InVivoMAb anti-mouse/human CD44

Catalog #BE0039
Mouse, Human

$164.00 - $4,280.00

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Product Details

The IM7 monoclonal antibody reacts with human and mouse CD44 also known as Hermes, HCAM, and Pgp-1. CD44 is an 80-95 kDa glycoprotein that is expressed on all leukocytes, endothelial cells, hepatocytes, and mesenchymal cells. As an adhesion molecule, CD44 participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, and hematopoiesis. CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronic acid and can also interact with other ligands, such as osteopontin, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Additionally, CD44 is involved in tumor metastasis and targeting of CD44 by antibodies has been shown to reduce the malignant activities of various neoplasms. Interestingly, high levels of the adhesion molecule CD44 on leukemic cells are essential to generate leukemia. The IM7 antibody has been shown to neutralize CD44 in vivo


Isotype Rat IgG2b, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb rat IgG2b isotype control, anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen Dexamethasone-induced myeloid leukemia M1 cells
Reported Applications in vivo CD44 neutralization
in vitro CD44 neutralization
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107649
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vivo CD44 neutralization
Lee, S. W., et al. (2020). "NiCHE Platform: Nature-Inspired Catechol-Conjugated Hyaluronic Acid Environment Platform for Salivary Gland Tissue Engineering" ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 12(4): 4285-4294. PubMed

Recently, there has been growing interest in replacing severely damaged salivary glands with artificial salivary gland functional units created in vitro by tissue engineering approaches. Although various materials such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), polylactic acid, poly(glycolic acid), and polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as scaffolds for salivary gland tissue engineering, none of them is effective enough to closely recapitulate the branched structural complexity and heterogeneous cell population of native salivary glands. Instead of discovering new biomaterial candidates, we synthesized hyaluronic acid-catechol (HACA) conjugates to establish a versatile hyaluronic acid coating platform named “NiCHE (nature-inspired catechol-conjugated hyaluronic acid environment)” for boosting the salivary gland tissue engineering efficacy of the previously reported biomaterials. By mimicking hyaluronic acid-rich niche in the mesenchyme of embryonic submandibular glands (eSMGs) with NiCHE coating on substrates including polycarbonate membrane, stiff agarose hydrogel, and polycaprolactone scaffold, we observed significantly enhanced cell adhesion, vascular endothelial and progenitor cell proliferation, and branching of in vitro-cultured eSMGs. High mechanical stiffness of the substrate is known to inhibit eSMG growth, but the NiCHE coating significantly reduced such stiffness-induced negative effects, leading to successful differentiation of progenitor cells to functional acinar and myoepithelial cells. These enhancement effects of the NiCHE coating were due to the increased proliferation of vascular endothelial cells via interaction between CD44 and surface-immobilized HAs. As such, our NiCHE coating platform renders any kind of material highly effective for salivary gland tissue culture by mimicking in vivo embryonic mesenchymal HA. Based on our results, we expect the NiCHE coating to expand the range of biomaterial candidates for salivary glands and other branching epithelial organs.

in vitro CD44 neutralization
Liu, S. and C. Cheng. (2017). "Akt Signaling Is Sustained by a CD44 Splice Isoform-Mediated Positive Feedback Loop" Cancer Res 77(14): 3791-3801. PubMed

Tumor cells nearly invariably evolve sustained PI3K/Akt signaling as an effective means to circumvent apoptosis and maintain survival. However, for those tumor cells that do not acquire PI3K/Akt mutations to achieve this end, the underlying mechanisms have remained obscure. Here, we describe the discovery of a splice isoform-dependent positive feedback loop that is essential to sustain PI3K/Akt signaling in breast cancer. Splice isoform CD44s promoted expression of the hyaluronan synthase HAS2 by activating the Akt signaling cascade. The HAS2 product hyaluronan further stimulated CD44s-mediated Akt signaling, creating a feed-forward signaling circuit that promoted tumor cell survival. Mechanistically, we identified FOXO1 as a bona fide transcriptional repressor of HAS2. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of FOXO1 relieved its suppression of HAS2 transcription, with FOXO1 phosphorylation status maintained by operation of the positive feedback loop. In clinical specimens of breast cancer, we established that the expression of CD44s and HAS2 was positively correlated. Our results establish a positive feedback mechanism that sustains PI3K/Akt signaling in tumor cells, further illuminating the nearly universal role of this pathway in cancer cell survival.

