InVivoMAb anti-mouse VISTA

Catalog #BE0310
Product Citations:
10
Clone:
13F3
Reactivities:
Mouse

$164.00 - $4,280.00

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Product Details

The 13F3 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) also known as PD-1H and B7-H5. VISTA is a 309 aa type I transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the Ig superfamily. VISTA is expressed on naïve and activated T cells, NK cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils. VISTA functions as a negative immune-checkpoint protein that suppresses T cell cytokine production and proliferation. VISTA is overexpressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, such as myeloid cells and regulatory T cells. Blockade of VISTA with the 13F3 antibody results in delayed tumor growth in mouse models of melanoma.

Specifications

Isotype Armenian hamster IgG
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb polyclonal Armenian hamster IgG
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen EL4 cells overexpressing mouse VISTA-RFP and then boosted with VISTA-Ig fusion protein
Reported Applications in vivo blocking of VISTA signaling
in vitro blocking of VISTA signaling
Flow cytometry
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein A
RRID AB_2736990
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.

Additional Formats

in vivo VISTA neutralization
Rosenbaum, S. R., et al. (2020). "FOXD3 Regulates VISTA Expression in Melanoma" Cell Rep 30(2): 510-524.e516. PubMed

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved patient survival in melanoma, but the innate resistance of many patients necessitates the investigation of alternative immune targets. Many immune checkpoint proteins lack proper characterization, including V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA). VISTA expression on immune cells can suppress T cell activity; however, few studies have investigated its expression and regulation in cancer cells. In this study, we observe that VISTA is expressed in melanoma patient samples and cell lines. Tumor cell-specific expression of VISTA promotes tumor onset in vivo, associated with increased intratumoral T regulatory cells, and enhanced PDL-1 expression on tumor-infiltrating macrophages. VISTA transcript levels are regulated by the stemness factor Forkhead box D3 (FOXD3). BRAF inhibition upregulates FOXD3 and reduces VISTA expression. Overall, this study demonstrates melanoma cell expression of VISTA and its regulation by FOXD3, contributing to the rationale for therapeutic strategies that combine targeted inhibitors with immune checkpoint blockade.

in vivo VISTA neutralization
Sergent, P. A., et al. (2018). "Blocking the VISTA pathway enhances disease progression in (NZB x NZW) F1 female mice" Lupus 27(2): 210-216. PubMed

V-domain Ig suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) is a critical negative checkpoint molecule involved in regulating the immune response. Targeting the pathway with an antagonist anti-VISTA antibody designated 13F3 has been shown to enhance disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. To determine if VISTA plays a role in murine lupus, New Zealand Black x New Zealand White (BWF1) mice were treated with 13F3 or control hamster Ig and disease monitored. Onset of proteinuria was earlier and renal damage more profound in mice treated with 13F3. Cell subset analysis showed an increase of activated splenic T cells and inflammatory splenic myeloid cells, but no effect on B cells, in mice receiving 13F3. Examination of the kidney showed an increase in inflammatory myeloid cell infiltration with 13F3 treatment. This study along with previous EAE data, suggests that interventions that enhance VISTA regulatory activity may be effective for the treatment of autoimmune disease.

Flow Cytometry
Srivastava, R., et al. (2018). "CXCL17 Chemokine-Dependent Mobilization of CXCR8(+)CD8(+) Effector Memory and Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells in the Vaginal Mucosa Is Associated with Protection against Genital Herpes" J Immunol 200(8): 2915-2926. PubMed

Circulating conventional memory CD8(+) T cells (i.e., the CD8(+) effector memory T [TEM] cell and CD8(+) central memory T [TCM] cell subsets) and the noncirculating CD8(+) tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cell subset play a critical role in mucosal immunity. Mucosal chemokines, including the recently discovered CXCL17, are also important in mucosal immunity because they are homeostatically expressed in mucosal tissues. However, whether the CXCL17 chemokine contributes to the mobilization of memory CD8(+) T cell subsets to access infected mucosal tissues remains to be elucidated. In this study, we report that after intravaginal HSV type 1 infection of B6 mice, we detected high expression levels of CXCL17 and increased numbers of CD44(high)CD62L(low)CD8(+) TEM and CD103(high)CD8(+) TRM cells expressing CXCR8, the cognate receptor of CXCL17, in the vaginal mucosa (VM) of mice with reduced genital herpes infection and disease. In contrast to wild-type B6 mice, the CXCL17(-/-) mice developed 1) fewer CXCR8(+)CD8(+) TEM and TRM cells associated with more virus replication in the VM and more latency established in dorsal root ganglia, and 2) reduced numbers and frequencies of functional CD8(+) T cells in the VM. These findings suggest that the CXCL17/CXCR8 chemokine pathway plays a crucial role in mucosal vaginal immunity by promoting the mobilization of functional protective CD8(+) TEM and CD8(+) TRM cells, within this site of acute and recurrent herpes infection.

