InVivoMAb anti-mouse NK1.1

Catalog #BE0036
Product Citations:
267
Clone:
PK136
Reactivities:
Mouse

$164.00 - $4,280.00

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Product Details

The PK136 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse NK1.1 also known as CD161b/CD161c, KLRB1, NKR-P1A and Ly-55. NK1.1 is a type II integral membrane glycoprotein with a C-type lectin domain and is encoded by the Klrb1c/NKR-P1C gene. NK1.1 plays roles in NK cell activation and differentiation, IFN-γ production, cytotoxic granule release, and is thought to be involved in the generation of Th2 cells. NK1.1 is predominantly expressed as a disulfide-linked homodimer on NK cells however, it is also expressed on NK-T cells, a rare population of T lymphocytes. NK 1.1 is only expressed by C57BL/6, FVB/N, and NZB strains of mice and not AKR, BALB/c, CBA/J, C3H, DBA/1, DBA/2, NOD, SJL, and 129 strains.

Specifications

Isotype Mouse IgG2a, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb mouse IgG2a isotype control, unknown specificity
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen Mouse spleen and bone marrow cells enriched for NK1+ cells
Reported Applications in vivo NK cell depletion
Flow cytometry
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein A
RRID AB_1107737
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.

Additional Formats

in vivo NK cell depletion
Glasner, A., et al. (2018). "NKp46 Receptor-Mediated Interferon-gamma Production by Natural Killer Cells Increases Fibronectin 1 to Alter Tumor Architecture and Control Metastasis" Immunity 48(1): 107-119 e104. PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells, and their presence within human tumors correlates with better prognosis. However, the mechanisms by which NK cells control tumors in vivo are unclear. Here, we used reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging in humans and in mice to visualize tumor architecture in vivo. We demonstrated that signaling via the NK cell receptor NKp46 (human) and Ncr1 (mouse) induced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion from intratumoral NK cells. NKp46- and Ncr1-mediated IFN-gamma production led to the increased expression of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin 1 (FN1) in the tumors, which altered primary tumor architecture and resulted in decreased metastases formation. Injection of IFN-gamma into tumor-bearing mice or transgenic overexpression of Ncr1 in NK cells in mice resulted in decreased metastasis formation. Thus, we have defined a mechanism of NK cell-mediated control of metastases in vivo that may help develop NK cell-dependent cancer therapies.

in vivo NK cell depletion
Burrack, K. S., et al. (2018). "Interleukin-15 Complex Treatment Protects Mice from Cerebral Malaria by Inducing Interleukin-10-Producing Natural Killer Cells" Immunity 48(4): 760-772 e764. PubMed

Cerebral malaria is a deadly complication of Plasmodium infection and involves blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption following infiltration of white blood cells. During experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected red blood cells develop a fatal CM-like disease caused by CD8(+) T cell-mediated pathology. We found that treatment with interleukin-15 complex (IL-15C) prevented ECM, whereas IL-2C treatment had no effect. IL-15C-expanded natural killer (NK) cells were necessary and sufficient for protection against ECM. IL-15C treatment also decreased CD8(+) T cell activation in the brain and prevented BBB breakdown without influencing parasite load. IL-15C induced NK cells to express IL-10, which was required for IL-15C-mediated protection against ECM. Finally, we show that ALT-803, a modified human IL-15C, mediates similar induction of IL-10 in NK cells and protection against ECM. These data identify a regulatory role for cytokine-stimulated NK cells in the prevention of a pathogenic immune response.

in vivo NK cell depletion
Moynihan, K. D., et al. (2016). "Eradication of large established tumors in mice by combination immunotherapy that engages innate and adaptive immune responses" Nat Med. doi : 10.1038/nm.4200. PubMed

Checkpoint blockade with antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; also known as PD-1) elicits durable tumor regression in metastatic cancer, but these dramatic responses are confined to a minority of patients. This suboptimal outcome is probably due in part to the complex network of immunosuppressive pathways present in advanced tumors, which are unlikely to be overcome by intervention at a single signaling checkpoint. Here we describe a combination immunotherapy that recruits a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells to eliminate large tumor burdens in syngeneic tumor models and a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma; to our knowledge tumors of this size have not previously been curable by treatments relying on endogenous immunity. Maximal antitumor efficacy required four components: a tumor-antigen-targeting antibody, a recombinant interleukin-2 with an extended half-life, anti-PD-1 and a powerful T cell vaccine. Depletion experiments revealed that CD8+ T cells, cross-presenting dendritic cells and several other innate immune cell subsets were required for tumor regression. Effective treatment induced infiltration of immune cells and production of inflammatory cytokines in the tumor, enhanced antibody-mediated tumor antigen uptake and promoted antigen spreading. These results demonstrate the capacity of an elicited endogenous immune response to destroy large, established tumors and elucidate essential characteristics of combination immunotherapies that are capable of curing a majority of tumors in experimental settings typically viewed as intractable.

in vivo NK cell depletion, Flow Cytometry
Ludigs, K., et al. (2016). "NLRC5 shields T lymphocytes from NK-cell-mediated elimination under inflammatory conditions" Nat Commun 7: 10554. PubMed

NLRC5 is a transcriptional regulator of MHC class I (MHCI), which maintains high MHCI expression particularly in T cells. Recent evidence highlights an important NK-T-cell crosstalk, raising the question on whether NLRC5 specifically modulates this interaction. Here we show that NK cells from Nlrc5-deficient mice exhibit moderate alterations in inhibitory receptor expression and responsiveness. Interestingly, NLRC5 expression in T cells is required to protect them from NK-cell-mediated elimination upon inflammation. Using T-cell-specific Nlrc5-deficient mice, we show that NK cells surprisingly break tolerance even towards ‘self’ Nlrc5-deficient T cells under inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, during chronic LCMV infection, the total CD8(+) T-cell population is severely decreased in these mice, a phenotype reverted by NK-cell depletion. These findings strongly suggest that endogenous T cells with low MHCI expression become NK-cell targets, having thus important implications for T-cell responses in naturally or therapeutically induced inflammatory conditions.

in vivo NK cell depletion
Ghasemi, R., et al. (2016). "Selective targeting of IL-2 to NKG2D bearing cells for improved immunotherapy" Nat Commun 7: 12878. PubMed

Despite over 20 years of clinical use, IL-2 has not fulfilled expectations as a safe and effective form of tumour immunotherapy. Expression of the high affinity IL-2Ralpha chain on regulatory T cells mitigates the anti-tumour immune response and its expression on vascular endothelium is responsible for life threatening complications such as diffuse capillary leak and pulmonary oedema. Here we describe the development of a recombinant fusion protein comprised of a cowpox virus encoded NKG2D binding protein (OMCP) and a mutated form of IL-2 with poor affinity for IL-2Ralpha. This fusion protein (OMCP-mutIL-2) potently and selectively activates IL-2 signalling only on NKG2D-bearing cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, without broadly activating IL-2Ralpha-bearing cells. OMCP-mutIL-2 provides superior tumour control in several mouse models of malignancy and is not limited by mouse strain-specific variability of NK function. In addition, OMCP-mutIL-2 lacks the toxicity and vascular complications associated with parental wild-type IL-2.

