InVivoMAb anti-West Nile virus NS1

Catalog #BE0427

$164.00 - $4,280.00

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Product Details

The 10NS1 monoclonal antibody reacts with non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flavivirus genus which includes dengue (DEN), yellow fever (YF), Japanese encephalitis (JE), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), and Zika viruses (ZIK) also. These insect- or tick-transmitted viruses are important human pathogens, and their infection can cause severe disease state or fatal disease. WNV is a single-stranded, positive-sense-enveloped RNA virus that is maintained in nature through a mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission cycle, and its outbreaks have called for aggressive research efforts on developing WNV vaccines. A single polyprotein encoded by the 10.7-kilobase genome of WNV gets cleaved into three structural proteins (C, prM/M, and E) and seven nonstructural (NS) proteins, namely NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5. Unlike the other NS proteins, NS1 is secreted and its high levels in serum correlate with the development of severe disease outcome. NS1 is a highly conserved protein, and it is suggested to function as a cofactor in viral RNA replication. NS1 directed antibodies have been shown to offer significant protection against flaviviral infections in vivo. Moreover, mechanistic experimental studies have established that in vivo administration of 10NS1 monoclonal antibody protects mice against WNV infection through Fc-γ receptor I- and/or IV-dependent mechanisms.


Isotype Mouse IgG2a, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb mouse IgG2a isotype control, unknown specificity
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Immunogen Recombinant WNV NS1 protein from insect cells
Reported Applications in vivo protection against WNV infection
In vitro opsonization of WNV infected cells
Flow cytometry
Western blot
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
ELISA, Flow Cytometry
Wessel AW, Dowd KA, Biering SB, Zhang P, Edeling MA, Nelson CA, Funk KE, DeMaso CR, Klein RS, Smith JL, Cao TM, Kuhn RJ, Fremont DH, Harris E, Pierson TC, Diamond MS. (2021). "Levels of Circulating NS1 Impact West Nile Virus Spread to the Brain" J Virol 95(20):e0084421. PubMed

Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are arthropod-transmitted flaviviruses that cause systemic vascular leakage and encephalitis syndromes, respectively, in humans. However, the viral factors contributing to these specific clinical disorders are not completely understood. Flavivirus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is required for replication, expressed on the cell surface, and secreted as a soluble glycoprotein, reaching high levels in the blood of infected individuals. Extracellular DENV NS1 and WNV NS1 interact with host proteins and cells, have immune evasion functions, and promote endothelial dysfunction in a tissue-specific manner. To characterize how differences in DENV NS1 and WNV NS1 might function in pathogenesis, we generated WNV NS1 variants with substitutions corresponding to residues found in DENV NS1. We discovered that the substitution NS1-P101K led to reduced WNV infectivity in the brain and attenuated lethality in infected mice, although the virus replicated efficiently in cell culture and peripheral organs and bound at wild-type levels to brain endothelial cells and complement components. The P101K substitution resulted in reduced NS1 antigenemia in mice, and this was associated with reduced WNV spread to the brain. Because exogenous administration of NS1 protein rescued WNV brain infectivity in mice, we conclude that circulating WNV NS1 facilitates viral dissemination into the central nervous system and impacts disease outcomes. IMPORTANCE Flavivirus NS1 serves as an essential scaffolding molecule during virus replication but also is expressed on the cell surface and is secreted as a soluble glycoprotein that circulates in the blood of infected individuals. Although extracellular forms of NS1 are implicated in immune modulation and in promoting endothelial dysfunction at blood-tissue barriers, it has been challenging to study specific effects of NS1 on pathogenesis without disrupting its key role in virus replication. Here, we assessed WNV NS1 variants that do not affect virus replication and evaluated their effects on pathogenesis in mice. Our characterization of WNV NS1-P101K suggests that the levels of NS1 in the circulation facilitate WNV dissemination to the brain and affect disease outcomes. Our findings facilitate understanding of the role of NS1 during flavivirus infection and support antiviral strategies for targeting circulating forms of NS1.

