InVivoMAb anti-WNV E protein DIII-LR

Catalog #BE0429

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Product Details

The E16 monoclonal antibody reacts with the domain III lateral ridge (DIII-LR) of the envelope (E) protein of West Nile Virus (WNV). The positive-stranded RNA virus WNV affects birds, horses, and humans, and its clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic (~80% cases) to encephalitis/paralysis, and some infections can be fatal. Because of a lack of FDA-licensed vaccines for human use, extensive research is going on in this research area and several monoclonal antibodies have been invented to facilitate WNV related experiments. Among various potent WNV antibody clones, the E16 monoclonal antibody is known to neutralize multiple strains of WNV in vitro, and its in vivo administration to WNV infected mice has offered experimental therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, in post-exposure therapeutic experiments in mice, the humanized version of E16 monoclonal antibody was shown to protect the animals against WNV infection-induced mortality. Notably, this antibody is less potent in mice that lack Fc gamma receptors. E16 monoclonal antibody inhibits infection of genetically diverse WNV lineage I strains isolated from mosquitoes, birds and horses in NY (USA) and the original lineage II strain 956 which was isolated in 1937. This antibody does not recognize or neutralize other flaviviruses including dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever viruses (YFV), or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and St. Louis' encephalitis virus.


Isotype Mouse IgG2b, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb mouse IgG2b isotype control, unknown specificity
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Immunogen Recombinant WNV E protein
Reported Applications in vivo protection against WNV infection
In vitro opsonization of WNV infected cells
Flow cytometry
Western blot
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein A
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vitro neutralization of WNV
Bennett AK, Richner M, Mun MD, Richner JM. (2023). "Type I IFN stimulates lymph node stromal cells from adult and old mice during a West Nile virus infection" Aging Cell 22(4):e13796. PubMed

Advanced age is a significant risk factor during viral infection due to an age-associated decline in the immune response. Older individuals are especially susceptible to severe neuroinvasive disease after West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Previous studies have characterized age-associated defects in hematopoietic immune cells during WNV infection that culminate in diminished antiviral immunity. Situated amongst immune cells in the draining lymph node (DLN) are structural networks of nonhematopoietic lymph node stromal cells (LNSCs). LNSCs are comprised of numerous, diverse subsets, with critical roles in the coordination of robust immune responses. The contributions of LNSCs to WNV immunity and immune senescence are unclear. Here, we examine LNSC responses to WNV within adult and old DLNs. Acute WNV infection triggered cellular infiltration and LNSC expansion in adults. Comparatively, aged DLNs exhibited diminished leukocyte accumulation, delayed LNSC expansion, and altered fibroblast and endothelial cell subset composition, signified by fewer LECs. We established an ex vivo culture system to probe LNSC function. Adult and old LNSCs both recognized an ongoing viral infection primarily through type I IFN signaling. Gene expression signatures were similar between adult and old LNSCs. Aged LNSCs were found to constitutively upregulate immediate early response genes. Collectively, these data suggest LNSCs uniquely respond to WNV infection. We are the first to report age-associated differences in LNSCs on the population and gene expression level during WNV infection. These changes may compromise antiviral immunity, leading to increased WNV disease in older individuals.

ELISA, Flow Cytometry, Western Blot
He J, Lai H, Esqueda A, Chen Q. (2021). "Plant-Produced Antigen Displaying Virus-Like Particles Evokes Potent Antibody Responses against West Nile Virus in Mice" Vaccines (Basel) 9(1):60. PubMed