in vivo NK cell depletion, Flow Cytometry
Maltez, V. I., et al. (2015). "Inflammasomes Coordinate Pyroptosis and Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity to Clear Infection by a Ubiquitous Environmental Bacterium" Immunity 43(5): 987-997. PubMed

Defective neutrophils in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) cause susceptibility to extracellular and intracellular infections. Microbes must first be ejected from intracellular niches to expose them to neutrophil attack, so we hypothesized that inflammasomes detect certain CGD pathogens upstream of neutrophil killing. Here, we identified one such ubiquitous environmental bacterium, Chromobacterium violaceum, whose extreme virulence was fully counteracted by the NLRC4 inflammasome. Caspase-1 protected via two parallel pathways that eliminated intracellular replication niches. Pyroptosis was the primary bacterial clearance mechanism in the spleen, but both pyroptosis and interleukin-18 (IL-18)-driven natural killer (NK) cell responses were required for liver defense. NK cells cleared hepatocyte replication niches via perforin-dependent cytotoxicity, whereas interferon-gamma was not required. These insights suggested a therapeutic approach: exogenous IL-18 restored perforin-dependent cytotoxicity during infection by the inflammasome-evasive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, inflammasomes can trigger complementary programmed cell death mechanisms, directing sterilizing immunity against intracellular bacterial pathogens.

in vivo NK cell depletion, Flow Cytometry
Wensveen, F. M., et al. (2015). "NK cells link obesity-induced adipose stress to inflammation and insulin resistance" Nat Immunol 16(4): 376-385. PubMed

An important cause of obesity-induced insulin resistance is chronic systemic inflammation originating in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). VAT inflammation is associated with the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue, but the immunological signals that trigger their accumulation remain unknown. We found that a phenotypically distinct population of tissue-resident natural killer (NK) cells represented a crucial link between obesity-induced adipose stress and VAT inflammation. Obesity drove the upregulation of ligands of the NK cell-activating receptor NCR1 on adipocytes; this stimulated NK cell proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production, which in turn triggered the differentiation of proinflammatory macrophages and promoted insulin resistance. Deficiency of NK cells, NCR1 or IFN-gamma prevented the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages in VAT and greatly ameliorated insulin sensitivity. Thus NK cells are key regulators of macrophage polarization and insulin resistance in response to obesity-induced adipocyte stress.

in vivo NK cell depletion
Yamada, D. H., et al. (2015). "Suppression of Fcgamma-receptor-mediated antibody effector function during persistent viral infection" Immunity 42(2): 379-390. PubMed

Understanding how viruses subvert host immunity and persist is essential for developing strategies to eliminate infection. T cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection is well described, but effects on antibody-mediated effector activity are unclear. Herein, we show that increased amounts of immune complexes generated in mice persistently infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) suppressed multiple Fcgamma-receptor (FcgammaR) functions. The high amounts of immune complexes suppressed antibody-mediated cell depletion, therapeutic antibody-killing of LCMV infected cells and human CD20-expressing tumors, as well as reduced immune complex-mediated cross-presentation to T cells. Suppression of FcgammaR activity was not due to inhibitory FcgammaRs or high concentrations of free antibody, and proper FcgammaR functions were restored when persistently infected mice specifically lacked immune complexes. Thus, we identify a mechanism of immunosuppression during viral persistence with implications for understanding effective antibody activity aimed at pathogen control.

in vivo NK cell depletion
Mitchell, D. A., et al. (2015). "Tetanus toxoid and CCL3 improve dendritic cell vaccines in mice and glioblastoma patients" Nature 519(7543): 366-369. PubMed

After stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) mature and migrate to draining lymph nodes to induce immune responses. As such, autologous DCs generated ex vivo have been pulsed with tumour antigens and injected back into patients as immunotherapy. While DC vaccines have shown limited promise in the treatment of patients with advanced cancers including glioblastoma, the factors dictating DC vaccine efficacy remain poorly understood. Here we show that pre-conditioning the vaccine site with a potent recall antigen such as tetanus/diphtheria (Td) toxoid can significantly improve the lymph node homing and efficacy of tumour-antigen-specific DCs. To assess the effect of vaccine site pre-conditioning in humans, we randomized patients with glioblastoma to pre-conditioning with either mature DCs or Td unilaterally before bilateral vaccination with DCs pulsed with Cytomegalovirus phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) RNA. We and other laboratories have shown that pp65 is expressed in more than 90% of glioblastoma specimens but not in surrounding normal brain, providing an unparalleled opportunity to subvert this viral protein as a tumour-specific target. Patients given Td had enhanced DC migration bilaterally and significantly improved survival. In mice, Td pre-conditioning also enhanced bilateral DC migration and suppressed tumour growth in a manner dependent on the chemokine CCL3. Our clinical studies and corroborating investigations in mice suggest that pre-conditioning with a potent recall antigen may represent a viable strategy to improve anti-tumour immunotherapy.

in vivo NK cell depletion, Flow Cytometry
Walsh, K. B., et al. (2014). "Animal model of respiratory syncytial virus: CD8+ T cells cause a cytokine storm that is chemically tractable by sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 receptor agonist therapy" J Virol 88(11): 6281-6293. PubMed

The cytokine storm is an intensified, dysregulated, tissue-injurious inflammatory response driven by cytokine and immune cell components. The cytokine storm during influenza virus infection, whereby the amplified innate immune response is primarily responsible for pulmonary damage, has been well characterized. Now we describe a novel event where virus-specific T cells induce a cytokine storm. The paramyxovirus pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) is a model of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Unexpectedly, when C57BL/6 mice were infected with PVM, the innate inflammatory response was undetectable until day 5 postinfection, at which time CD8(+) T cells infiltrated into the lung, initiating a cytokine storm by their production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Administration of an immunomodulatory sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P1R) agonist significantly inhibited PVM-elicited cytokine storm by blunting the PVM-specific CD8(+) T cell response, resulting in diminished pulmonary disease and enhanced survival. IMPORTANCE: A dysregulated overly exuberant immune response, termed a “cytokine storm,” accompanies virus-induced acute respiratory diseases (VARV), is primarily responsible for the accompanying high morbidity and mortality, and can be controlled therapeutically in influenza virus infection of mice and ferrets by administration of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 receptor (S1P1R) agonists. Here, two novel findings are recorded. First, in contrast to influenza infection, where the cytokine storm is initiated early by the innate immune system, for pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a model of RSV, the cytokine storm is initiated late in infection by the adaptive immune response: specifically, by virus-specific CD8 T cells via their release of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Blockading these cytokines with neutralizing antibodies blunts the cytokine storm and protects the host. Second, PVM infection is controlled by administration of an S1P1R agonist.