in vivo CD44 neutralization
Guidotti, L. G., et al. (2015). "Immunosurveillance of the liver by intravascular effector CD8(+) T cells" Cell 161(3): 486-500. PubMed

Effector CD8(+) T cells (CD8 TE) play a key role during hepatotropic viral infections. Here, we used advanced imaging in mouse models of hepatitis B virus (HBV) pathogenesis to understand the mechanisms whereby these cells home to the liver, recognize antigens, and deploy effector functions. We show that circulating CD8 TE arrest within liver sinusoids by docking onto platelets previously adhered to sinusoidal hyaluronan via CD44. After the initial arrest, CD8 TE actively crawl along liver sinusoids and probe sub-sinusoidal hepatocytes for the presence of antigens by extending cytoplasmic protrusions through endothelial fenestrae. Hepatocellular antigen recognition triggers effector functions in a diapedesis-independent manner and is inhibited by the processes of sinusoidal defenestration and capillarization that characterize liver fibrosis. These findings reveal the dynamic behavior whereby CD8 TE control hepatotropic pathogens and suggest how liver fibrosis might reduce CD8 TE immune surveillance toward infected or transformed hepatocytes.

in vivo CD44 neutralization
Mott, P. J. and A. H. Lazarus. (2013). "CD44 antibodies and immune thrombocytopenia in the amelioration of murine inflammatory arthritis" PLoS One 8(6): e65805. PubMed

Antibodies to CD44 have been used to successfully ameliorate murine models of autoimmune disease. The most often studied disease model has been murine inflammatory arthritis, where a clear mechanism for the efficacy of CD44 antibodies has not been established. We have recently shown in a murine passive-model of the autoimmune disease immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) that some CD44 antibodies themselves can induce thrombocytopenia in mice, and the CD44 antibody causing the most severe thrombocytopenia (IM7), also is known to be highly effective in ameliorating murine models of arthritis. Recent work in the K/BxN serum-induced model of arthritis demonstrated that antibody-induced thrombocytopenia reduced arthritis, causing us to question whether CD44 antibodies might primarily ameliorate arthritis through their thrombocytopenic effect. We evaluated IM7, IRAWB14.4, 5035-41.1D, KM201, KM114, and KM81, and found that while all could induce thrombocytopenia, the degree of protection against serum-induced arthritis was not closely related to the length or severity of the thrombocytopenia. CD44 antibody treatment was also able to reverse established inflammation, while thrombocytopenia induced by an anti-platelet antibody targeting the GPIIbIIIa platelet antigen, could not mediate this effect. While CD44 antibody-induced thrombocytopenia may contribute to some of its therapeutic effect against the initiation of arthritis, for established disease there are likely other mechanisms contributing to its efficacy. Humans are not known to express CD44 on platelets, and are therefore unlikely to develop thrombocytopenia after CD44 antibody treatment. An understanding of the relationship between arthritis, thrombocytopenia, and CD44 antibody treatment remains critical for continued development of CD44 antibody therapeutics.

in vivo CD44 neutralization
Hutas, G., et al. (2008). "CD44-specific antibody treatment and CD44 deficiency exert distinct effects on leukocyte recruitment in experimental arthritis" Blood 112(13): 4999-5006. PubMed

CD44, the leukocyte adhesion receptor for hyaluronan, has been considered a therapeutic target on the basis of the robust anti-inflammatory effect of CD44-specific antibodies in animal models of immune-mediated diseases. However, CD44 deficiency does not provide substantial protection against inflammation. Using intravital video microscopy in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis, we show that CD44 deficiency and anti-CD44 antibody treatment exert disparate effects on leukocyte recruitment in inflamed joints. Leukocyte rolling, which is increased in CD44-deficient mice, is promptly abrogated in anti-CD44-treated wild-type mice. CD44-specific antibodies also trigger platelet deposition on granulocytes and subsequent depletion of this leukocyte subset in the circulation. These in vivo effects require CD44 cross-linking and are reproducible with an antibody against Gr-1, a molecule that, like CD44, is highly expressed on granulocytes. Anticoagulant pretreatment, which prevents platelet deposition, mitigates both granulocyte depletion and the suppressive effect of CD44-specific antibody on joint swelling. Our observations suggest that cross-linking of prominent cell surface molecules, such as CD44 or Gr-1, can initiate a rapid self-elimination program in granulocytes through engagement of the coagulation system. We conclude that the robust anti-inflammatory effect of CD44-specific antibodies in arthritis is primarily the result of their ability to trigger granulocyte depletion.