Flow Cytometry
Ceeraz, S., et al. (2017). "VISTA Deficiency Accelerates the Development of Fatal Murine Lupus Nephritis" Arthritis Rheumatol 69(4): 814-825. PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The targeting of negative checkpoint regulators as a means of augmenting antitumor immune responses is now an increasingly used and remarkably effective approach to the treatment of several human malignancies. The negative checkpoint regulator VISTA (V-domain Ig-containing suppressor of T cell activation; also known as programmed death 1 homolog or as death domain 1alpha) suppresses T cell responses and regulates myeloid activities. We proposed that exploitation of the VISTA pathway is a novel strategy for the treatment of human autoimmune disease, and therefore we undertook this study to determine the impact of VISTA genetic deficiency on lupus development in a lupus-prone mouse strain. METHODS: To evaluate whether genetic deficiency of VISTA affects the development of lupus, we interbred VISTA-deficient mice with Sle1.Sle3 mice, a well-characterized model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). RESULTS: We demonstrated that the development of proteinuria and glomerulonephritis in these mice, designated Sle1.Sle3 VISTA(-/-) mice, was greatly accelerated and more severe compared to that in Sle1.Sle3 and C57BL/6 VISTA(-/-) mice. Analysis of cells from Sle1.Sle3 VISTA(-/-) mice showed enhanced activation of splenic CD4+ T cells and myeloid cell populations. No increase in titers of autoantibodies was seen in Sle1.Sle3 VISTA(-/-) mice. Most striking was a significant increase in proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and interferon (IFN)-regulated genes associated with SLE, such as IFNalpha, IFNgamma, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-10, and CXCL10, in Sle1.Sle3 VISTA(-/-) mice. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates for the first time that loss of VISTA in murine SLE exacerbates disease due to enhanced myeloid and T cell activation and cytokine production, including a robust IFNalpha signature, and supports a strategy of enhancement of the immunosuppressive activity of VISTA for the treatment of human lupus.

in vivo VISTA neutralization
Le Mercier, I., et al. (2014). "VISTA Regulates the Development of Protective Antitumor Immunity" Cancer Res 74(7): 1933-1944. PubMed

V-domain Ig suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) is a novel negative checkpoint ligand that is homologous to PD-L1 and suppresses T-cell activation. This study demonstrates the multiple mechanisms whereby VISTA relieves negative regulation by hematopoietic cells and enhances protective antitumor immunity. VISTA is highly expressed on myeloid cells and Foxp3(+)CD4(+) regulatory cells, but not on tumor cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME). VISTA monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment increased the number of tumor-specific T cells in the periphery and enhanced the infiltration, proliferation, and effector function of tumor-reactive T cells within the TME. VISTA blockade altered the suppressive feature of the TME by decreasing the presence of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells and increasing the presence of activated dendritic cells within the tumor microenvironment. In addition, VISTA blockade impaired the suppressive function and reduced the emergence of tumor-specific Foxp3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells. Consequently, VISTA mAb administration as a monotherapy significantly suppressed the growth of both transplantable and inducible melanoma. Initial studies explored a combinatorial regimen using VISTA blockade and a peptide-based cancer vaccine with TLR agonists as adjuvants. VISTA blockade synergized with the vaccine to effectively impair the growth of established tumors. Our study therefore establishes a foundation for designing VISTA-targeted approaches either as a monotherapy or in combination with additional immune-targeted strategies for cancer immunotherapy.

