InVivoMAb anti-mouse IL-6R

Catalog #BE0047
Product Citations:
34
Clone:
15A7
Reactivities:
Mouse

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Product Details

The 15A7 monoclonal antibody reacts with the mouse IL-6 receptor α chain also known as CD126. CD126 is an 80 kDa type I cytokine receptor and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD126 is expressed by activated T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, hepatocytes, and plasma cells. The IL-6 receptor α chain binds IL-6 but requires association with gp130 to initiate signal transduction. Upon IL-6 binding the IL-6R complex influences antigen-specific immune responses, inflammatory responses, neuronal development, and is a major mediator of the acute phase reaction. The 15A7 monoclonal antibody has been shown to block the binding of IL-6 to the IL-6 receptor.

Specifications

Isotype Rat IgG2b, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb rat IgG2b isotype control, anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen OKT-4 hybridoma cells
Reported Applications in vivo blocking of IL-6/IL-6R signaling
in vitro blocking of IL-6R signaling
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein A High Salt
RRID AB_1107588
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vivo blocking of IL-6/IL-6R signaling
Tsukamoto, H., et al. (2015). "IL-6-mediated environmental conditioning of defective Th1 differentiation dampens antitumour immune responses in old age" Nat Commun 6: 6702. PubMed

Decline in immune function and inflammation concomitantly develop with ageing. Here we focus on the impact of this inflammatory environment on T cells, and demonstrate that in contrast to successful tumour elimination in young mice, replenishment of tumour-specific CD4(+) T cells fails to induce tumour regression in aged hosts. The impaired antitumour effect of CD4(+) T cells with their defective Th1 differentiation in an aged environment is restored by interleukin (IL)-6 blockade or IL-6 deficiency. IL-6 blockade also restores the impaired ability of CD4(+) T cells to promote CD8(+) T-cell-dependent tumour elimination in aged mice, which requires IFN-gamma. Furthermore, IL-6-stimulated production of IL-4/IL-21 through c-Maf induction is responsible for impaired Th1 differentiation. IL-6 also contributes to IL-10 production from CD4(+) T cells in aged mice, causing attenuated responses of CD8(+) T cells. These findings suggest that IL-6 serves as an extrinsic factor counteracting CD4(+) T-cell-mediated immunity against tumour in old age.

in vivo blocking of IL-6/IL-6R signaling
Barber, D. L., et al. (2014). "Role of IL-6 in Mycobacterium avium–associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome" J Immunol 192(2): 676-682. PubMed

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a major adverse event of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection, and paradoxically occurs as HIV viremia is suppressed and CD4 T cell numbers recover. IRIS reflects pathogenic immune responses against opportunistic infections acquired during the period of immunodeficiency, but little is understood about the mechanisms of inflammatory pathology. In this study, we show that IL-6 and C-reactive protein levels transiently rise at the time of the IRIS event in HIV-infected patients, unmasking Mycobacterium avium complex infection after starting antiretroviral therapy. To directly test the role of IL-6 in IRIS pathology, we used a model of experimentally inducible IRIS in which M. avium-infected T cell-deficient mice undergo a fatal inflammatory disease after reconstitution with CD4 T cells. We find that IL-6 neutralization reduces C-reactive protein levels, alleviates wasting disease, and extends host survival during experimental IRIS. Moreover, we show that combined blockade of IL-6 and IFN-gamma further reduces IRIS pathology, even after the onset of wasting disease. The combination of these clinical and experimental-model data show that the IL-6 pathway is not only a biomarker of mycobacterial IRIS but also a major mediator of pathology distinct from IFN-gamma and may be a useful target for therapeutic intervention.

in vivo blocking of IL-6/IL-6R signaling, in vitro blocking of IL-6R signaling
Pham, D., et al. (2013). "The transcription factor Twist1 limits T helper 17 and T follicular helper cell development by repressing the gene encoding the interleukin-6 receptor alpha chain" J Biol Chem 288(38): 27423-27433. PubMed

