InVivoMAb anti-mouse PSGL-1 (CD162)

Catalog #BE0186
Product Citations:
10
Clone:
4RA10
Reactivities:
Mouse

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Product Details

The 4RA10 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) also known as CD162. PSGL-1 is a 230 kDa glycoprotein that is expressed by bone marrow-derived mast and dendritic cells, splenic leukocytes, platelets, peripheral blood neutrophils, and T lymphocytes. PSGL-1 is a ligand for P-selectin (CD62P) and plays roles in leukocyte rolling, the migration of leukocytes into inflamed tissues, and responses to vascular injury. The 4RA10 antibody is reported to block the binding of mouse leukocytes to CD62P and CD62L.

Specifications

Isotype Rat IgG1, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb rat IgG1 isotype control, anti-horseradish peroxidase
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen Mouse PSGL-1 human IgG1 fusion protein
Reported Applications in vivo PSGL-1 blockade
Immunohistochemistry (frozen)
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_10950305
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vivo PSGL-1 blockade
Guidotti, L. G., et al. (2015). "Immunosurveillance of the liver by intravascular effector CD8(+) T cells" Cell 161(3): 486-500. PubMed

Effector CD8(+) T cells (CD8 TE) play a key role during hepatotropic viral infections. Here, we used advanced imaging in mouse models of hepatitis B virus (HBV) pathogenesis to understand the mechanisms whereby these cells home to the liver, recognize antigens, and deploy effector functions. We show that circulating CD8 TE arrest within liver sinusoids by docking onto platelets previously adhered to sinusoidal hyaluronan via CD44. After the initial arrest, CD8 TE actively crawl along liver sinusoids and probe sub-sinusoidal hepatocytes for the presence of antigens by extending cytoplasmic protrusions through endothelial fenestrae. Hepatocellular antigen recognition triggers effector functions in a diapedesis-independent manner and is inhibited by the processes of sinusoidal defenestration and capillarization that characterize liver fibrosis. These findings reveal the dynamic behavior whereby CD8 TE control hepatotropic pathogens and suggest how liver fibrosis might reduce CD8 TE immune surveillance toward infected or transformed hepatocytes.

in vivo PSGL-1 blockade
Biswas, A., et al. (2015). "Ly6C(high) monocytes control cerebral toxoplasmosis" J Immunol 194(7): 3223-3235. PubMed

Cerebral infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is followed by activation of resident cells and recruitment of immune cells from the periphery to the CNS. In this study, we show that a subset of myeloid cells, namely Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes that infiltrate the brain upon chronic T. gondii infection, plays a decisive role in host defense. Depletion of this monocyte subset resulted in elevated parasite load and decreased survival of infected mice, suggesting their crucial role. Notably, Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) monocytes governed parasite control due to production of proinflammatory mediators, such as IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, inducible NO synthase, TNF, and reactive oxygen intermediate. Interestingly, Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) monocytes were also able to produce the regulatory cytokine IL-10, revealing their dual feature. Moreover, we confirmed by adoptive transfer that the recruited monocytes further develop into two distinct subpopulations contributing to parasite control and profound host defense. The differentiated Ly6C(int)CCR2(+)F4/80(int) subset upregulated MHC I and MHC II molecules, suggesting dendritic cell properties such as interaction with T cells, whereas the Ly6C(neg)F4/80(high) cell subset displayed elevated phagocytic capacity while upregulating triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2. Finally, we have shown that the recruitment of Ly6C(high) monocytes to the CNS is regulated by P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1. These results indicate the critical importance of recruited Ly6C(high) monocytes upon cerebral toxoplasmosis and reveal the behavior of further differentiated myeloid-derived mononuclear cell subsets in parasite control and immune regulation of the CNS.

in vivo PSGL-1 blockade
Yokota, N., et al. (2014). "Contributions of thrombin targets to tissue factor-dependent metastasis in hyperthrombotic mice" J Thromb Haemost 12(1): 71-81. PubMed