in vivo VISTA neutralization, in vitro VISTA neutralization
Wang, L., et al. (2011). "VISTA, a novel mouse Ig superfamily ligand that negatively regulates T cell responses" J Exp Med 208(3): 577-592. PubMed

The immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily consists of many critical immune regulators, including the B7 family ligands and receptors. In this study, we identify a novel and structurally distinct Ig superfamily inhibitory ligand, whose extracellular domain bears homology to the B7 family ligand PD-L1. This molecule is designated V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA). VISTA is primarily expressed on hematopoietic cells, and VISTA expression is highly regulated on myeloid antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells. A soluble VISTA-Ig fusion protein or VISTA expression on APCs inhibits T cell proliferation and cytokine production in vitro. A VISTA-specific monoclonal antibody interferes with VISTA-induced suppression of T cell responses by VISTA-expressing APCs in vitro. Furthermore, anti-VISTA treatment exacerbates the development of the T cell-mediated autoimmune disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. Finally, VISTA overexpression on tumor cells interferes with protective antitumor immunity in vivo in mice. These findings show that VISTA, a novel immunoregulatory molecule, has functional activities that are nonredundant with other Ig superfamily members and may play a role in the development of autoimmunity and immune surveillance in cancer.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Combining toll-like receptor agonists with immune checkpoint blockade affects antitumor vaccine efficacy.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 3 May 2024 by Jeon, D., Hill, E., et al.

    PubMed

    T cell checkpoint receptors are expressed when T cells are activated, and modulation of the expression or signaling of these receptors can alter the function of T cells and their antitumor efficacy. We previously found that T cells activated with cognate antigen had increases in the expression of PD-1, and this was attenuated in the presence of multiple toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, notably TLR3 plus TLR9. In the current report, we sought to investigate whether combining TLR agonists with immune checkpoint blockade can further augment vaccine-mediated T cell antitumor immunity in murine tumor models. TLR agonists (TLR3 plus TLR9) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (antibodies targeting PD-1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, TIM-3 or VISTA) were combined and delivered with vaccines or vaccine-activated CD8+T cells to E.G7-OVA or MyC-CaP tumor-bearing mice. Tumors were assessed for growth and then collected and analyzed by flow cytometry. Immunization of E.G7-OVA tumor-bearing mice with SIINFEKL peptide vaccine, coadministered with TLR agonists and αCTLA-4, demonstrated greater antitumor efficacy than immunization with TLR agonists or αCTLA-4 alone. Conversely, the antitumor efficacy was abrogated when vaccine and TLR agonists were combined with αPD-1. TLR agonists suppressed PD-1 expression on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and activated this population. Depletion of Tregs in tumor-bearing mice led to greater antitumor efficacy of this combination therapy, even in the presence of αPD-1. Combining vaccination with TLR agonists and αCTLA-4 or αLAG-3 showed greater antitumor than with combinations with αTIM-3 or αVISTA. The combination of TLR agonists and αCTLA-4 or αLAG-3 can further improve the efficacy of a cancer vaccine, an effect not observed using αPD-1 due to activation of Tregs when αPD-1 was combined with TLR3 and TLR9 agonists. These data suggest that optimal combinations of TLR agonists and immune checkpoint blockade may improve the efficacy of human anticancer vaccines. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2024. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2-mediated aldehyde metabolism promotes tumor immune evasion by regulating the NOD/VISTA axis.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 7 December 2023 by Chen, Y., Sun, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a crucial enzyme involved in endogenous aldehyde detoxification and has been implicated in tumor progression. However, its role in tumor immune evasion remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the relationship between ALDH2 expression and antitumor immune features in multiple cancers. ALDH2 knockout tumor cells were then established using CRISPR/Cas9 system. In immunocompetent breast cancer EMT6 and melanoma B16-F10 mouse models, we investigated the impact of ALDH2 blockade on cytotoxic T lymphocyte function and tumor immune microenvironment by flow cytometry, mass cytometry, Luminex liquid suspension chip detection, and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, RNA sequencing, flow cytometry, western blot, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and luciferase reporter assays were employed to explore the detailed mechanism of ALDH2 involved in tumor immune evasion. Lastly, the synergistic therapeutic efficacy of blocking ALDH2 by genetic depletion or its inhibitor disulfiram in combination with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) was investigated in mouse models. In our study, we uncovered a positive correlation between the expression level of ALDH2 and T-cell dysfunction in multiple cancers. Furthermore, blocking ALDH2 significantly suppressed tumor growth by enhancing cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells and reshaping the immune landscape and cytokine milieu of tumors in vivo. Mechanistically, inhibiting ALDH2-mediated metabolism of aldehyde downregulated the expression of V-domain Ig suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) via inactivating the nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)/nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. As a result, the cytotoxic function of CD8+ T cells was revitalized. Importantly, ALDH2 blockade markedly reinforced the efficacy of ICB treatment. Our data delineate that ALDH2-mediated aldehyde metabolism drives tumor immune evasion by activating the NOD/NF-κB/VISTA axis. Targeting ALDH2 provides an effective combinatorial therapeutic strategy for immunotherapy. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    CD39 inhibition and VISTA blockade may overcome radiotherapy resistance by targeting exhausted CD8+ T cells and immunosuppressive myeloid cells.

