka, Y., Furusawa, A., et al.

    PubMed

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a newly developed and highly selective cancer treatment that induces necrotic/immunogenic cell death. It employs a monoclonal antibody (mAb) conjugated to a photo-absorber dye, IRDye700DX, which is activated by NIR light. Tumor-targeting NIR-PIT is also at least partly mediated by a profound immune response against the tumor. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) is widely recognized as a major immune checkpoint protein, which inhibits the immune response against tumors and is therefore, a target for systemic blockade. We investigated the effect of combining tumor-targeted NIR-PIT against the cell-surface antigen, CD44, which is known as a cancer stem cell marker, with a systemic CTLA4 immune checkpoint inhibitor in three syngeneic tumor models (MC38-luc, LL/2, and MOC1). CD44-targeted NIR-PIT combined with CTLA4 blockade showed greater tumor growth inhibition with longer survival compared with CTLA4 blockade alone in all tumor models. NIR-PIT and CTLA4 blockade produced more complete remission in MOC1 tumors (44%) than NIR-PIT and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade (8%), which was reported in our previous paper. However, the combination of NIR-PIT and CTLA4 blockade was less effective in MC38-luc tumors (11%) than the combination of NIR-PIT and PD-1 blockade (70%). Nonetheless, in many cases ineffective results with NIR-PIT and PD-1 blockade were reversed with NIR-PIT and CTLA4 blockade.

    • IHC-IF
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Interleukin-15 after Near-Infrared Photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) Enhances T Cell Response against Syngeneic Mouse Tumors.

    In Cancers on 10 September 2020 by Maruoka, Y., Furusawa, A., et al.

    PubMed

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a newly developed and highly selective cancer treatment that employs a monoclonal antibody (mAb) conjugated to a photo-absorber dye, IRDye700DX, which is activated by 690 nm light. Cancer cell-targeted NIR-PIT induces rapid necrotic/immunogenic cell death (ICD) that induces antitumor host immunity including re-priming and proliferation of T cells. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a cytokine that activates natural killer (NK)-, B- and T-cells while having minimal effect on regulatory T cells (Tregs) that lack the IL-15 receptor. Here, we hypothesized that IL-15 administration with cancer cell-targeted NIR-PIT could further inhibit tumor growth by increasing antitumor host immunity. Three syngeneic mouse tumor models, MC38-luc, LL/2, and MOC1, underwent combined CD44-targeted NIR-PIT and short-term IL-15 administration with appropriate controls. Comparing with the single-agent therapy, the combination therapy of IL-15 after NIR-PIT inhibited tumor growth, prolonged survival, and increased tumor infiltrating CD8+ T cells more efficiently in tumor-bearing mice. IL-15 appears to enhance the therapeutic effect of cancer-targeted NIR-PIT.

    • Block
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    NiCHE Platform: Nature-Inspired Catechol-Conjugated Hyaluronic Acid Environment Platform for Salivary Gland Tissue Engineering.

    In ACS Applied Materials Interfaces on 29 January 2020 by Lee, S. W., Ryu, J. H., et al.

    PubMed

    Recently, there has been growing interest in replacing severely damaged salivary glands with artificial salivary gland functional units created in vitro by tissue engineering approaches. Although various materials such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), polylactic acid, poly(glycolic acid), and polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as scaffolds for salivary gland tissue engineering, none of them is effective enough to closely recapitulate the branched structural complexity and heterogeneous cell population of native salivary glands. Instead of discovering new biomaterial candidates, we synthesized hyaluronic acid-catechol (HACA) conjugates to establish a versatile hyaluronic acid coating platform named "NiCHE (nature-inspired catechol-conjugated hyaluronic acid environment)" for boosting the salivary gland tissue engineering efficacy of the previously reported biomaterials. By mimicking hyaluronic acid-rich niche in the mesenchyme of embryonic submandibular glands (eSMGs) with NiCHE coating on substrates including polycarbonate membrane, stiff agarose hydrogel, and polycaprolactone scaffold, we observed significantly enhanced cell adhesion, vascular endothelial and progenitor cell proliferation, and branching of in vitro-cultured eSMGs. High mechanical stiffness of the substrate is known to inhibit eSMG growth, but the NiCHE coating significantly reduced such stiffness-induced negative effects, leading to successful differentiation of progenitor cells to functional acinar and myoepithelial cells. These enhancement effects of the NiCHE coating were due to the increased proliferation of vascular endothelial cells via interaction between CD44 and surface-immobilized HAs. As such, our NiCHE coating platform renders any kind of material highly effective for salivary gland tissue culture by mimicking in vivo embryonic mesenchymal HA. Based on our results, we expect the NiCHE coating to expand the range of biomaterial candidates for salivary glands and other branching epithelial organs.

    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Acylglycerol Kinase Maintains Metabolic State and Immune Responses of CD8+ T Cells.

    In Cell Metabolism on 6 August 2019 by Hu, Z., Qu, G., et al.

    PubMed

    CD8+ T cell expansions and functions rely on glycolysis, but the mechanisms underlying CD8+ T cell glycolytic metabolism remain elusive. Here, we show that acylglycerol kinase (AGK) is required for the establishment and maintenance of CD8+ T cell metabolic and functional fitness. AGK deficiency dampens CD8+ T cell antitumor functions in vivo and perturbs CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which mediates elevated CD8+ T cell glycolysis, is tightly dependent on AGK kinase activity. Mechanistically, T cell antigen receptor (TCR)- and CD28-stimulated recruitment of PTEN to the plasma membrane facilitates AGK-PTEN interaction and AGK-triggered PTEN phosphorylation, thereby restricting PTEN phosphatase activity in CD8+ T cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that AGK maintains CD8+ T cell metabolic and functional state by restraining PTEN activity and highlight a critical role for AGK in CD8+ T cell metabolic programming and effector function. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Metabolic control of regulatory T cell stability and function by TRAF3IP3 at the lysosome.