In this study, we developed a hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-based virus-like particle (VLP) that displays the West Nile virus (WNV) Envelope protein domain III (wDIII) as a vaccine candidate for WNV. The HBcAg-wDIII fusion protein was quickly produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and reached a high expression level of approximately 1.2 mg of fusion protein per gram of leaf fresh weight within six days post gene infiltration. Electron microscopy and gradient centrifugation analysis indicated that the introduction of wDIII did not interfere with VLP formation and HBcAg-wDIII successfully assembled into VLPs. HBcAg-wDIII VLPs can be easily purified in large quantities from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves to >95% homogeneity. Further analysis revealed that the wDIII was displayed properly and demonstrated specific binding to an anti-wDIII monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conformational epitope of wDIII. Notably, HBcAg-wDIII VLPs were shown to be highly immunogenic and elicited potent humoral responses in mice with antigen-specific IgG titers equivalent to that of protective wDIII antigens in previous studies. Thus, our wDIII-based VLP vaccine offers an attractive option for developing effective, safe, and low-cost vaccines against WNV.

in vivo protection against WNV infection, in vitro neutralization of WNV
Goo L, Debbink K, Kose N, Sapparapu G, Doyle MP, Wessel AW, Richner JM, Burgomaster KE, Larman BC, Dowd KA, Diamond MS, Crowe JE, Pierson TC. (2019). "A protective human monoclonal antibody targeting the West Nile virus E protein preferentially recognizes mature virions" Nat Microbiol 4(1):71-77. PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flavivirus genus, is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in the United States1. The development of neutralizing antibodies against the flavivirus envelope (E) protein is critical for immunity and vaccine protection2. Previously identified candidate therapeutic mouse and human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) target epitopes within the E domain III lateral ridge and the domain I-II hinge region, respectively3. To explore the neutralizing antibody repertoire elicited by WNV infection for potential therapeutic application, we isolated ten mAbs from WNV-infected individuals. mAb WNV-86 neutralized WNV with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 2 ng ml-1, one of the most potently neutralizing flavivirus-specific antibodies ever isolated. WNV-86 targets an epitope in E domain II, and preferentially recognizes mature virions lacking an uncleaved form of the chaperone protein prM, unlike most flavivirus-specific antibodies4. In vitro selection experiments revealed a neutralization escape mechanism involving a glycan addition to E domain II. Finally, a single dose of WNV-86 administered two days post-infection protected mice from lethal WNV challenge. This study identifies a highly potent human neutralizing mAb with therapeutic potential that targets an epitope preferentially displayed on mature virions.

Flow Cytometry
Kim S, Pinto AK, Myers NB, Hawkins O, Doll K, Kaabinejadian S, Netland J, Bevan MJ, Weidanz JA, Hildebrand WH, Diamond MS, Hansen TH. (2014). "A novel T-cell receptor mimic defines dendritic cells that present an immunodominant West Nile virus epitope in mice" Eur J Immunol 44(7):1936-46. PubMed

We used a newly generated T-cell receptor mimic monoclonal antibody (TCRm MAb) that recognizes a known nonself immunodominant peptide epitope from West Nile virus (WNV) NS4B protein to investigate epitope presentation after virus infection in C57BL/6 mice. Previous studies suggested that peptides of different length, either SSVWNATTAI (10-mer) or SSVWNATTA (9-mer) in complex with class I MHC antigen H-2D(b) , were immunodominant after WNV infection. Our data establish that both peptides are presented on the cell surface after WNV infection and that CD8(+) T cells can detect 10- and 9-mer length variants similarly. This result varies from the idea that a given T-cell receptor (TCR) prefers a single peptide length bound to its cognate class I MHC. In separate WNV infection studies with the TCRm MAb, we show that in vivo the 10-mer was presented on the surface of uninfected and infected CD8α(+) CD11c(+) dendritic cells, which suggests the use of direct and cross-presentation pathways. In contrast, CD11b(+) CD11c(-) cells bound the TCRm MAb only when they were infected. Our study demonstrates that TCR recognition of peptides is not limited to certain peptide lengths and that TCRm MAbs can be used to dissect the cell-type specific mechanisms of antigen presentation in vivo.

in vitro neutralization of WNV
Lin TY, Dowd KA, Manhart CJ, Nelson S, Whitehead SS, Pierson TC. (2012). "A novel approach for the rapid mutagenesis and directed evolution of the structural genes of west nile virus" J Virol 86(7):3501-12. PubMed