    In Cell Reports Medicine on 15 August 2023 by Zhang, Y., Hu, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Although radiotherapy (RT) has achieved great success in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), local relapses still occur and abscopal effects are rarely seen even when it is combined with immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs). Here, we characterize the dynamic changes of tumor-infiltrating immune cells after RT in a therapy-resistant murine tumor model using single-cell transcriptomes and T cell receptor sequencing. At the early stage, the innate and adaptive immune systems are activated. At the late stage, however, the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) shifts into immunosuppressive properties. Our study reveals that inhibition of CD39 combined with RT preferentially decreases the percentage of exhausted CD8+ T cells. Moreover, we find that the combination of V-domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) blockade and RT synergistically reduces immunosuppressive myeloid cells. Clinically, high VISTA expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Altogether, our data provide deep insight into acquired resistance to RT from an immune perspective and present rational combination strategies. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Extracellular Vesicle Secretion by Leukemia Cells In Vivo Promotes CLL Progression by Hampering Antitumor T-cell Responses.

    In Blood Cancer Discovery on 6 January 2023 by Gargiulo, E., Viry, E., et al.

    PubMed

    Small extracellular vesicle (sEV, or exosome) communication among cells in the tumor microenvironment has been modeled mainly in cell culture, whereas their relevance in cancer pathogenesis and progression in vivo is less characterized. Here we investigated cancer-microenvironment interactions in vivo using mouse models of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). sEVs isolated directly from CLL tissue were enriched in specific miRNA and immune-checkpoint ligands. Distinct molecular components of tumor-derived sEVs altered CD8+ T-cell transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, leading to decreased functions and cell exhaustion ex vivo and in vivo. Using antagomiRs and blocking antibodies, we defined specific cargo-mediated alterations on CD8+ T cells. Abrogating sEV biogenesis by Rab27a/b knockout dramatically delayed CLL pathogenesis. This phenotype was rescued by exogenous leukemic sEV or CD8+ T-cell depletion. Finally, high expression of sEV-related genes correlated with poor outcomes in CLL patients, suggesting sEV profiling as a prognostic tool. In conclusion, sEVs shape the immune microenvironment during CLL progression. sEVs produced in the leukemia microenvironment impair CD8+ T-cell mediated antitumor immune response and are indispensable for leukemia progression in vivo in murine preclinical models. In addition, high expression of sEV-related genes correlated with poor survival and unfavorable clinical parameters in CLL patients. See related commentary by Zhong and Guo, p. 5. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1. ©2022 The Authors; Published by the American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Negative Immune Checkpoint Protein, VISTA, Regulates the CD4+ Treg Population During Sepsis Progression to Promote Acute Sepsis Recovery and Survival.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 12 April 2022 by Gray, C. C., Biron-Girard, B., et al.