Cytokine responsiveness is a critical component of the ability of cells to respond to the extracellular milieu. Transcription factor-mediated regulation of cytokine receptor expression is a common mode of altering responses to the external environment. We identify the transcription factor Twist1 as a component of a STAT3-induced feedback loop that controls IL-6 signals by directly repressing Il6ra. Human and mouse T cells lacking Twist1 have an increased ability to differentiate into Th17 cells. Mice with a T cell-specific deletion of Twist1 demonstrate increased Th17 and T follicular helper cell development, early onset experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and increased antigen-specific antibody responses. Thus, Twist1 has a critical role in limiting both cell-mediated and humoral immunity.

in vivo blocking of IL-6/IL-6R signaling
Markey, K. A., et al. (2012). "Immune insufficiency during GVHD is due to defective antigen presentation within dendritic cell subsets" Blood 119(24): 5918-5930. PubMed

Alloreactivity after transplantation is associated with profound immune suppression, and consequent opportunistic infection results in high morbidity and mortality. This immune suppression is most profound during GVHD after bone marrow transplantation where an inflammatory cytokine storm dominates. Contrary to current dogma, which avers that this is a T-cell defect, we demonstrate that the impairment lies within conventional dendritic cells (cDCs). Significantly, exogenous antigens can only be presented by the CD8(-) cDC subset after bone marrow transplantation, and inflammation during GVHD specifically renders the MHC class II presentation pathway in this population incompetent. In contrast, both classic and cross-presentation within MHC class I remain largely intact. Importantly, this defect in antigen processing can be partially reversed by TNF inhibition or the adoptive transfer of donor cDCs generated in the absence of inflammation.

in vitro blocking of IL-6R signaling
Piconese, S., et al. (2009). "Mast cells counteract regulatory T-cell suppression through interleukin-6 and OX40/OX40L axis toward Th17-cell differentiation" Blood 114(13): 2639-2648. PubMed

The development of inflammatory diseases implies inactivation of regulatory T (Treg) cells through mechanisms that still are largely unknown. Here we showed that mast cells (MCs), an early source of inflammatory mediators, are able to counteract Treg inhibition over effector T cells. To gain insight into the molecules involved in their interplay, we set up an in vitro system in which all 3 cellular components were put in contact. Reversal of Treg suppression required T cell-derived interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the OX40/OX40L axis. In the presence of activated MCs, concomitant abundance of IL-6 and paucity of Th1/Th2 cytokines skewed Tregs and effector T cells into IL-17-producing T cells (Th17). In vivo analysis of lymph nodes hosting T-cell priming in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis revealed activated MCs, Tregs, and Th17 cells displaying tight spatial interactions, further supporting the occurrence of an MC-mediated inhibition of Treg suppression in the establishment of Th17-mediated inflammatory responses.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Regulatory T cells require IL6 receptor alpha signaling to control skeletal muscle function and regeneration.

    In Cell Metabolism on 3 October 2023 by Becker, M., Joseph, S. S., et al.

    PubMed

    Muscle-residing regulatory T cells (Tregs) control local tissue integrity and function. However, the molecular interface connecting Treg-based regulation with muscle function and regeneration remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that exercise fosters a stable induction of highly functional muscle-residing Tregs with increased expression of amphiregulin (Areg), EGFR, and ST2. Mechanistically, we find that mice lacking IL6Rα on T cells (TKO) harbor significant reductions in muscle Treg functionality and satellite and fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells, which are required for muscle regeneration. Using exercise and sarcopenia models, IL6Rα TKO mice demonstrate deficits in Tregs, their functional maturation, and a more pronounced decline in muscle mass. Muscle injury models indicate that IL6Rα TKO mice have significant disabilities in muscle regeneration. Treg gain of function restores impaired muscle repair in IL6Rα TKO mice. Of note, pharmacological IL6R blockade in WT mice phenocopies deficits in muscle function identified in IL6Rα TKO mice, thereby highlighting the clinical implications of the findings. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    TLR7 activation at epithelial barriers promotes emergency myelopoiesis and lung antiviral immunity.

    In eLife on 11 August 2023 by Jackson, W. D., Giacomassi, C., et al.