    In The Journal of Experimental Medicine on 3 September 2018 by Yu, X., Teng, X. L., et al.

    PubMed

    Metabolic programs are crucial for regulatory T (T reg) cell stability and function, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate T reg cell metabolism are elusive. Here, we report that lysosomal TRAF3IP3 acts as a pivotal regulator in the maintenance of T reg cell metabolic fitness. T reg-specific deletion of Traf3ip3 impairs T reg cell function, causing the development of inflammatory disorders and stronger antitumor T cell responses in mice. Excessive mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-mediated hyper-glycolytic metabolism is responsible for the instability of TRAF3IP3-deficient T reg cells. Mechanistically, TRAF3IP3 restricts mTORC1 signaling by recruiting the serine-threonine phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) to the lysosome, thereby facilitating the interaction of PP2Ac with the mTORC1 component Raptor. Our results define TRAF3IP3 as a metabolic regulator in T reg cell stability and function and suggest a lysosome-specific mTORC1 signaling mechanism that regulates T reg cell metabolism. © 2018 Yu et al.

    • Block
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Homo sapiens (Human)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Akt Signaling Is Sustained by a CD44 Splice Isoform-Mediated Positive Feedback Loop.

    In Cancer Research on 15 July 2017 by Liu, S. & Cheng, C.

    PubMed

    Tumor cells nearly invariably evolve sustained PI3K/Akt signaling as an effective means to circumvent apoptosis and maintain survival. However, for those tumor cells that do not acquire PI3K/Akt mutations to achieve this end, the underlying mechanisms have remained obscure. Here, we describe the discovery of a splice isoform-dependent positive feedback loop that is essential to sustain PI3K/Akt signaling in breast cancer. Splice isoform CD44s promoted expression of the hyaluronan synthase HAS2 by activating the Akt signaling cascade. The HAS2 product hyaluronan further stimulated CD44s-mediated Akt signaling, creating a feed-forward signaling circuit that promoted tumor cell survival. Mechanistically, we identified FOXO1 as a bona fide transcriptional repressor of HAS2. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of FOXO1 relieved its suppression of HAS2 transcription, with FOXO1 phosphorylation status maintained by operation of the positive feedback loop. In clinical specimens of breast cancer, we established that the expression of CD44s and HAS2 was positively correlated. Our results establish a positive feedback mechanism that sustains PI3K/Akt signaling in tumor cells, further illuminating the nearly universal role of this pathway in cancer cell survival. Cancer Res; 77(14); 3791-801. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Targeting CD44 augments the efficacy of Tregs in autoimmune diabetes.

    In Immunology Letters on 1 February 2015 by Li, C. R., Mueller, E. E., et al.

    PubMed

    Curing type 1 diabetes (T1D) will require lasting control of the autoimmune response that destroys insulin-producing islet β-cells. Re-establishing tolerance by restoring/replacing Tregs has significant potential for treatment of T1D but will require strategies to augment and maintain their efficacy. We previously showed that polyclonal in vitro-induced Tregs can reverse recent onset of T1D in ∼ 50% of NOD mice. Here we report that treatment of newly hyperglycemic animals with a short course of anti-CD44 at the time of Treg transfer improved diabetes reversal to >90%. Anti-CD44 treatment alone delayed diabetes onset and increased the frequencies of pancreatic CD4(+) T cells producing IL-2 or TGF-β, cytokines that support Treg function and survival, without altering production of IFN-γ. These anti-CD44 effects on endogenous T cells were also observed in the context of polyclonal Treg transfer, and the combination treatment also reduced pancreatic infiltrates. The results provide compelling evidence that approaches to modulate the pancreatic milieu to support Treg function and counteract inflammation in the pancreas can greatly enhance the efficacy of adoptively transferred Tregs, and suggest that approaches achieving these outcomes hold promise for long-term control of autoimmunity in T1D. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    CD44 antibodies and immune thrombocytopenia in the amelioration of murine inflammatory arthritis.

    In PLoS ONE on 21 June 2013 by Mott, P. J. & Lazarus, A. H.

    PubMed

    Antibodies to CD44 have been used to successfully ameliorate murine models of autoimmune disease. The most often studied disease model has been murine inflammatory arthritis, where a clear mechanism for the efficacy of CD44 antibodies has not been established. We have recently shown in a murine passive-model of the autoimmune disease immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) that some CD44 antibodies themselves can induce thrombocytopenia in mice, and the CD44 antibody causing the most severe thrombocytopenia (IM7), also is known to be highly effective in ameliorating murine models of arthritis. Recent work in the K/BxN serum-induced model of arthritis demonstrated that antibody-induced thrombocytopenia reduced arthritis, causing us to question whether CD44 antibodies might primarily ameliorate arthritis through their thrombocytopenic effect. We evaluated IM7, IRAWB14.4, 5035-41.1D, KM201, KM114, and KM81, and found that while all could induce thrombocytopenia, the degree of protection against serum-induced arthritis was not closely related to the length or severity of the thrombocytopenia. CD44 antibody treatment was also able to reverse established inflammation, while thrombocytopenia induced by an anti-platelet antibody targeting the GPIIbIIIa platelet antigen, could not mediate this effect. While CD44 antibody-induced thrombocytopenia may contribute to some of its therapeutic effect against the initiation of arthritis, for established disease there are likely other mechanisms contributing to its efficacy. Humans are not known to express CD44 on platelets, and are therefore unlikely to develop thrombocytopenia after CD44 antibody treatment. An understanding of the relationship between arthritis, thrombocytopenia, and CD44 antibody treatment remains critical for continued development of CD44 antibody therapeutics.