    PubMed

    Sepsis is a systemic immune response to infection that is responsible for ~35% of in-hospital deaths and over 24 billion dollars in annual treatment costs. Strategic targeting of non-redundant negative immune checkpoint protein pathways can cater therapeutics to the individual septic patient and improve prognosis. B7-CD28 superfamily member V-domain Immunoglobulin Suppressor of T cell Activation (VISTA) is an ideal candidate for strategic targeting in sepsis. We hypothesized that immune checkpoint regulator, VISTA, controls T-regulatory cells (Treg), in response to septic challenge, thus playing a protective role/reducing septic morbidity/mortality. Further, we investigated if changes in morbidity/mortality are due to a Treg-mediated effect during the acute response to septic challenge. To test this, we used the cecal ligation and puncture model as a proxy for polymicrobial sepsis and assessed the phenotype of CD4+ Tregs in VISTA-gene deficient (VISTA-/-) and wild-type mice. We also measured changes in survival, soluble indices of tissue injury, and circulating cytokines in the VISTA-/- and wild-type mice. We found that in wild-type mice, CD4+ Tregs exhibit a significant upregulation of VISTA which correlates with higher Treg abundance in the spleen and small intestine following septic insult. However, VISTA-/- mice have reduced Treg abundance in these compartments met with a higher expression of Foxp3, CTLA4, and CD25 compared to wild-type mice. VISTA-/- mice also have a significant survival deficit, higher levels of soluble indicators of liver injury (i.e., ALT, AST, bilirubin), and increased circulating proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, IL-17F, IL-23, and MCP-1) following septic challenge. To elucidate the role of Tregs in VISTA-/- sepsis mortality, we adoptively transferred VISTA-expressing Tregs into VISTA-/- mice. This adoptive transfer rescued VISTA-/- survival to wild-type levels. Taken together, we propose a protective Treg-mediated role for VISTA by which inflammation-induced tissue injury is suppressed and improves survival in early-stage murine sepsis. Thus, enhancing VISTA expression or adoptively transferring VISTA+ Tregs in early-stage sepsis may provide a novel therapeutic approach to ameliorate inflammation-induced death. Copyright © 2022 Gray, Biron-Girard, Wakeley, Chung, Chen, Quiles-Ramirez, Tolbert and Ayala.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Homo sapiens (Human)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    The allergy mediator histamine confers resistance to immunotherapy in cancer patients via activation of the macrophage histamine receptor H1.

    In Cancer Cell on 10 January 2022 by Li, H., Xiao, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Reinvigoration of antitumor immunity remains an unmet challenge. Our retrospective analyses revealed that cancer patients who took antihistamines during immunotherapy treatment had significantly improved survival. We uncovered that histamine and histamine receptor H1 (HRH1) are frequently increased in the tumor microenvironment and induce T cell dysfunction. Mechanistically, HRH1-activated macrophages polarize toward an M2-like immunosuppressive phenotype with increased expression of the immune checkpoint VISTA, rendering T cells dysfunctional. HRH1 knockout or antihistamine treatment reverted macrophage immunosuppression, revitalized T cell cytotoxic function, and restored immunotherapy response. Allergy, via the histamine-HRH1 axis, facilitated tumor growth and induced immunotherapy resistance in mice and humans. Importantly, cancer patients with low plasma histamine levels had a more than tripled objective response rate to anti-PD-1 treatment compared with patients with high plasma histamine. Altogether, pre-existing allergy or high histamine levels in cancer patients can dampen immunotherapy responses and warrant prospectively exploring antihistamines as adjuvant agents for combinatorial immunotherapy.Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    VISTA Blockade Aggravates Bone Loss in Experimental Murine Apical Periodontitis.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 26 October 2021 by Yang, F., Zhang, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is a novel coinhibitory immune checkpoint molecule that maintains immune homeostasis. The present study explored the role of VISTA in human and murine inflammatory tissues of apical periodontitis (AP). VISTA was upregulated in inflammatory tissues of human AP. In mice, the expression of VISTA gradually increased with the development of mouse experimental apical periodontitis (MAP), the CD3+ T cells, CD11b+ myeloid cells, and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells also gradually accumulated. Moreover, a blockade of VISTA using a mouse in vivo anti-VISTA antibody aggravated periapical bone loss and enhanced the infiltration of immune cells in an experimental mouse periapical periodontitis model. The collective results suggest that VISTA serves as a negative regulator of the development and bone loss of apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2021 Yang, Zhang, Chen and Zhang.

    • FC/FACS
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    CNS-Native Myeloid Cells Drive Immune Suppression in the Brain Metastatic Niche through Cxcl10.

    In Cell on 25 November 2020 by Guldner, I. H., Wang, Q., et al.