Molecular clone technology has proven to be a powerful tool for investigating the life cycle of flaviviruses, their interactions with the host, and vaccine development. Despite the demonstrated utility of existing molecular clone strategies, the feasibility of employing these existing approaches in large-scale mutagenesis studies is limited by the technical challenges of manipulating relatively large molecular clone plasmids that can be quite unstable when propagated in bacteria. We have developed a novel strategy that provides an extremely rapid approach for the introduction of mutations into the structural genes of West Nile virus (WNV). The backbone of this technology is a truncated form of the genome into which DNA fragments harboring the structural genes are ligated and transfected directly into mammalian cells, bypassing entirely the requirement for cloning in bacteria. The transfection of cells with this system results in the rapid release of WNV that achieves a high titer (∼10(7) infectious units/ml in 48 h). The suitability of this approach for large-scale mutagenesis efforts was established in two ways. First, we constructed and characterized a library of variants encoding single defined amino acid substitutions at the 92 residues of the "pr" portion of the precursor-to-membrane (prM) protein. Analysis of a subset of these variants identified a mutation that conferred resistance to neutralization by an envelope protein-specific antibody. Second, we employed this approach to accelerate the identification of mutations that allow escape from neutralizing antibodies. Populations of WNV encoding random changes in the E protein were produced in the presence of a potent monoclonal antibody, E16. Viruses resistant to neutralization were identified in a single passage. Together, we have developed a simple and rapid approach to produce infectious WNV that accelerates the process of manipulating the genome to study the structure and function of the structural genes of this important human pathogen.

in vitro neutralization of WNV, Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), Flow Cytometry
Dowd KA, Jost CA, Durbin AP, Whitehead SS, Pierson TC. (2011). "A dynamic landscape for antibody binding modulates antibody-mediated neutralization of West Nile virus" PLoS Pathog 7(6):e1002111. PubMed

Neutralizing antibodies are a significant component of the host's protective response against flavivirus infection. Neutralization of flaviviruses occurs when individual virions are engaged by antibodies with a stoichiometry that exceeds a required threshold. From this "multiple-hit" perspective, the neutralizing activity of antibodies is governed by the affinity with which it binds its epitope and the number of times this determinant is displayed on the surface of the virion. In this study, we investigated time-dependent changes in the fate of West Nile virus (WNV) decorated with antibody in solution. Experiments with the well-characterized neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) E16 revealed a significant increase in neutralization activity over time that could not be explained by the kinetics of antibody binding, virion aggregation, or the action of complement. Additional kinetic experiments using the fusion-loop specific MAb E53, which has limited neutralizing activity because it recognizes a relatively inaccessible epitope on mature virions, identified a role of virus "breathing" in regulating neutralization activity. Remarkably, MAb E53 neutralized mature WNV in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. This phenomenon was confirmed in studies with a large panel of MAbs specific for epitopes in each domain of the WNV envelope protein, with sera from recipients of a live attenuated WNV vaccine, and in experiments with dengue virus. Given enough time, significant inhibition of infection was observed even for antibodies with very limited, or no neutralizing activity in standard neutralization assays. Together, our data suggests that the structural dynamics of flaviviruses impacts antibody-mediated neutralization via exposure of otherwise inaccessible epitopes, allowing for antibodies to dock on the virion with a stoichiometry sufficient for neutralization.

Schneeweiss A, Chabierski S, Salomo M, Delaroque N, Al-Robaiy S, Grunwald T, Bürki K, Liebert UG, Ulbert S. (2011). "A DNA vaccine encoding the E protein of West Nile virus is protective and can be boosted by recombinant domain DIII" Vaccine 29(37):6352-7. PubMed