    PubMed

    Monocytes are heterogeneous innate effector leukocytes generated in the bone marrow and released into circulation in a CCR2-dependent manner. During infection or inflammation, myelopoiesis is modulated to rapidly meet the demand for more effector cells. Danger signals from peripheral tissues can influence this process. Herein we demonstrate that repetitive TLR7 stimulation via the epithelial barriers drove a potent emergency bone marrow monocyte response in mice. This process was unique to TLR7 activation and occurred independently of the canonical CCR2 and CX3CR1 axes or prototypical cytokines. The monocytes egressing the bone marrow had an immature Ly6C-high profile and differentiated into vascular Ly6C-low monocytes and tissue macrophages in multiple organs. They displayed a blunted cytokine response to further TLR7 stimulation and reduced lung viral load after RSV and influenza virus infection. These data provide insights into the emergency myelopoiesis likely to occur in response to the encounter of single-stranded RNA viruses at barrier sites. © 2023, Jackson, Giacomassi et al.

    Blockade of IL-6 signaling alleviates atherosclerosis in Tet2-deficient clonal hematopoiesis.

    In Nat Cardiovasc Res on 1 June 2023 by Liu, W., Yalcinkaya, M., et al.

    PubMed

    Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) increases the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease possibly due to increased plaque inflammation. Human studies suggest that limitation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling could be beneficial in people with large CH clones, particularly in TET2 CH. Here we show that IL-6 receptor antibody treatment reverses the atherosclerosis promoted by Tet2 CH, with reduction of monocytosis, lesional macrophage burden and macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) expression. IL-6 induces expression of Csf1r in Tet2-deficient macrophages through enhanced STAT3 binding to its promoter. In mouse and human Tet2-deficient macrophages, IL-6 increases CSF1R expression and enhances macrophage survival. Treatment with the CSF1R inhibitor PLX3397 reversed accelerated atherosclerosis in Tet2 CH mice. Our study demonstrates the causality of IL-6 signaling in Tet2 CH accelerated atherosclerosis, identifies IL-6-induced CSF1R expression as a critical mechanism and supports blockade of IL-6 signaling as a potential therapy for CH-driven cardiovascular disease.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    Interleukin-6 trans-signalling in hippocampal CA1 neurones mediates perioperative neurocognitive disorders in mice.

    In BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia on 1 December 2022 by Hu, J., Zhang, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pleiotropic cytokine with both degenerative and regenerative properties, is necessary and sufficient to provoke perioperative neurocognitive disorders after aseptic trauma in mice. IL-6 initiates its actions after binding to either membrane-bound IL-6 receptor α (mIL-6Rα) through classical signalling, or soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) through trans-signalling; both signalling pathways require the transducer gp130. We investigated the site and type of IL-6 signalling that pertains in a tibial fracture aseptic trauma model of perioperative neurocognitive disorder. Wild-type or genetically altered adult mice that lacked molecules unique to either classical or trans-IL-6 signalling underwent tibial fracture under isoflurane anaesthesia. In separate cohorts, we assessed postoperative memory using a trace fear conditioning paradigm (72 h postoperatively), and post-receptor IL-6 signalling (24 h postoperatively) using phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) in CA1 hippocampal neurones. Fracture healing was assessed at postoperative day 15 after inhibiting either both forms of IL-6 signalling with BE0047 or only trans-signalling with sgp130Fc. The surgical phenotype of memory decline (decrease in freezing in trace fear conditioning) and upregulated IL-6 signalling (pSTAT3) did not occur after pretreatment before surgery with either BE0047 or sgp130Fc, or after depleting gp130 from CA1 neurones. The surgical phenotype still occurred when IL-6Rα was depleted in either CA1 hippocampal neurones (freezing time, 38.9% [11.5%] vs 58.4% [12.3%]; pSTAT+ CA1 neurones, 31.7 [4.9] vs 7.0 [3.1]) or microglia (freezing time, 40.1% [13.9%] vs 65.2% [12.6%]; pSTAT+ CA1 neurones, 30.1 [5.5] vs 7.9 [3.2]). In global IL-6Rα-/- mice, hyper-IL-6, the trans-signalling agonist, produced the surgical phenotype when administered i.c.v. (freezing time, 42.4% [8.8%] vs 59.7% [10.4%]; pSTAT+ cells, 29.3 [4.3] vs 10.0 [4.4]). Bone-fracture healing (% of fracture callus comprised of new collagen) was significantly greater with sgp130Fc than with BE0047 (52.2% [8.3%] vs 39.7% [7.9%]). After orthopaedic trauma, IL-6 produces perioperative neurocognitive disorders through IL-6 trans-signalling in mouse CA1 neurones. Druggable targets of the trans-signalling pathway should be sought to reduce perioperative neurocognitive disorders while allowing the healing properties of classical IL-6 signalling. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    Astrocyte immunometabolic regulation of the tumour microenvironment drives glioblastoma pathogenicity.