in vivo NK cell depletion, Flow Cytometry
Uddin, M. N., et al. (2014). "TNF-alpha-dependent hematopoiesis following Bcl11b deletion in T cells restricts metastatic melanoma" J Immunol 192(4): 1946-1953. PubMed

Using several tumor models, we demonstrate that mice deficient in Bcl11b in T cells, although having reduced numbers of T cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs, developed significantly less tumors compared with wild-type mice. Bcl11b(-/-) CD4(+) T cells, with elevated TNF-alpha levels, but not the Bcl11b(-/-) CD8(+) T cells, were required for the reduced tumor burden, as were NK1.1(+) cells, found in increased numbers in Bcl11b(F/F)/CD4-Cre mice. Among NK1.1(+) cells, the NK cell population was predominant in number and was the only population displaying elevated granzyme B levels and increased degranulation, although not increased proliferation. Although the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells was increased in the lungs with metastatic tumors of Bcl11b(F/F)/CD4-Cre mice, their arginase-1 levels were severely reduced. The increase in NK cell and myeloid-derived suppressor cell numbers was associated with increased bone marrow and splenic hematopoiesis. Finally, the reduced tumor burden, increased numbers of NK cells in the lung, and increased hematopoiesis in Bcl11b(F/F)/CD4-Cre mice were all dependent on TNF-alpha. Moreover, TNF-alpha treatment of wild-type mice also reduced the tumor burden and increased hematopoiesis and the numbers and activity of NK cells in the lung. In vitro treatment with TNF-alpha of lineage-negative hematopoietic progenitors increased NK and myeloid differentiation, further supporting a role of TNF-alpha in promoting hematopoiesis. These studies reveal a novel role for TNF-alpha in the antitumor immune response, specifically in stimulating hematopoiesis and increasing the numbers and activity of NK cells.

in vivo NK cell depletion
Guo, Z., et al. (2014). "PD-1 blockade and OX40 triggering synergistically protects against tumor growth in a murine model of ovarian cancer" PLoS One 9(2): e89350. PubMed

The co-inhibitory receptor Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) curtails immune responses and prevent autoimmunity, however, tumors exploit this pathway to escape from immune destruction. The co-stimulatory receptor OX40 is upregulated on T cells following activation and increases their clonal expansion, survival and cytokine production when engaged. Although antagonistic anti-PD-1 or agonistic anti-OX40 antibodies can promote the rejection of several murine tumors, some poorly immunogenic tumors were refractory to this treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor effects and mechanisms of combinatorial PD-1 blockade and OX40 triggering in a murine ID8 ovarian cancer model. Although individual anti-PD-1 or OX40 mAb treatment was ineffective in tumor protection against 10-day established ID8 tumor, combined anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb treatment markedly inhibited tumor outgrowth with 60% of mice tumor free 90 days after tumor inoculation. Tumor protection was associated with a systemic immune response with memory and antigen specificity and required CD4(+) cells and CD8(+) T cells. The anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb treatment increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells and decreased immunosuppressive CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid suppressor cells (MDSC), giving rise to significantly higher ratios of both effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells to Treg and MDSC in peritoneal cavity; Quantitative RT-PCR data further demonstrated the induction of a local immunostimulatory milieu by anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb treatment. The splenic CD8(+) T cells from combined mAb treated mice produced high levels of IFN-gamma upon tumor antigen stimulation and exhibited antigen-specific cytolytic activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study testing the antitumor effects of combined anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb in a murine ovarian cancer model, and our results provide a rationale for clinical trials evaluating ovarian cancer immunotherapy using this combination of mAb.

in vivo NK cell depletion
Hervieu, A., et al. (2013). "Dacarbazine-mediated upregulation of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells activates NK and CD8 T cells and restrains melanoma growth" J Invest Dermatol 133(2): 499-508. PubMed

Dacarbazine (DTIC) is a cytotoxic drug widely used for melanoma treatment. However, the putative contribution of anticancer immune responses in the efficacy of DTIC has not been evaluated. By testing how DTIC affects host immune responses to cancer in a mouse model of melanoma, we unexpectedly found that both natural killer (NK) and CD8(+) T cells were indispensable for DTIC therapeutic effect. Although DTIC did not directly affect immune cells, it triggered the upregulation of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells, leading to NK cell activation and IFNgamma secretion in mice and humans. NK cell-derived IFNgamma subsequently favored upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on tumor cells, rendering them sensitive to cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. Accordingly, DTIC markedly enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 inhibition efficacy in vivo in an NK-dependent manner. These results underscore the immunogenic properties of DTIC and provide a rationale to combine DTIC with immunotherapeutic agents that relieve immunosuppression in vivo.

in vivo NK cell depletion
Dai, M., et al. (2013). "Long-lasting complete regression of established mouse tumors by counteracting Th2 inflammation" J Immunother 36(4): 248-257. PubMed

40% of mice with SW1 tumors remained healthy >150 days after last treatment and are probably cured. Therapeutic efficacy was associated with a systemic immune response with memory and antigen specificity, required CD4 cells and involved CD8 cells and NK cells to a less extent. The 3 mAb combination significantly decreased CD19 cells at tumor sites, increased IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha producing CD4 and CD8 T cells and mature CD86 dendritic cells (DC), and it increased the ratios of effector CD4 and CD8 T cells to CD4Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells and to CD11bGr-1 myeloid suppressor cells (MDSC). This is consistent with shifting the tumor microenvironment from an immunosuppressive Th2 to an immunostimulatory Th1 type and is further supported by PCR data. Adding an anti-CD19 mAb to the 3 mAb combination in the SW1 model further increased therapeutic efficacy. Data from ongoing experiments show that intratumoral injection of a combination of mAbs to CD137PD-1CTLA4CD19 can induce complete regression and dramatically prolong survival also in the TC1 carcinoma and B16 melanoma models, suggesting that the approach has general validity.”}” data-sheets-userformat=”{“2″:14851,”3”:{“1″:0},”4”:{“1″:2,”2″:16777215},”12″:0,”14”:{“1″:2,”2″:1521491},”15″:”Roboto, sans-serif”,”16″:12}”>Mice with intraperitoneal ID8 ovarian carcinoma or subcutaneous SW1 melanoma were injected with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to CD137PD-1CTLA4 7-15 days after tumor initiation. Survival of mice with ID8 tumors tripled and >40% of mice with SW1 tumors remained healthy >150 days after last treatment and are probably cured. Therapeutic efficacy was associated with a systemic immune response with memory and antigen specificity, required CD4 cells and involved CD8 cells and NK cells to a less extent. The 3 mAb combination significantly decreased CD19 cells at tumor sites, increased IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha producing CD4 and CD8 T cells and mature CD86 dendritic cells (DC), and it increased the ratios of effector CD4 and CD8 T cells to CD4Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells and to CD11bGr-1 myeloid suppressor cells (MDSC). This is consistent with shifting the tumor microenvironment from an immunosuppressive Th2 to an immunostimulatory Th1 type and is further supported by PCR data. Adding an anti-CD19 mAb to the 3 mAb combination in the SW1 model further increased therapeutic efficacy. Data from ongoing experiments show that intratumoral injection of a combination of mAbs to CD137PD-1CTLA4CD19 can induce complete regression and dramatically prolong survival also in the TC1 carcinoma and B16 melanoma models, suggesting that the approach has general validity.