Flow Cytometry
Soonjeon Youn, Rebecca L Ambrose, Jason M Mackenzie, Michael S Diamond. (2013). "Non-structural protein-1 is required for West Nile virus replication complex formation and viral RNA synthesis" Virol J. 10.1186/1743-422X-10-339. PubMed

Background: Flavivirus NS1 is a non-structural glycoprotein that is expressed on the cell surface and secreted into the extracellular space, where it acts as an antagonist of complement pathway activation. Despite its transit through the secretory pathway and intracellular localization in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicles, NS1 is as an essential gene for flavivirus replication. How NS1 modulates infection remains uncertain given that the viral RNA replication complex localizes to the cytosolic face of the endoplasmic reticulum. Methods and results: Using a trans-complementation assay, we show that viruses deleted for NS1 (∆-NS1) can be rescued by transgenic expression of NS1 from West Nile virus (WNV) or heterologous flaviviruses in the absence of adaptive mutations. In viral lifecycle experiments, we demonstrate that WNV NS1 was not required for virus attachment or input strand translation of the infectious viral RNA, but was necessary for negative and positive strand RNA synthesis and formation of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated replication complex. Conclusions: WNV RNA lacking intact NS1 genes was efficiently translated but failed to form canonical replication complexes at early times after infection, which resulted in an inability to replicate viral RNA. These results expand on prior studies with yellow fever and Kunjin viruses to show that flavivirus NS1 has an essential co-factor role in regulating replication complex formation and viral RNA synthesis.

Immunoprecipitation, Western Blot
Youn S, Li T, McCune BT, Edeling MA, Fremont DH, Cristea IM, Diamond MS. (2012). "Evidence for a genetic and physical interaction between nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS4B that modulates replication of West Nile virus" J Virol 86(13):7360-71. PubMed

Flavivirus NS1 is a nonstructural glycoprotein that is expressed on the cell surface and secreted into the extracellular space. Despite its transit through the secretory pathway, NS1 is an essential gene linked to early viral RNA replication. How this occurs has remained a mystery given the disparate localization of NS1 and the viral RNA replication complex, as the latter is present on the cytosolic face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We recently identified an N-terminal di-amino acid motif in NS1 that modulates protein targeting and affected viral replication. Exchange of two amino acids at positions 10 and 11 from dengue virus (DENV) into West Nile virus (WNV) NS1 (RQ10NK) changed its relative surface expression and secretion and attenuated infectivity. However, the phenotype of WNV containing NS1 RQ10NK was unstable, as within two passages heterogeneous plaque variants were observed. Here, using a mutant WNV encoding the NS1 RQ10NK mutation, we identified a suppressor mutation (F86C) in NS4B, a virally encoded transmembrane protein with loops on both the luminal and cytoplasmic sides of the ER membrane. Introduction of NS4B F86C specifically rescued RNA replication of mutant WNV but did not affect the wild-type virus. Mass spectrometry and coimmunoprecipitation studies established a novel physical interaction between NS1 and NS4B, suggesting a mechanism for how luminal NS1 conveys signals to the cytoplasm to regulate RNA replication.

in vitro opsonization of WNV infected cells
Youn S, Cho H, Fremont DH, Diamond MS. (2010). "A short N-terminal peptide motif on flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1 modulates cellular targeting and immune recognition" J Virol 84(18):9516-32. PubMed

Flavivirus NS1 is a versatile nonstructural glycoprotein, with intracellular NS1 functioning as an essential cofactor for viral replication and cell surface and secreted NS1 antagonizing complement activation. Even though NS1 has multiple functions that contribute to virulence, the genetic determinants that regulate the spatial distribution of NS1 in cells among different flaviviruses remain uncharacterized. Here, by creating a panel of West Nile virus-dengue virus (WNV-DENV) NS1 chimeras and site-specific mutants, we identified a novel, short peptide motif immediately C-terminal to the signal sequence cleavage position that regulates its transit time through the endoplasmic reticulum and differentially directs NS1 for secretion or plasma membrane expression. Exchange of two amino acids within this motif reciprocally changed the cellular targeting pattern of DENV or WNV NS1. For WNV, this substitution also modulated infectivity and antibody-induced phagocytosis of infected cells. Analysis of a mutant lacking all three conserved N-linked glycosylation sites revealed an independent requirement of N-linked glycans for secretion but not for plasma membrane expression of WNV NS1. Collectively, our experiments define the requirements for cellular targeting of NS1, with implications for the protective host responses, immune antagonism, and association with the host cell sorting machinery. These studies also suggest a link between the effects of NS1 on viral replication and the levels of secreted or cell surface NS1.