West Nile Virus (WNV) is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus with increasing distribution worldwide. Birds are the natural host of the virus, but also mammals, including humans, can be infected. In some cases, a WNV infection can be associated with severe neurological symptoms. All currently available WNV vaccines are in the veterinary sector, and there is a need to develop safe and effective immunization technologies, which can also be used in humans. An alternative to current vaccination methods is DNA immunization. Most current DNA vaccine candidates against flaviviruses simultaneously express the viral envelope (E) and membrane (prM) proteins, which leads to the formation of virus-like particles. Here we generated a DNA plasmid, which expresses only the E-protein ectodomain. Vaccination of mice stimulated anti-WNV T-cell responses and neutralizing antibodies that were higher than those obtained after immunizing with a recombinant protein previously shown to be a protective WNV vaccine. A single dose of the plasmid was sufficient to protect animals from a lethal challenge with the virus. Moreover, immunogenicity could be boosted when DNA injection was followed by immunization with recombinant domain DIII of the E-protein. This resulted in significantly enhanced neutralizing antibody titers and a more prominent cellular immune response. The results suggest that the WNV E-protein is sufficient as a protective antigen in DNA vaccines and that protection can be significantly improved by adding a recombinant protein boost to the DNA prime.

Flow Cytometry
Szretter KJ, Brien JD, Thackray LB, Virgin HW, Cresswell P, Diamond MS. (2011). "The interferon-inducible gene viperin restricts West Nile virus pathogenesis" J Virol 85(22):11557-66. PubMed

Type I interferon (IFN) signaling coordinates an early antiviral program in infected and uninfected cells by inducing IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that modulate viral entry, replication, and assembly. However, the specific antiviral functions in vivo of most ISGs remain unknown. Here, we examined the contribution of the ISG viperin to the control of West Nile virus (WNV) in genetically deficient cells and mice. While modest increases in levels of WNV replication were observed for primary viperin(-/-) macrophages and dendritic cells, no appreciable differences were detected in deficient embryonic cortical neurons or fibroblasts. In comparison, viperin(-/-) adult mice infected with WNV via the subcutaneous or intracranial route showed increased lethality and/or enhanced viral replication in central nervous system (CNS) tissues. In the CNS, viperin expression was induced in both WNV-infected and adjacent uninfected cells, including activated leukocytes at the site of infection. Our experiments suggest that viperin restricts the infection of WNV in a tissue- and cell-type-specific manner and may be an important ISG for controlling viral infections that cause CNS disease.

in vitro neutralization of WNV, in vitro opsonization of WNV infected cells, Flow Cytometry
Thompson BS, Moesker B, Smit JM, Wilschut J, Diamond MS, Fremont DH. (2009). "A therapeutic antibody against west nile virus neutralizes infection by blocking fusion within endosomes" PLoS Pathog 5(5):e1000453. PubMed

Defining the precise cellular mechanisms of neutralization by potently inhibitory antibodies is important for understanding how the immune system successfully limits viral infections. We recently described a potently inhibitory monoclonal antibody (MAb E16) against the envelope (E) protein of West Nile virus (WNV) that neutralizes infection even after virus has spread to the central nervous system. Herein, we define its mechanism of inhibition. E16 blocks infection primarily at a post-attachment step as antibody-opsonized WNV enters permissive cells but cannot escape from endocytic compartments. These cellular experiments suggest that E16 blocks the acid-catalyzed fusion step that is required for nucleocapsid entry into the cytoplasm. Indeed, E16 directly inhibits fusion of WNV with liposomes. Additionally, low-pH exposure of E16-WNV complexes in the absence of target membranes did not fully inactivate infectious virus, further suggesting that E16 prevents a structural transition required for fusion. Thus, a strongly neutralizing anti-WNV MAb with therapeutic potential is potently inhibitory because it blocks viral fusion and thereby promotes clearance by delivering virus to the lysosome for destruction.

in vitro neutralization of WNV, ELISA, Western Blot
Nelson S, Jost CA, Xu Q, Ess J, Martin JE, Oliphant T, Whitehead SS, Durbin AP, Graham BS, Diamond MS, Pierson TC. (2008). "Maturation of West Nile virus modulates sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization" PLoS Pathog 4(5):e1000060. PubMed