in vivo NK cell depletion
Richter, K., et al. (2013). "Macrophage and T cell produced IL-10 promotes viral chronicity" PLoS Pathog 9(11): e1003735. PubMed

Chronic viral infections lead to CD8(+) T cell exhaustion, characterized by impaired cytokine secretion. Presence of the immune-regulatory cytokine IL-10 promotes chronicity of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) Clone 13 infection, while absence of IL-10/IL-10R signaling early during infection results in viral clearance and higher percentages and numbers of antiviral, cytokine producing T cells. IL-10 is produced by several cell types during LCMV infection but it is currently unclear which cellular sources are responsible for induction of viral chronicity. Here, we demonstrate that although dendritic cells produce IL-10 and overall IL-10 mRNA levels decrease significantly in absence of CD11c(+) cells, absence of IL-10 produced by CD11c(+) cells failed to improve the LCMV-specific T cell response and control of LCMV infection. Similarly, NK cell specific IL-10 deficiency had no positive impact on the LCMV-specific T cell response or viral control, even though high percentages of NK cells produced IL-10 at early time points after infection. Interestingly, we found markedly improved T cell responses and clearance of normally chronic LCMV Clone 13 infection when either myeloid cells or T cells lacked IL-10 production and mice depleted of monocytes/macrophages or CD4(+) T cells exhibited reduced overall levels of IL-10 mRNA. These data suggest that the decision whether LCMV infection becomes chronic or can be cleared critically depends on early CD4(+) T cell and monocyte/macrophage produced IL-10.

in vivo NK cell depletion, Flow Cytometry
Kearl, T. J., et al. (2013). "Programmed death receptor-1/programmed death receptor ligand-1 blockade after transient lymphodepletion to treat myeloma" J Immunol 190(11): 5620-5628. PubMed

Early phase clinical trials targeting the programmed death receptor-1/ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway to overcome tumor-mediated immunosuppression have reported promising results for a variety of cancers. This pathway appears to play an important role in the failure of immune reactivity to malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma patients, as the tumor cells express relatively high levels of PD-L1, and T cells show increased PD-1 expression. In the current study, we demonstrate that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade with a PD-L1-specific Ab elicits rejection of a murine myeloma when combined with lymphodepleting irradiation. This particular combined approach by itself has not previously been shown to be efficacious in other tumor models. The antitumor effect of lymphodepletion/anti-PD-L1 therapy was most robust when tumor Ag-experienced T cells were present either through cell transfer or survival after nonmyeloablative irradiation. In vivo depletion of CD4 or CD8 T cells completely eliminated antitumor efficacy of the lymphodepletion/anti-PD-L1 therapy, indicating that both T cell subsets are necessary for tumor rejection. Elimination of myeloma by T cells occurs relatively quickly as tumor cells in the bone marrow were nearly nondetectable by 5 d after the first anti-PD-L1 treatment, suggesting that antimyeloma reactivity is primarily mediated by preactivated T cells, rather than newly generated myeloma-reactive T cells. Anti-PD-L1 plus lymphodepletion failed to improve survival in two solid tumor models, but demonstrated significant efficacy in two hematologic malignancy models. In summary, our results support the clinical testing of lymphodepletion and PD-1/PD-L1 blockade as a novel approach for improving the survival of patients with multiple myeloma.

in vivo NK cell depletion
Ellermeier, J., et al. (2013). "Therapeutic efficacy of bifunctional siRNA combining TGF-beta1 silencing with RIG-I activation in pancreatic cancer" Cancer Res 73(6): 1709-1720. PubMed

Deregulated TGF-beta signaling in pancreatic cancer promotes tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and a potent immunosuppressive network. A strategy for disrupting this tumor-promoting pathway is silencing TGF-beta by siRNA. By introducing a triphosphate group at the 5′ end of siRNA (ppp-siRNA), gene silencing can be combined with immune activation via the cytosolic helicase retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a ubiquitously expressed receptor recognizing viral RNA. We validated RIG-I as a therapeutic target by showing that activation of RIG-I in pancreatic carcinoma cells induced IRF-3 phosphorylation, production of type I IFN, the chemokine CXCL10, as well as caspase-9-mediated tumor cell apoptosis. Next, we generated a bifunctional ppp-siRNA that combines RIG-I activation with gene silencing of TGF-beta1 (ppp-TGF-beta) and studied its therapeutic efficacy in the orthotopic Panc02 mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Intravenous injection of ppp-TGF-beta reduced systemic and tumor-associated TGF-beta levels. In addition, it induced high levels of type I IFN and CXCL10 in serum and tumor tissue, systemic immune cell activation, and profound tumor cell apoptosis in vivo. Treatment of mice with established tumors with ppp-TGF-beta significantly prolonged survival as compared with ppp-RNA or TGF-beta siRNA alone. Furthermore, we observed the recruitment of activated CD8(+) T cells to the tumor and a reduced frequency of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid cells. Therapeutic efficacy was dependent on CD8(+) T cells, whereas natural killer cells were dispensable. In conclusion, combing TGF-beta gene silencing with RIG-I signaling confers potent antitumor efficacy against pancreatic cancer by breaking tumor-induced CD8(+) T cell suppression.

in vivo NK cell depletion, Flow Cytometry
Monticelli, L. A., et al. (2011). "Innate lymphoid cells promote lung-tissue homeostasis after infection with influenza virus" Nat Immunol 12(11): 1045-1054. PubMed

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), a heterogeneous cell population, are critical in orchestrating immunity and inflammation in the intestine, but whether ILCs influence immune responses or tissue homeostasis at other mucosal sites remains poorly characterized. Here we identify a population of lung-resident ILCs in mice and humans that expressed the alloantigen Thy-1 (CD90), interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor a-chain (CD25), IL-7 receptor a-chain (CD127) and the IL-33 receptor subunit T1-ST2. Notably, mouse ILCs accumulated in the lung after infection with influenza virus, and depletion of ILCs resulted in loss of airway epithelial integrity, diminished lung function and impaired airway remodeling. These defects were restored by administration of the lung ILC product amphiregulin. Collectively, our results demonstrate a critical role for lung ILCs in restoring airway epithelial integrity and tissue homeostasis after infection with influenza virus.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    IFNγ-dependent remodelling of the myeloid landscape underlies control of IFNγ-insensitive tumours

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 28 March 2024 by Lau, V. W., Mead, G., et al.