    PubMed

    Brain metastasis (br-met) develops in an immunologically unique br-met niche. Central nervous system-native myeloid cells (CNS-myeloids) and bone-marrow-derived myeloid cells (BMDMs) cooperatively regulate brain immunity. The phenotypic heterogeneity and specific roles of these myeloid subsets in shaping the br-met niche to regulate br-met outgrowth have not been fully revealed. Applying multimodal single-cell analyses, we elucidated a heterogeneous but spatially defined CNS-myeloid response during br-met outgrowth. We found Ccr2+ BMDMs minimally influenced br-met while CNS-myeloid promoted br-met outgrowth. Additionally, br-met-associated CNS-myeloid exhibited downregulation of Cx3cr1. Cx3cr1 knockout in CNS-myeloid increased br-met incidence, leading to an enriched interferon response signature and Cxcl10 upregulation. Significantly, neutralization of Cxcl10 reduced br-met, while rCxcl10 increased br-met and recruited VISTAHi PD-L1+ CNS-myeloid to br-met lesions. Inhibiting VISTA- and PD-L1-signaling relieved immune suppression and reduced br-met burden. Our results demonstrate that loss of Cx3cr1 in CNS-myeloid triggers a Cxcl10-mediated vicious cycle, cultivating a br-met-promoting, immune-suppressive niche. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Block
    • ,
    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    FOXD3 Regulates VISTA Expression in Melanoma.

    In Cell Reports on 14 January 2020 by Rosenbaum, S. R., Knecht, M., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved patient survival in melanoma, but the innate resistance of many patients necessitates the investigation of alternative immune targets. Many immune checkpoint proteins lack proper characterization, including V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA). VISTA expression on immune cells can suppress T cell activity; however, few studies have investigated its expression and regulation in cancer cells. In this study, we observe that VISTA is expressed in melanoma patient samples and cell lines. Tumor cell-specific expression of VISTA promotes tumor onset in vivo, associated with increased intratumoral T regulatory cells, and enhanced PDL-1 expression on tumor-infiltrating macrophages. VISTA transcript levels are regulated by the stemness factor Forkhead box D3 (FOXD3). BRAF inhibition upregulates FOXD3 and reduces VISTA expression. Overall, this study demonstrates melanoma cell expression of VISTA and its regulation by FOXD3, contributing to the rationale for therapeutic strategies that combine targeted inhibitors with immune checkpoint blockade. Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Pathology
    Cytotoxic effector functions of T cells are not required for protective immunity against fatal Rickettsia typhi infection in a murine model of infection: Role of TH1 and TH17 cytokines in protection and pathology.

    In PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases on 1 February 2017 by Moderzynski, K., Heine, L., et al.

    PubMed

    Endemic typhus caused by Rickettsia (R.) typhi is an emerging febrile disease that can be fatal due to multiple organ pathology. Here we analyzed the requirements for protection against R. typhi by T cells in the CB17 SCID model of infection. BALB/c wild-type mice generate CD4+ TH1 and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells both of which are sporadically reactivated in persistent infection. Either adoptively transferred CD8+ or CD4+ T cells protected R. typhi-infected CB17 SCID mice from death and provided long-term control. CD8+ T cells lacking either IFNγ or Perforin were still protective, demonstrating that the cytotoxic function of CD8+ T cells is not essential for protection. Immune wild-type CD4+ T cells produced high amounts of IFNγ, induced the release of nitric oxide in R. typhi-infected macrophages and inhibited bacterial growth in vitro via IFNγ and TNFα. However, adoptive transfer of CD4+IFNγ-/- T cells still protected 30-90% of R. typhi-infected CB17 SCID mice. These cells acquired a TH17 phenotype, producing high amounts of IL-17A and IL-22 in addition to TNFα, and inhibited bacterial growth in vitro. Surprisingly, the neutralization of either TNFα or IL-17A in CD4+IFNγ-/- T cell recipient mice did not alter bacterial elimination by these cells in vivo, led to faster recovery and enhanced survival compared to isotype-treated animals. Thus, collectively these data show that although CD4+ TH1 cells are clearly efficient in protection against R. typhi, CD4+ TH17 cells are similarly protective if the harmful effects of combined production of TNFα and IL-17A can be inhibited.