BACKGROUND: Tumor cell tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation supports hematogenous metastasis by fibrin formation, platelet activation and monocyte/macrophage recruitment. Recent studies identified host anticoagulant mechanisms as a major impediment to successful hematogenous tumor cell metastasis. OBJECTIVE: Here we address mechanisms that contribute to enhanced metastasis in hyperthrombotic mice with functional thrombomodulin deficiency (TM(Pro) mice). METHODS: Pharmacological and genetic approaches were combined to characterize relevant thrombin targets in a mouse model of experimental hematogenous metastasis. RESULTS: TF-dependent, but contact pathway-independent, syngeneic breast cancer metastasis was associated with marked platelet hyperreactivity and formation of leukocyte-platelet aggregates in immune-competent TM(Pro) mice. Blockade of CD11b or genetic deletion of platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha excluded contributions of these receptors to enhanced platelet-dependent metastasis in hyperthrombotic mice. Mice with very low levels of the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) did not phenocopy the enhanced metastasis seen in TM(Pro) mice. Genetic deletion of the thrombin receptor PAR1 or endothelial thrombin signaling targets alone did not diminish enhanced metastasis in TM(Pro) mice. Combined deficiency of PAR1 on tumor cells and the host reduced metastasis in TM(Pro) mice. CONCLUSIONS: Metastasis in the hyperthrombotic TM(Pro) mouse model is mediated by platelet hyperreactivity and contributions of PAR1 signaling on tumor and host cells.

in vivo PSGL-1 blockade
McPherson, R. C., et al. (2014). "Epigenetic modification of the PD-1 (Pdcd1) promoter in effector CD4(+) T cells tolerized by peptide immunotherapy" Elife 3. doi : 10.7554/eLife.03416. PubMed

Clinically effective antigen-based immunotherapy must silence antigen-experienced effector T cells (Teff) driving ongoing immune pathology. Using CD4(+) autoimmune Teff cells, we demonstrate that peptide immunotherapy (PIT) is strictly dependent upon sustained T cell expression of the co-inhibitory molecule PD-1. We found high levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) at the PD-1 (Pdcd1) promoter of non-tolerant T cells. 5hmC was lost in response to PIT, with DNA hypomethylation of the promoter. We identified dynamic changes in expression of the genes encoding the Ten-Eleven-Translocation (TET) proteins that are associated with the oxidative conversion 5-methylcytosine and 5hmC, during cytosine demethylation. We describe a model whereby promoter demethylation requires the co-incident expression of permissive histone modifications at the Pdcd1 promoter together with TET availability. This combination was only seen in tolerant Teff cells following PIT, but not in Teff that transiently express PD-1. Epigenetic changes at the Pdcd1 locus therefore determine the tolerizing potential of TCR-ligation.

in vivo PSGL-1 blockade, Immunohistochemistry (frozen)
Rivera-Nieves, J., et al. (2006). "Critical role of endothelial P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 in chronic murine ileitis" J Exp Med 203(4): 907-917. PubMed

L-selectin ligands might be relevant for inflammatory cell trafficking into the small intestine in a spontaneous model of chronic ileitis (i.e., SAMP1/YitFc mice). Immunoblockade of peripheral node addressin or mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 failed to ameliorate ileitis, whereas P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) neutralization attenuated both the adoptively transferred and spontaneous disease. PSGL-1 was detected in venules of mesenteric lymph node and small intestine by immunohistochemistry and confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. In addition, reconstitution of wild-type mice with PSGL-1(-/-) bone marrow demonstrated that PSGL-1 messenger RNA and PSGL-1 protein expression remained on endothelium, localized within mesenteric lymph node and small intestine. Endothelial PSGL-1 bound P-selectin-IgG and its blockade or genetic deletion altered the recruitment of lymphocytes to the small intestine, as revealed by intravital microscopy and homing studies. Endothelial expression of PSGL-1 adds a new dimension to the various cellular interactions involved in small intestinal recruitment. Thus, the multiple roles of PSGL-1 may explain why targeting this single adhesion molecule results in attenuation of chronic murine ileitis, a disease previously resistant to antiadhesion molecule strategies.