    PubMed

    Loss of IFNγ-sensitivity by tumours is thought to be a mechanism enabling evasion, as some cancers lacking IFNγ-signalling demonstrate resistance to checkpoint immunotherapy. However, recent studies demonstrated that IFNγ-resistant tumours are well-controlled and sensitized for immunotherapy. The underlying mechanism leading to enhanced immune responses in those patients is unknown. Using IFNγ-insensitive melanoma tumours which were well-controlled by the endogenous anti-tumour response, we found that despite low basal MHC class I expression by tumours, CD8 + T cell infiltration was not hindered and, unexpectedly, their production of IFNγ was still important for tumour control. Mechanistically, IFNγ triggers pro-inflammatory remodelling of IFNγ-insensitive tumours, affecting the differentiation of myeloid cells. Predominantly, immunosuppressive macrophages are inhibited, while inflammatory phenotypes of monocytes and ‘mono-macs’ are preserved in IFNγ-insensitive tumours. This is supported by a co-dependency between CD8 + T cells and monocyte/macrophages, as depletion of one resulted in loss of the other. Our work demonstrates an important mechanistic understanding of how IFNγ resistance does not preclude failure of anti-tumour responses. Importantly, immune remodelling appears to be dominant in IFNγ-sensitive and IFNγ-insensitive mixed tumours, and is enriched in humans with tumours mutated in the IFNγ pathway, suggesting this may be leveraged for therapy in the future.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Genetic fusion of CCL11 to antigens enhances antigenicity in nucleic acid vaccines and eradicates tumor mass through optimizing T-cell response.

    In Molecular Cancer on 8 March 2024 by Qi, H., Sun, Z., et al.

    PubMed

    Nucleic acid vaccines have shown promising potency and efficacy for cancer treatment with robust and specific T-cell responses. Improving the immunogenicity of delivered antigens helps to extend therapeutic efficacy and reduce dose-dependent toxicity. Here, we systematically evaluated chemokine-fused HPV16 E6/E7 antigen to improve the cellular and humoral immune responses induced by nucleotide vaccines in vivo. We found that fusion with different chemokines shifted the nature of the immune response against the antigens. Although a number of chemokines were able to amplify specific CD8 + T-cell or humoral response alone or simultaneously. CCL11 was identified as the most potent chemokine in improving immunogenicity, promoting specific CD8 + T-cell stemness and generating tumor rejection. Fusing CCL11 with E6/E7 antigen as a therapeutic DNA vaccine significantly improved treatment effectiveness and caused eradication of established large tumors in 92% tumor-bearing mice (n = 25). Fusion antigens with CCL11 expanded the TCR diversity of specific T cells and induced the infiltration of activated specific T cells, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) into the tumor, which created a comprehensive immune microenvironment lethal to tumor. Combination of the DNA vaccine with anti-CTLA4 treatment further enhanced the therapeutic effect. In addition, CCL11 could also be used for mRNA vaccine design. To summarize, CCL11 might be a potent T cell enhancer against cancer. © 2024. The Author(s).

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Gestational diabetes augments group B Streptococcus infection by disrupting maternal immunity and the vaginal microbiota.

    In Nature Communications on 3 February 2024 by Mercado-Evans, V., Mejia, M. E., et al.

    PubMed

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a pervasive perinatal pathogen, yet factors driving GBS dissemination in utero are poorly defined. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a complication marked by dysregulated immunity and maternal microbial dysbiosis, increases risk for GBS perinatal disease. Using a murine GDM model of GBS colonization and perinatal transmission, we find that GDM mice display greater GBS in utero dissemination and subsequently worse neonatal outcomes. Dual-RNA sequencing reveals differential GBS adaptation to the GDM reproductive tract, including a putative glycosyltransferase (yfhO), and altered host responses. GDM immune disruptions include reduced uterine natural killer cell activation, impaired recruitment to placentae, and altered maternofetal cytokines. Lastly, we observe distinct vaginal microbial taxa associated with GDM status and GBS invasive disease status. Here, we show a model of GBS dissemination in GDM hosts that recapitulates several clinical aspects and identifies multiple host and bacterial drivers of GBS perinatal disease. © 2024. The Author(s).

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Hyperactive Natural Killer cells in Rag2 knockout mice inhibit the development of acute myeloid leukemia.

    In Communications Biology on 21 December 2023 by Sugimoto, E., Li, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Immunotherapy has attracted considerable attention as a therapeutic strategy for cancers including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we found that the development of several aggressive subtypes of AML is slower in Rag2-/- mice despite the lack of B and T lymphocytes, even compared to the immunologically normal C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, an orally active p53-activating drug shows stronger antileukemia effect on AML in Rag2-/- mice than C57BL/6 mice. Intriguingly, Natural Killer (NK) cells in Rag2-/- mice are increased in number, highly express activation markers, and show increased cytotoxicity to leukemia cells in a coculture assay. B2m depletion that triggers missing-self recognition of NK cells impairs the growth of AML cells in vivo. In contrast, NK cell depletion accelerates AML progression in Rag2-/- mice. Interestingly, immunogenicity of AML keeps changing during tumor evolution, showing a trend that the aggressive AMLs generate through serial transplantations are susceptible to NK cell-mediated tumor suppression in Rag2-/- mice. Thus, we show the critical role of NK cells in suppressing the development of certain subtypes of AML using Rag2-/- mice, which lack functional lymphocytes but have hyperactive NK cells. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Autophagy-mediated NKG2D internalization impairs NK cell function and exacerbates radiation pneumonitis.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 11 December 2023 by Wang, R., Ma, X., et al.

    PubMed

    Radiation pneumonitis is a critical complication that constrains the use of radiation therapy for thoracic malignancies, leading to substantial morbidity via respiratory distress and lung function impairment. The role of Natural killer (NK) cells in inflammatory diseases is well-documented; however, their involvement in radiation pneumonitis is not fully understood. To explore the involvement of NK cells in radiation pneumonitis, we analyzed tissue samples for NK cell presence and function. The study utilized immunofluorescence staining, western blotting, and immunoprecipitation to investigate CXCL10 and ROS levels, autophagy activity, and NKG2D receptor dynamics in NK cells derived from patients and animal models subjected to radiation. In this study, we observed an augmented infiltration of NK cells in tissues affected by radiation pneumonitis, although their function was markedly diminished. In animal models, enhancing NK cell activity appeared to decelerate the disease progression. Concomitant with the disease course, there was a notable upsurge in CXCL10 and ROS levels. CXCL10 was found to facilitate NK cell migration through CXCR3 receptor activation. Furthermore, evidence of excessive autophagy in patient NK cells was linked to ROS accumulation, as indicated by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. The association between the NKG2D receptor and its adaptor proteins (AP2 subunits AP2A1 and AP2M1), LC3, and lysosomes was intensified after radiation exposure, as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation. This interaction led to NKG2D receptor endocytosis and subsequent lysosomal degradation. Our findings delineate a mechanism by which radiation-induced lung injury may suppress NK cell function through an autophagy-dependent pathway. The dysregulation observed suggests potential therapeutic targets; hence, modulating autophagy and enhancing NK cell activity could represent novel strategies for mitigating radiation pneumonitis. Copyright © 2023 Wang, Ma, Zhang, Jiang, Mao, Li, Tian and Cheng.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Leukemia-intrinsic determinants of CAR-T response revealed by iterative in vivo genome-wide CRISPR screening.