West Nile virions incorporate 180 envelope (E) proteins that orchestrate the process of virus entry and are the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. The E proteins of newly synthesized West Nile virus (WNV) are organized into trimeric spikes composed of pre-membrane (prM) and E protein heterodimers. During egress, immature virions undergo a protease-mediated cleavage of prM that results in a reorganization of E protein into the pseudo-icosahedral arrangement characteristic of mature virions. While cleavage of prM is a required step in the virus life cycle, complete maturation is not required for infectivity and infectious virions may be heterogeneous with respect to the extent of prM cleavage. In this study, we demonstrate that virion maturation impacts the sensitivity of WNV to antibody-mediated neutralization. Complete maturation results in a significant reduction in sensitivity to neutralization by antibodies specific for poorly accessible epitopes that comprise a major component of the human antibody response following WNV infection or vaccination. This reduction in neutralization sensitivity reflects a decrease in the accessibility of epitopes on virions to levels that fall below a threshold required for neutralization. Thus, in addition to a role in facilitating viral entry, changes in E protein arrangement associated with maturation modulate neutralization sensitivity and introduce an additional layer of complexity into humoral immunity against WNV.

Daffis S, Samuel MA, Suthar MS, Gale M, Diamond MS. (2008). "Toll-like receptor 3 has a protective role against West Nile virus infection" J Virol 82(21):10349-58. PubMed

Protection against West Nile virus (WNV) infection requires rapid viral sensing and the generation of an interferon (IFN) response. Mice lacking IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) show increased vulnerability to WNV infection with enhanced viral replication and blunted IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) responses. IRF-3 functions downstream of several viral sensors, including Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5. Cell culture studies suggest that host recognizes WNV in part, through the cytoplasmic helicase RIG-I and to a lesser extent, MDA5, both of which activate ISG expression through IRF-3. However, the role of TLR3 in vivo in recognizing viral RNA and activating antiviral defense pathways has remained controversial. We show here that an absence of TLR3 enhances WNV mortality in mice and increases viral burden in the brain. Compared to congenic wild-type controls, TLR3(-/-) mice showed relatively modest changes in peripheral viral loads. Consistent with this, little difference in multistep viral growth kinetics or IFN-alpha/beta induction was observed between wild-type and TLR3(-/-) fibroblasts, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In contrast, a deficiency of TLR3 was associated with enhanced viral replication in primary cortical neuron cultures and greater WNV infection in central nervous system neurons after intracranial inoculation. Taken together, our data suggest that TLR3 serves a protective role against WNV in part, by restricting replication in neurons.

in vivo protection against WNV infection, in vitro neutralization of WNV, Plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT), Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), Flow Cytometry
Oliphant T, Nybakken GE, Engle M, Xu Q, Nelson CA, Sukupolvi-Petty S, Marri A, Lachmi BE, Olshevsky U, Fremont DH, Pierson TC, Diamond MS. (2006). "Antibody recognition and neutralization determinants on domains I and II of West Nile Virus envelope protein" J Virol 80(24):12149-59. PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against an epitope on the lateral surface of domain III (DIII) of the West Nile virus (WNV) envelope (E) strongly protect against infection in animals. Herein, we observed significantly less efficient neutralization by 89 MAbs that recognized domain I (DI) or II (DII) of WNV E protein. Moreover, in cells expressing Fc gamma receptors, many of the DI- and DII-specific MAbs enhanced infection over a broad range of concentrations. Using yeast surface display of E protein variants, we identified 25 E protein residues to be critical for recognition by DI- or DII-specific neutralizing MAbs. These residues cluster into six novel and one previously characterized epitope located on the lateral ridge of DI, the linker region between DI and DIII, the hinge interface between DI and DII, and the lateral ridge, central interface, dimer interface, and fusion loop of DII. Approximately 45% of DI-DII-specific MAbs showed reduced binding with mutations in the highly conserved fusion loop in DII: 85% of these (34 of 40) cross-reacted with the distantly related dengue virus (DENV). In contrast, MAbs that bound the other neutralizing epitopes in DI and DII showed no apparent cross-reactivity with DENV E protein. Surprisingly, several of the neutralizing epitopes were located in solvent-inaccessible positions in the context of the available pseudoatomic model of WNV. Nonetheless, DI and DII MAbs protect against WNV infection in mice, albeit with lower efficiency than DIII-specific neutralizing MAbs.