in vivo PSGL-1 blockade
Zanardo, R. C., et al. (2004). "A down-regulatable E-selectin ligand is functionally important for PSGL-1-independent leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions" Blood 104(12): 3766-3773. PubMed

P-selectin glycoprotein-1 (PSGL-1) supports P-selectin-dependent rolling in vivo and in vitro. However, controversy exists regarding the importance of PSGL-1-dependent and -independent E-selectin rolling. Using antibodies against PSGL-1 and PSGL-1(-/-) mice, we demonstrated abolition of P-selectin-dependent rolling but only partial inhibition of E-selectin-mediated rolling in the cremaster microcirculation following local administration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In vitro studies demonstrated that binding of recombinant mouse E-selectin chimera to PSGL-1(-/-) neutrophils was dramatically decreased in mice treated systemically but not locally with TNF-alpha. Further, PSGL-1 blockade abolished E-selectin-dependent rolling in wild-type mice following systemic TNF-alpha administration but not local TNF-alpha administration. Together, these data support an E-selectin ligand present on PSGL-1(-/-) neutrophils that is down-regulatable upon systemic but not local activation. To determine whether the PSGL-1-independent E-selectin ligand was physiologically important, we used a P- and E-selectin-dependent cutaneous contact hypersensitivity model. Binding studies showed no E-selectin ligand down-regulation in this model. The few cells that rolled on E-selectin ligand following PSGL-1 antibody administration or in PSGL-1 deficiency were sufficient to induce profound contact hypersensitivity. In conclusion, E-selectin mediates PSGL-1-dependent and independent rolling and the latter can be down-regulated by systemic activation and can replace PSGL-1 to support the development of inflammation.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cardiovascular biology
    A targetable pathway in neutrophils mitigates both arterial and venous thrombosis.

    In Science Translational Medicine on 31 August 2022 by Nayak, L., Sweet, D. R., et al.

    PubMed

    Arterial and venous thrombosis constitutes a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Long considered as distinct entities, accumulating evidence indicates that arterial and venous thrombosis can occur in the same populations, suggesting that common mechanisms are likely operative. Although hyperactivation of the immune system is a common forerunner to the genesis of thrombotic events in both vascular systems, the key molecular control points remain poorly understood. Consequently, antithrombotic therapies targeting the immune system for therapeutics gain are lacking. Here, we show that neutrophils are key effectors of both arterial and venous thrombosis and can be targeted through immunoregulatory nanoparticles. Using antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) as a model for arterial and venous thrombosis, we identified the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) as a key regulator of neutrophil activation. Upon activation through genetic loss of KLF2 or administration of antiphospholipid antibodies, neutrophils clustered P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) by cortical actin remodeling, thereby increasing adhesion potential at sites of thrombosis. Targeting clustered PSGL-1 using nanoparticles attenuated neutrophil-mediated thrombosis in APS and KLF2 knockout models, illustrating the importance and feasibility of targeting activated neutrophils to prevent pathological thrombosis. Together, our results demonstrate a role for activated neutrophils in both arterial and venous thrombosis and identify key molecular events that serve as potential targets for therapeutics against diverse causes of immunothrombosis.

    Circadian Regulator CLOCK Drives Immunosuppression in Glioblastoma.

    In Cancer Immunology Research on 3 June 2022 by Xuan, W., Hsu, W. H., et al.