    In Nature Communications on 5 December 2023 by Ramos, A., Koch, C. E., et al.

    PubMed

    CAR-T therapy is a promising, novel treatment modality for B-cell malignancies and yet many patients relapse through a variety of means, including loss of CAR-T cells and antigen escape. To investigate leukemia-intrinsic CAR-T resistance mechanisms, we performed genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 loss-of-function screens in an immunocompetent murine model of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) utilizing a modular guide RNA library. We identified IFNγR/JAK/STAT signaling and components of antigen processing and presentation pathway as key mediators of resistance to CAR-T therapy in vivo; intriguingly, loss of this pathway yielded the opposite effect in vitro (sensitized leukemia to CAR-T cells). Transcriptional characterization of this model demonstrated upregulation of these pathways in tumors relapsed after CAR-T treatment, and functional studies showed a surprising role for natural killer (NK) cells in engaging this resistance program. Finally, examination of data from B-ALL patients treated with CAR-T revealed an association between poor outcomes and increased expression of JAK/STAT and MHC-I in leukemia cells. Overall, our data identify an unexpected mechanism of resistance to CAR-T therapy in which tumor cell interaction with the in vivo tumor microenvironment, including NK cells, induces expression of an adaptive, therapy-induced, T-cell resistance program in tumor cells. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Mice with FVB-derived sequence on chromosome 17 succumb to disseminated virus infection due to aberrant NK cell and T cell responses.

    In IScience on 17 November 2023 by Tibbs, T. N., Donoghue, L. J., et al.

    PubMed

    Zoonotic arenavirus infections can result in viral hemorrhagic disease, characterized by platelet loss, petechia, and multi-organ injury. The mechanisms governing these outcomes are likely impacted by virus strain and infection dose, as well as an individual's genetic background and immune constitution. To better understand the processes leading to severe pathogenesis, we compared two strains of inbred mice, C57BL/6J (B6) and FVB/NJ (FVB), that have diametrically opposed outcomes during disseminated lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Infection caused minimal pathogenesis in B6 mice, whereas FVB mice developed acute hepatitis and perished due, in part, to aberrant NK cell and T cell responses. Susceptible mice showed an outgrowth of cytolytic CD4+ T cells and loss of Treg cells. B6 congenic mice with the FVB allele at a 25Mb locus on chromosome 17 recapitulated FVB pathogenesis upon infection. A locus containing a limited number of variants in immune-related genes greatly impacts survival during infection. © 2023 The Author(s).

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    TIM-3 blockade in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma models promotes tumor regression and antitumor immune memory.

    In Cancer Cell on 13 November 2023 by Ausejo-Mauleon, I., Labiano, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive brain stem tumor and the leading cause of pediatric cancer-related death. To date, these tumors remain incurable, underscoring the need for efficacious therapies. In this study, we demonstrate that the immune checkpoint TIM-3 (HAVCR2) is highly expressed in both tumor cells and microenvironmental cells, mainly microglia and macrophages, in DIPG. We show that inhibition of TIM-3 in syngeneic models of DIPG prolongs survival and produces long-term survivors free of disease that harbor immune memory. This antitumor effect is driven by the direct effect of TIM-3 inhibition in tumor cells, the coordinated action of several immune cell populations, and the secretion of chemokines/cytokines that create a proinflammatory tumor microenvironment favoring a potent antitumor immune response. This work uncovers TIM-3 as a bona fide target in DIPG and supports its clinical translation. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • IHC
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    C-type lectin receptor 2d forms homodimers and heterodimers with TLR2 to negatively regulate IRF5-mediated antifungal immunity.

    In Nature Communications on 23 October 2023 by Li, F., Wang, H., et al.

    PubMed

    Dimerization of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) or Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can alter their ligand binding ability, thereby modulating immune responses. However, the possibilities and roles of dimerization between CLRs and TLRs remain unclear. Here we show that C-type lectin receptor-2d (CLEC2D) forms homodimers, as well as heterodimers with TLR2. Quantitative ligand binding assays reveal that both CLEC2D homodimers and CLEC2D/TLR2 heterodimers have a higher binding ability to fungi-derived β-glucans than TLR2 homodimers. Moreover, homo- or hetero-dimeric CLEC2D mediates β-glucan-induced ubiquitination and degradation of MyD88 to inhibit the activation of transcription factor IRF5 and subsequent IL-12 production. Clec2d-deficient female mice are resistant to infection with Candida albicans, a human fungal pathogen, owing to the increase of IL-12 production and subsequent generation of IFN-γ-producing NK cells. Together, these data indicate that CLEC2D forms homodimers or heterodimers with TLR2, which negatively regulate antifungal immunity through suppression of IRF5-mediated IL-12 production. These homo- and hetero-dimers of CLEC2D and TLR2 provide an example of receptor dimerization to regulate host innate immunity against microbial infections. © 2023. Springer Nature Limited.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Carcinogen exposure enhances cancer immunogenicity by blocking the development of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

    In The Journal of Clinical Investigation on 16 October 2023 by Huang, M., Xia, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Carcinogen exposure is strongly associated with enhanced cancer immunogenicity. Increased tumor mutational burden and resulting neoantigen generation have been proposed to link carcinogen exposure and cancer immunogenicity. However, the neoantigen-independent immunological impact of carcinogen exposure on cancer is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that chemical carcinogen-exposed cancer cells fail to establish an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), resulting in their T cell-mediated rejection in vivo. A chemical carcinogen-treated breast cancer cell clone that lacked any additional coding region mutations (i.e., neoantigen) was rejected in mice in a T cell-dependent manner. Strikingly, the coinjection of carcinogen- and control-treated cancer cells prevented this rejection, suggesting that the loss of immunosuppressive TME was the dominant cause of rejection. Reduced M-CSF expression by carcinogen-treated cancer cells significantly suppressed tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and resulted in the loss of an immunosuppressive TME. Single-cell analysis of human lung cancers revealed a significant reduction in the immunosuppressive TAMs in former smokers compared with individuals who had never smoked. These findings demonstrate that carcinogen exposure impairs the development of an immunosuppressive TME and indicate a novel link between carcinogens and cancer immunogenicity.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Natural Killer Cell-Derived Interferon-γ Regulates Macrophage-Mediated Immunopathology During Viral Infection.

    In The Journal of Infectious Diseases on 3 October 2023 by Feng, E., Monteiro, J. K., et al.