Avirutnan P, Fuchs A, Hauhart RE, Somnuke P, Youn S, Diamond MS, Atkinson JP. (2010). "Antagonism of the complement component C4 by flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1" J Exp Med 207(4):793-806. PubMed

The complement system plays an essential protective role in the initial defense against many microorganisms. Flavivirus NS1 is a secreted nonstructural glycoprotein that accumulates in blood, is displayed on the surface of infected cells, and has been hypothesized to have immune evasion functions. Herein, we demonstrate that dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and yellow fever virus (YFV) NS1 attenuate classical and lectin pathway activation by directly interacting with C4. Binding of NS1 to C4 reduced C4b deposition and C3 convertase (C4b2a) activity. Although NS1 bound C4b, it lacked intrinsic cofactor activity to degrade C4b, and did not block C3 convertase formation or accelerate decay of the C3 and C5 convertases. Instead, NS1 enhanced C4 cleavage by recruiting and activating the complement-specific protease C1s. By binding C1s and C4 in a complex, NS1 promotes efficient degradation of C4 to C4b. Through this mechanism, NS1 protects DENV from complement-dependent neutralization in solution. These studies define a novel immune evasion mechanism for restricting complement control of microbial infection.

ELISA, Flow Cytometry
Chung KM, Diamond MS. (2008). "Defining the levels of secreted non-structural protein NS1 after West Nile virus infection in cell culture and mice" J Med Virol 80(3):547-56. PubMed

Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) causes a febrile illness that can progress to meningitis or encephalitis, primarily in humans that are immunocompromised or elderly. For successful treatment of WNV infection, accurate and timely diagnosis is essential. Previous studies have suggested that the flavivirus non-structural protein NS1, a highly conserved and secreted glycoprotein, is a candidate protein for rapid diagnosis. Herein, we developed a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect WNV NS1 using two anti-NS1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that map to distinct sites on the protein. The capture ELISA efficiently detected as little as 0.5 ng/ml of soluble NS1 and exhibited no cross-reactivity for yellow fever, Dengue, and St. Louis encephalitis virus NS1. The capture ELISA reliably detected NS1 in plasma at day 3 after WNV infection, prior to the development of clinical signs of disease. As the time course of infection continued, the levels of detectable NS1 diminished, presumably because of interference by newly generated anti-NS1 antibodies. Indeed, treatment of plasma with a solution that dissociated NS1 immune complexes extended the window of detection. Overall, the NS1-based capture ELISA is a sensitive readout of infection and could be an important tool for diagnosis or screening small molecule inhibitors of WNV infection.

ELISA, Flow Cytometry
Chung KM, Thompson BS, Fremont DH, Diamond MS. (2007). "Antibody recognition of cell surface-associated NS1 triggers Fc-gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis and clearance of West Nile Virus-infected cells" J Virol 81(17):9551-5. PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to flavivirus nonstructural protein-1 (NS-1) protect against infection in mice through an Fc-gamma receptor-dependent pathway. To identify a specific mechanism, we evaluated the protective activity of anti-NS1 MAbs to WNV using mice and cells with deficiencies of specific Fc-gamma receptors. Our results suggest that only MAbs that recognize cell surface-associated NS1 trigger Fc-gamma receptor I- and/or IV-mediated phagocytosis and clearance of WNV-infected cells. These findings may be relevant for generating novel therapeutic MAbs or vaccines against flaviviruses that target the NS1 protein.

Flow Cytometry, ELISA, in vivo protection against WNV infection
Chung KM, Nybakken GE, Thompson BS, Engle MJ, Marri A, Fremont DH, Diamond MS. (2006). "Antibodies against West Nile Virus nonstructural protein NS1 prevent lethal infection through Fc gamma receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms" J Virol 80(3):1340-51. PubMed

The flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1 is a highly conserved secreted glycoprotein that does not package with the virion. Immunization with NS1 elicits a protective immune response against yellow fever, dengue, and tick-borne encephalitis flaviviruses through poorly defined mechanisms. In this study, we purified a recombinant, secreted form of West Nile virus (WNV) NS1 glycoprotein from baculovirus-infected insect cells and generated 22 new NS1-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). By performing competitive binding assays and expressing truncated NS1 proteins on the surface of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in bacteria, we mapped 21 of the newly generated MAbs to three NS1 fragments. Prophylaxis of C57BL/6 mice with any of four MAbs (10NS1, 14NS1, 16NS1, and 17NS1) strongly protected against lethal WNV infection (75 to 95% survival, respectively) compared to saline-treated controls (17% survival). In contrast, other anti-NS1 MAbs of the same isotype provided no significant protection. Notably, 14NS1 and 16NS1 also demonstrated marked efficacy as postexposure therapy, even when administered as a single dose 4 days after infection. Virologic analysis showed that 17NS1 protects at an early stage in infection through a C1q-independent and Fc gamma receptor-dependent pathway. Interestingly, 14NS1, which maps to a distinct region on NS1, protected through a C1q- and Fc gamma receptor-independent mechanism. Overall, our data suggest that distinct regions of NS1 can elicit protective humoral immunity against WNV through different mechanisms.