    PubMed

    The symbiotic interactions between cancer stem cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) are critical for tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this symbiosis in glioblastoma (GBM) remains enigmatic. Here, we show that circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) and its heterodimeric partner brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) in glioma stem cells (GSC) drive immunosuppression in GBM. Integrated analyses of the data from transcriptome profiling, single-cell RNA sequencing, and TCGA datasets, coupled with functional studies, identified legumain (LGMN) as a direct transcriptional target of the CLOCK-BMAL1 complex in GSCs. Moreover, CLOCK-directed olfactomedin-like 3 (OLFML3) upregulates LGMN in GSCs via hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α) signaling. Consequently, LGMN promotes microglial infiltration into the GBM TME via upregulating CD162 and polarizes infiltrating microglia toward an immune-suppressive phenotype. In GBM mouse models, inhibition of the CLOCK-OLFML3-HIF1α-LGMN-CD162 axis reduces intratumoral immune-suppressive microglia, increases CD8+ T-cell infiltration, activation, and cytotoxicity, and synergizes with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1 therapy). In human GBM, the CLOCK-regulated LGMN signaling correlates positively with microglial abundance and poor prognosis. Together, these findings uncover the CLOCK-OLFML3-HIF1α-LGMN axis as a molecular switch that controls microglial biology and immunosuppression, thus revealing potential new therapeutic targets for patients with GBM. ©2022 American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Cardiovascular biology
    Red Blood Cells Elicit Platelet-Dependent Neutrophil Recruitment Into Lung Airspaces.

    In Shock (Augusta, Ga.) on 1 August 2021 by Arnold, S., Shah, S. A., et al.

    PubMed

    Hemolysis that occurs in intravascular hemolytic disorders, such as sickle cell disease and malaria, is associated with inflammation and platelet activation. Alveolar hemorrhage, for example following primary blast lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome, results in the escape of erythrocytes (RBCs) into alveolar spaces, where they subsequently lyse and release their intracellular contents. However, the inflammatory effects of RBCs in the airways are not fully understood. We hypothesized that RBCs in the airway induce an inflammatory response, associated with platelet activation. By instilling whole RBCs or lysed RBCs into the airways of mice, we have demonstrated that whole RBCs elicit macrophage accumulation in the lung. On the other hand, lysed RBCs induce significant inflammatory cell recruitment, particularly neutrophils and this was associated with a 50% increase in circulating platelet neutrophil complexes. Platelet depletion prior to lysed RBC exposure in the lung resulted in reduced neutrophil recruitment, suggesting that the presence of intracellular RBC components in the airways can elicit inflammation that is platelet dependent. To identify specific platelet-dependent signaling pathways involved in neutrophil recruitment, anti-P-selectin ligand and anti-PSGL1 blocking antibodies were tested; however, neither affected neutrophil recruitment. These findings implicate an involvement for other, as yet unidentified platelet-dependent signaling and adhesion mechanisms. Further understanding of how platelets contribute to lung inflammation induced by the presence of RBCs could offer novel therapeutic approaches to attenuate inflammation that occurs in conditions associated with alveolar hemorrhage. Copyright © 2020 by the Shock Society.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Neutrophils Recirculate through Lymph Nodes to Survey Tissues for Pathogens.

    In The Journal of Immunology on 1 May 2020 by Bogoslowski, A., Wijeyesinghe, S., et al.

    PubMed

    The adaptive immune function of lymph nodes is dependent on constant recirculation of lymphocytes. In this article, we identify neutrophils present in the lymph node at steady state, exhibiting the same capacity for recirculation. In germ-free mice, neutrophils still recirculate through lymph nodes, and in mice cohoused with wild microbiome mice, the level of neutrophils in lymph nodes increases significantly. We found that at steady state, neutrophils enter the lymph node entirely via L-selectin and actively exit via efferent lymphatics via an S1P dependent mechanism. The small population of neutrophils in the lymph node can act as reconnaissance cells to recruit additional neutrophils in the event of bacterial dissemination to the lymph node. Without these reconnaissance cells, there is a delay in neutrophil recruitment to the lymph node and a reduction in swarm formation following Staphylococcus aureus infection. This ability to recruit additional neutrophils by lymph node neutrophils is initiated by LTB4. This study establishes the capacity of neutrophils to recirculate, much like lymphocytes via L-selectin and high endothelial venules in lymph nodes and demonstrates how the presence of neutrophils at steady state fortifies the lymph node in case of an infection disseminating through lymphatics. Copyright © 2020 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

    LPS-induced Lung Platelet Recruitment Occurs Independently from Neutrophils, PSGL-1, and P-Selectin.