    PubMed

    Regulation of immune responses during viral infection is critical to preventing the development immunopathology that impairs host survival. Natural killer (NK) cells are well known for their antiviral functions that promote viral clearance; however, their roles in limiting immune-mediated pathology are still unclear. Using a mouse model for genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, we find that NK cell-derived interferon-γ directly counteracts interleukin-6-mediated matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) activity in macrophages to limit MMP-mediated tissue damage. Our findings uncover a key immunoregulatory function of NK cells during host-pathogen interactions that highlight the potential of NK cell therapy for treatment of severe viral infections. © The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Tumor-intrinsic expression of the autophagy gene Atg16l1 suppresses anti-tumor immunity in colorectal cancer.

    In Nature Communications on 23 September 2023 by Taraborrelli, L., Şenbabaoğlu, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Microsatellite-stable colorectal cancer (MSS-CRC) is highly refractory to immunotherapy. Understanding tumor-intrinsic determinants of immunotherapy resistance is critical to improve MSS-CRC patient outcomes. Here, we demonstrate that high tumor expression of the core autophagy gene ATG16L1 is associated with poor clinical response to anti-PD-L1 therapy in KRAS-mutant tumors from IMblaze370 (NCT02788279), a large phase III clinical trial of atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1) in advanced metastatic MSS-CRC. Deletion of Atg16l1 in engineered murine colon cancer organoids inhibits tumor growth in primary (colon) and metastatic (liver and lung) niches in syngeneic female hosts, primarily due to increased sensitivity to IFN-γ-mediated immune pressure. ATG16L1 deficiency enhances programmed cell death of colon cancer organoids induced by IFN-γ and TNF, thus increasing their sensitivity to host immunity. In parallel, ATG16L1 deficiency reduces tumor stem-like populations in vivo independently of adaptive immune pressure. This work reveals autophagy as a clinically relevant mechanism of immune evasion and tumor fitness in MSS-CRC and provides a rationale for autophagy inhibition to boost immunotherapy responses in the clinic. © 2023. Springer Nature Limited.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Genetics
    Targeting nucleic acid sensors in tumor cells to reprogram biogenesis and RNA cargo of extracellular vesicles for T cell-mediated cancer immunotherapy.

    In Cell Reports Medicine on 19 September 2023 by Heidegger, S., Stritzke, F., et al.

    PubMed

    Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been associated with immune evasion and tumor progression. We show that the RNA-sensing receptor RIG-I within tumor cells governs biogenesis and immunomodulatory function of EVs. Cancer-intrinsic RIG-I activation releases EVs, which mediate dendritic cell maturation and T cell antitumor immunity, synergizing with immune checkpoint blockade. Intact RIG-I, autocrine interferon signaling, and the GTPase Rab27a in tumor cells are required for biogenesis of immunostimulatory EVs. Active intrinsic RIG-I signaling governs composition of the tumor EV RNA cargo including small non-coding stimulatory RNAs. High transcriptional activity of EV pathway genes and RIG-I in melanoma samples associate with prolonged patient survival and beneficial response to immunotherapy. EVs generated from human melanoma after RIG-I stimulation induce potent antigen-specific T cell responses. We thus define a molecular pathway that can be targeted in tumors to favorably alter EV immunomodulatory function. We propose "reprogramming" of tumor EVs as a personalized strategy for T cell-mediated cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Neutrophils modulate natural killer-mediated osteoclastogenesis during Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans (JP2 clone) infection.

    In IScience on 18 August 2023 by Halloun, B., Hashai, K., et al.

    PubMed

    The study investigates the interplay of neutrophils and natural-killer cells (NK) in mediating osseoresorption during infection of molar-incisor-pattern-periodontitis (MIPP). Human neutrophils from periodontally healthy and MIPP patients were inoculated with the periopathogen Aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans (JP2) and their supernatants were exposed to NK to study their function and osteoclastogenesis promotion. A mouse MIPP model was used to compare disease progression following NK versus neutrophils depletion. The exposure of primary NK to supernatants of neutrophils inoculated with JP2 led to NK cell arrest and activation with enhanced osteoprotegerin expression. Incubation of monocytes with NK led to osteoclastogenesis, whereas NK that were pre-exposed to healthy neutrophil supernatant showed reduced osteoclastogenesis. In mice, NK depletion led to the similar bone phenotype as the neutrophil's depletion highlighting their role on osseoprotection. The present study portrays a key crosstalk between neutrophils and NK cells during JP2 infection as a central mechanism that regulates bone loss. © 2023 The Authors.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Membrane-localized neoantigens predict the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.

    In Cell Reports Medicine on 15 August 2023 by Goldberger, Z., Hauert, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune checkpoint immunotherapy (ICI) can re-activate immune reactions against neoantigens, leading to remarkable remission in cancer patients. Nevertheless, only a minority of patients are responsive to ICI, and approaches for prediction of responsiveness are needed to improve the success of cancer treatments. While the tumor mutational burden (TMB) correlates positively with responsiveness and survival of patients undergoing ICI, the influence of the subcellular localizations of the neoantigens remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate in both a mouse melanoma model and human clinical datasets of 1,722 ICI-treated patients that a high proportion of membrane-localized neoantigens, particularly at the plasma membrane, correlate with responsiveness to ICI therapy and improved overall survival across multiple cancer types. We further show that combining membrane localization and TMB analyses can enhance the predictability of cancer patient response to ICI. Our results may have important implications for establishing future clinical guidelines to direct the choice of treatment toward ICI. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Selective targeting of IL2Rβγ combined with radiotherapy triggers CD8- and NK-mediated immunity, abrogating metastasis in HNSCC.

    In Cell Reports Medicine on 15 August 2023 by Gadwa, J., Amann, M., et al.

    PubMed

    The implementation of cancer immunotherapies has seen limited clinical success in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Interleukin-2 (IL-2), which modulates the survival and functionality of lymphocytes, is an attractive target for new immunotherapies but one that is limited by presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the high-affinity IL-2Rα. The bispecific immunocytokine PD1-IL2v preferentially delivers IL-2 signaling through IL-2Rβγ on PD-1-expressing cells. Selectively targeting the intermediate-affinity IL-2Rβγ can be leveraged to induce anti-tumor immune responses in effector T cells and natural killer (NK) cells while limiting the negative regulation of IL-2Rα activation on Tregs. Using radiation therapy (RT) in combination with PD1-IL2v improves local tumor control and survival, and controls metastatic spread in orthotopic HNSCC tumor models. PD1-IL2v drives systemic activation and expansion of circulating and tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells and NK cells while limiting Treg-mediated immunosuppression. These data show that PD1-L2v induces durable systemic tumor control in HNSCC. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cardiovascular biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Inhibition of NK1.1 signaling attenuates pressure overload-induced heart failure, and consequent pulmonary inflammation and remodeling.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 9 August 2023 by He, X., Xu, R., et al.