in vivo protection against WNV infection, in vitro neutralization of WNV, ELISA, Flow Cytometry
Oliphant T, Engle M, Nybakken GE, Doane C, Johnson S, Huang L, Gorlatov S, Mehlhop E, Marri A, Chung KM, Ebel GD, Kramer LD, Fremont DH, Diamond MS. (2005). "Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus" Nat Med 11(5):522-30. PubMed

Neutralization of West Nile virus (WNV) in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein. Using random mutagenesis and yeast surface display, we defined individual contact residues of 14 newly generated monoclonal antibodies against domain III of the WNV E protein. Monoclonal antibodies that strongly neutralized WNV localized to a surface patch on the lateral face of domain III. Convalescent antibodies from individuals who had recovered from WNV infection also detected this epitope. One monoclonal antibody, E16, neutralized 10 different strains in vitro, and showed therapeutic efficacy in mice, even when administered as a single dose 5 d after infection. A humanized version of E16 was generated that retained antigen specificity, avidity and neutralizing activity. In postexposure therapeutic trials in mice, a single dose of humanized E16 protected mice against WNV-induced mortality, and may therefore be a viable treatment option against WNV infection in humans.

in vivo protection against WNV infection, Complement neutralization assay
Mehlhop E, Whitby K, Oliphant T, Marri A, Engle M, Diamond MS. (2005). "Complement activation is required for induction of a protective antibody response against West Nile virus infection" J Virol 79(12):7466-77. PubMed

Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) causes a severe infection of the central nervous system (CNS) with higher levels of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and the immunocompromised. Experiments with mice have begun to define how the innate and adaptive immune responses function to limit infection. Here, we demonstrate that the complement system, a major component of innate immunity, controls WNV infection in vitro primarily in an antibody-dependent manner by neutralizing virus particles in solution and lysing WNV-infected cells. More decisively, mice that genetically lack the third component of complement or complement receptor 1 (CR1) and CR2 developed increased CNS virus burdens and were vulnerable to lethal infection at a low dose of WNV. Both C3-deficient and CR1- and CR2-deficient mice also had significant deficits in their humoral responses after infection with markedly reduced levels of specific anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG. Overall, these results suggest that complement controls WNV infection, in part through its ability to induce a protective antibody response.

in vitro blocking of WNV-cell attachment, Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), Flow Cytometry
Nybakken GE, Oliphant T, Johnson S, Burke S, Diamond MS, Fremont DH. (2005). "Structural basis of West Nile virus neutralization by a therapeutic antibody" Nature 437(7059):764-9. PubMed

West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to the human epidemic-causing dengue, yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In establishing infection these icosahedral viruses undergo endosomal membrane fusion catalysed by envelope glycoprotein rearrangement of the putative receptor-binding domain III (DIII) and exposure of the hydrophobic fusion loop. Humoral immunity has an essential protective function early in the course of West Nile virus infection. Here, we investigate the mechanism of neutralization by the E16 monoclonal antibody that specifically binds DIII. Structurally, the E16 antibody Fab fragment engages 16 residues positioned on four loops of DIII, a consensus neutralizing epitope sequence conserved in West Nile virus and distinct in other flaviviruses. The E16 epitope protrudes from the surface of mature virions in three distinct environments, and docking studies predict Fab binding will leave five-fold clustered epitopes exposed. We also show that E16 inhibits infection primarily at a step after viral attachment, potentially by blocking envelope glycoprotein conformational changes. Collectively, our results suggest that a vaccine strategy targeting the dominant DIII epitope may elicit safe and effective immune responses against flaviviral diseases.