    In American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology on 1 August 2019 by Cleary, S., Hobbs, C., et al.

    PubMed

    Platelets are recruited to inflammatory foci and contribute to host defense and inflammatory responses. Compared with platelet recruitment in hemostasis and thrombosis, the mechanisms of platelet recruitment in inflammation and host defense are poorly understood. Neutrophil recruitment to lung airspaces after inhalation of bacterial LPS requires platelets and PSGL-1 in mice. Given this association between platelets and neutrophils, we investigated whether recruitment of platelets to lungs of mice after LPS inhalation was dependent on PSGL-1, P-selectin, or interaction with neutrophils. BALB/c mice were administered intranasal LPS (O55:B5, 5 mg/kg) and, 48 hours later, lungs were collected and platelets and neutrophils quantified in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. The effects of functional blocking antibody treatments targeting the platelet-neutrophil adhesion molecules, P-selectin or PSGL-1, or treatment with a neutrophil-depleting antibody targeting Ly6G, were tested on the extent of LPS-induced lung platelet recruitment. Separately in Pf4-Cre × mTmG mice, two-photon intravital microscopy was used to image platelet adhesion in live lungs. Inhalation of LPS caused both platelet and neutrophil recruitment to the lung vasculature. However, decreasing lung neutrophil recruitment by blocking PSGL-1, P-selectin, or depleting blood neutrophils had no effect on lung platelet recruitment. Lung intravital imaging revealed increased adhesion of platelets in the lung microvasculature which was not associated with thrombus formation. In conclusion, platelet recruitment to lungs in response to LPS occurs through mechanisms distinct from those mediating neutrophil recruitment, or the occurrence of pulmonary emboli.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Block
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Circadian Expression of Migratory Factors Establishes Lineage-Specific Signatures that Guide the Homing of Leukocyte Subsets to Tissues.

    In Immunity on 18 December 2018 by He, W., Holtkamp, S., et al.

    PubMed

    The number of leukocytes present in circulation varies throughout the day, reflecting bone marrow output and emigration from blood into tissues. Using an organism-wide circadian screening approach, we detected oscillations in pro-migratory factors that were distinct for specific vascular beds and individual leukocyte subsets. This rhythmic molecular signature governed time-of-day-dependent homing behavior of leukocyte subsets to specific organs. Ablation of BMAL1, a transcription factor central to circadian clock function, in endothelial cells or leukocyte subsets demonstrated that rhythmic recruitment is dependent on both microenvironmental and cell-autonomous oscillations. These oscillatory patterns defined leukocyte trafficking in both homeostasis and inflammation and determined detectable tumor burden in blood cancer models. Rhythms in the expression of pro-migratory factors and migration capacities were preserved in human primary leukocytes. The definition of spatial and temporal expression profiles of pro-migratory factors guiding leukocyte migration patterns to organs provides a resource for the further study of the impact of circadian rhythms in immunity.Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Roles for Cell-Cell Adhesion and Contact in Obesity-Induced Hepatic Myeloid Cell Accumulation and Glucose Intolerance.

    In Cell Reports on 14 March 2017 by Miyachi, Y., Tsuchiya, K., et al.

    PubMed

    Obesity promotes infiltration of inflammatory cells into various tissues, leading to parenchymal and stromal cell interaction and development of cellular and organ dysfunction. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are the first cells that contact portal blood cells and substances in the liver, but their functions in the development of obesity-associated glucose metabolism remain unclear. Here, we find that LSECs are involved in obesity-associated accumulation of myeloid cells via VLA-4-dependent cell-cell adhesion. VLA-4 blockade in mice fed a high-fat diet attenuated myeloid cell accumulation in the liver to improve hepatic inflammation and systemic glucose intolerance. Ex vivo studies further show that cell-cell contact between intrahepatic leukocytes and parenchymal hepatocytes induces gluconeogenesis via a Notch-dependent pathway. These findings suggest that cell-cell interaction between parenchymal and stromal cells regulates hepatic glucose metabolism and offers potential strategies for treatment or prevention of obesity-associated glucose intolerance.Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    PSGL-1 Is an Immune Checkpoint Regulator that Promotes T Cell Exhaustion.