    PubMed

    Inflammation contributes to heart failure (HF) development, the progression from left ventricular failure to pulmonary remodeling, and the consequent right ventricular hypertrophy and failure. NK1.1 plays a critical role in Natural killer (NK) and NK T (NKT) cells, but the role of NK1.1 in HF development and progression is unknown. We studied the effects of NK1.1 inhibition on transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced cardiopulmonary inflammation, HF development, and HF progression in immunocompetent male mice of C57BL/6J background. We found that NK1.1+ cell-derived interferon gamma+ (IFN-γ+) was significantly increased in pulmonary tissues after HF. In addition, anti-NK1.1 antibodies simultaneously abolished both NK1.1+ cells, including the NK1.1+NK and NK1.1+NKT cells in peripheral blood, spleen, and lung tissues, but had no effect on cardiopulmonary structure and function under control conditions. However, systemic inhibition of NK1.1 signaling by anti-NK1.1 antibodies significantly rescued mice from TAC-induced left ventricular inflammation, fibrosis, and failure. Inhibition of NK1.1 signaling also significantly attenuated TAC-induced pulmonary leukocyte infiltration, fibrosis, vessel remodeling, and consequent right ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, inhibition of NK1.1 signaling significantly reduced TAC-induced pulmonary macrophage and dendritic cell infiltration and activation. Our data suggest that inhibition of NK1.1 signaling is effective in attenuating systolic overload-induced cardiac fibrosis, dysfunction, and consequent pulmonary remodeling in immunocompetent mice through modulating the cardiopulmonary inflammatory response. Copyright © 2023 He, Xu, Pan, Bhattarai, Liu, Zeng, Chen, Hall and Chen.

    • Cancer Research
    Natural Killer Cell Activation by Ubiquitin-specific Protease 6 Mediates Tumor Suppression in Ewing Sarcoma.

    In Cancer Res Commun on 1 August 2023 by Jain, K., Henrich, I. C., et al.

    PubMed

    Ewing sarcoma is a rare and deadly pediatric bone cancer for which survival rates and treatment options have stagnated for decades. Ewing sarcoma has not benefited from immunotherapy due to poor understanding of how its immune landscape is regulated. We recently reported that ubiquitin-specific protease 6 (USP6) functions as a tumor suppressor in Ewing sarcoma, and identified it as the first cell-intrinsic factor to modulate the Ewing sarcoma immune tumor microenvironment (TME). USP6 induces intratumoral infiltration and activation of multiple innate immune lineages in xenografted nude mice. Here we report that natural killer (NK) cells are essential for its tumor-inhibitory functions, as NK cell depletion reverses USP6-mediated suppression of Ewing sarcoma xenograft growth. USP6 expression in Ewing sarcoma cells directly stimulates NK cell activation and degranulation in vitro, and functions by increasing surface levels of multiple NK cell-activating ligands. USP6 also induces surface upregulation of the receptor for the apoptosis-inducing ligand tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), providing an additional route for enhanced sensitivity to NK cell killing. Furthermore, USP6-expressing Ewing sarcoma and NK cells participate in a paracrine immunostimulatory feedforward loop, wherein IFNγ secreted by activated NK cells feeds back on USP6/Ewing sarcoma cells to induce synergistic expression of chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10. Remarkably, expression of USP6 in subcutaneous Ewing sarcoma xenografts induces systemic activation and maturation of NK cells, and induces an abscopal response in which growth of distal tumors is inhibited, coincident with increased infiltration and activation of NK cells. This work reveals how USP6 reprograms the Ewing sarcoma TME to enhance antitumor immunity, and may be exploited for future therapeutic benefit. This study provides novel insights into the immunomodulatory functions of USP6, the only cancer cell-intrinsic factor demonstrated to regulate the immune TME in Ewing sarcoma. We demonstrate that USP6-mediated suppression of Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis is dependent on NK cells. USP6 directly activates NK cell cytolytic function, inducing both intratumoral and systemic activation of NK cells in an Ewing sarcoma xenograft model. © 2023 The Authors; Published by the American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Cancer Research
    Poly(I:C) Treatment Prevents Skin Tumor Formation in the Preclinical HPV8 Transgenic Mouse Model.

    In The Journal of Investigative Dermatology on 1 July 2023 by Hufbauer, M., Rattay, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Actinic keratoses and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas are associated with infections with human papillomavirus of genus beta (betaHPV) in immunosuppressed patients. To date, targeted therapy against betaHPV-associated skin cancer does not exist because of the large number of betaHPV without defined high-risk types. In this study, we hypothesized that the activation of innate antiviral immunity in the skin, asymptomatically infected with betaHPV, induces an antitumor response by in situ autovaccination and prevents the formation of betaHPV-associated skin cancer. To test this, we used the preclinical keratin-14-HPV8 transgenic mouse model, which develops skin tumors after mechanical wounding. Remarkably, treatment with the antiviral immune response activating polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly[I:C]) completely prevented cutaneous tumor growth. The induction of the IFN-induced genes Cxcl10 and Ifit1 by poly(I:C) depended on MDA5 activation. Increased numbers of total and activated CD4 and CD8 T cells were detected in poly(I:C)-treated skin. T cells were found in the skin of poly(I:C)-treated mice but not in the skin tumors of untreated mice. T-cell depletion showed a predominant role of CD4 T cells in poly(I:C)-mediated tumor prevention. Our findings identify the MDA5 ligand poly(I:C) as a promising candidate for in situ autovaccination approaches, which might serve as a treatment strategy against betaHPV-related skin diseases. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Transferrin Receptor is Required for CD4+ T Cell Iron-Dependent Response During AcuteToxoplasma gondiiInfection

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 30 June 2023 by Denton, S. L., Roy, T., et al.

    PubMed

    Elemental iron is an essential nutrient involved in many biological processes including infection and immunity. How iron impacts Toxoplasma gondii ( T. gondii ) in vivo and development of immunity during infection is unclear. We found that although iron is required for parasite proliferation in vitro, paradoxically, iron restriction in vivo increased parasite burdens during acute and persistent infection stages and decreased survival of mice. Iron restriction lowered IL-12 and IFNγ in spleen and serum, but ratios of myeloid cells and the number and function of Natural Killer cells were unchanged. Iron restriction significantly impaired the development of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to T. gondii during replicating type II and attenuated vaccine strain cps1-1 infection. Low iron conditions reduced the percent and absolute numbers of antigen experienced CD11a+CD49d+, functional IFNγ+, and CD62L-KLRG1+ effector T cells. Iron restriction also decreased vaccine efficacy of cps1-1 strain against secondary lethal challenge. Antigen experienced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells both upregulated their iron transporter Transferrin receptor 1 (CD71) during infection regardless of iron restriction. Mice whose CD4+ T cells were deficient in CD71 had reduced CD4+ T cell antigen experience and polyfunctionality, yet CD8+ T cell responses remained intact and their long term survival was not affected compared to wild type litter mate controls. This study highlights that iron acquisition by T cells is required for activation and vaccine induced long-term protection against T. gondii . Understanding how iron affects multiple immune compartments will be essential to define iron regulation of immunity to T. gondii .

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