    In Immunity on 17 May 2016 by Tinoco, R., Carrette, F., et al.

    PubMed

    Chronic viruses and cancers thwart immune responses in humans by inducing T cell dysfunction. Using a murine chronic virus that models human infections, we investigated the function of the adhesion molecule, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), that is upregulated on responding T cells. PSGL-1-deficient mice cleared the virus due to increased intrinsic survival of multifunctional effector T cells that had downregulated PD-1 as well as other inhibitory receptors. Notably, this response resulted in CD4(+)-T-cell-dependent immunopathology. Mechanistically, PSGL-1 ligation on exhausted CD8(+) T cells inhibited T cell receptor (TCR) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling and upregulated PD-1, leading to diminished survival with TCR stimulation. In models of melanoma cancer in which T cell dysfunction occurs, PSGL-1 deficiency led to PD-1 downregulation, improved T cell responses, and tumor control. Thus, PSGL-1 plays a fundamental role in balancing viral control and immunopathology and also functions to regulate T cell responses in the tumor microenvironment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Epigenetic modification of the PD-1 (Pdcd1) promoter in effector CD4(+) T cells tolerized by peptide immunotherapy.

    In eLife on 29 December 2014 by McPherson, R. C., Konkel, J. E., et al.

    PubMed

    Clinically effective antigen-based immunotherapy must silence antigen-experienced effector T cells (Teff) driving ongoing immune pathology. Using CD4(+) autoimmune Teff cells, we demonstrate that peptide immunotherapy (PIT) is strictly dependent upon sustained T cell expression of the co-inhibitory molecule PD-1. We found high levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) at the PD-1 (Pdcd1) promoter of non-tolerant T cells. 5hmC was lost in response to PIT, with DNA hypomethylation of the promoter. We identified dynamic changes in expression of the genes encoding the Ten-Eleven-Translocation (TET) proteins that are associated with the oxidative conversion 5-methylcytosine and 5hmC, during cytosine demethylation. We describe a model whereby promoter demethylation requires the co-incident expression of permissive histone modifications at the Pdcd1 promoter together with TET availability. This combination was only seen in tolerant Teff cells following PIT, but not in Teff that transiently express PD-1. Epigenetic changes at the Pdcd1 locus therefore determine the tolerizing potential of TCR-ligation.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cardiovascular biology
    Contributions of thrombin targets to tissue factor-dependent metastasis in hyperthrombotic mice.

    In Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis : JTH on 1 January 2014 by Yokota, N., Zarpellon, A., et al.

    PubMed

    Tumor cell tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation supports hematogenous metastasis by fibrin formation, platelet activation and monocyte/macrophage recruitment. Recent studies identified host anticoagulant mechanisms as a major impediment to successful hematogenous tumor cell metastasis. Here we address mechanisms that contribute to enhanced metastasis in hyperthrombotic mice with functional thrombomodulin deficiency (TM(Pro) mice). Pharmacological and genetic approaches were combined to characterize relevant thrombin targets in a mouse model of experimental hematogenous metastasis. TF-dependent, but contact pathway-independent, syngeneic breast cancer metastasis was associated with marked platelet hyperreactivity and formation of leukocyte-platelet aggregates in immune-competent TM(Pro) mice. Blockade of CD11b or genetic deletion of platelet glycoprotein Ibα excluded contributions of these receptors to enhanced platelet-dependent metastasis in hyperthrombotic mice. Mice with very low levels of the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) did not phenocopy the enhanced metastasis seen in TM(Pro) mice. Genetic deletion of the thrombin receptor PAR1 or endothelial thrombin signaling targets alone did not diminish enhanced metastasis in TM(Pro) mice. Combined deficiency of PAR1 on tumor cells and the host reduced metastasis in TM(Pro) mice. Metastasis in the hyperthrombotic TM(Pro) mouse model is mediated by platelet hyperreactivity and contributions of PAR1 signaling on tumor and host cells. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.