    In Brain on 14 September 2022 by Perelroizen, R., Philosof, B., et al.

    PubMed

    Malignant brain tumours are the cause of a disproportionate level of morbidity and mortality among cancer patients, an unfortunate statistic that has remained constant for decades. Despite considerable advances in the molecular characterization of these tumours, targeting the cancer cells has yet to produce significant advances in treatment. An alternative strategy is to target cells in the glioblastoma microenvironment, such as tumour-associated astrocytes. Astrocytes control multiple processes in health and disease, ranging from maintaining the brain's metabolic homeostasis, to modulating neuroinflammation. However, their role in glioblastoma pathogenicity is not well understood. Here we report that depletion of reactive astrocytes regresses glioblastoma and prolongs mouse survival. Analysis of the tumour-associated astrocyte translatome revealed astrocytes initiate transcriptional programmes that shape the immune and metabolic compartments in the glioma microenvironment. Specifically, their expression of CCL2 and CSF1 governs the recruitment of tumour-associated macrophages and promotes a pro-tumourigenic macrophage phenotype. Concomitantly, we demonstrate that astrocyte-derived cholesterol is key to glioma cell survival, and that targeting astrocytic cholesterol efflux, via ABCA1, halts tumour progression. In summary, astrocytes control glioblastoma pathogenicity by reprogramming the immunological properties of the tumour microenvironment and supporting the non-oncogenic metabolic dependency of glioblastoma on cholesterol. These findings suggest that targeting astrocyte immunometabolic signalling may be useful in treating this uniformly lethal brain tumour. © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Selective suppression of melanoma lacking IFN-γ pathway by JAK inhibition depends on T cells and host TNF signaling.

    In Nature Communications on 25 August 2022 by Shen, H., Huang, F., et al.

    PubMed

    Therapeutic resistance to immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) in melanoma patients is a pressing issue, of which tumor loss of IFN-γ signaling genes is a major underlying mechanism. However, strategies of overcoming this resistance mechanism have been largely elusive. Moreover, given the indispensable role of tumor-infiltrating T cells (TILs) in ICBs, little is known about how tumor-intrinsic loss of IFN-γ signaling (IFNγR1KO) impacts TILs. Here, we report that IFNγR1KO melanomas have reduced infiltration and function of TILs. IFNγR1KO melanomas harbor a network of constitutively active protein tyrosine kinases centered on activated JAK1/2. Mechanistically, JAK1/2 activation is mediated by augmented mTOR. Importantly, JAK1/2 inhibition with Ruxolitinib selectively suppresses the growth of IFNγR1KO but not scrambled control melanomas, depending on T cells and host TNF. Together, our results reveal an important role of tumor-intrinsic IFN-γ signaling in shaping TILs and manifest a targeted therapy to bypass ICB resistance of melanomas defective of IFN-γ signaling. © 2022. The Author(s).

    Interleukin-6-dependent epithelial fluidization initiates fibrotic lung remodeling.

    In Science Translational Medicine on 20 July 2022 by Stancil, I. T., Michalski, J. E., et al.

    PubMed

    Chronic disease results from the failure of tissues to maintain homeostasis. In the lung, coordinated repair of the epithelium is essential for preserving homeostasis. In animal models and human lung disease, airway epithelial cells mobilize in response to lung injury, resulting in the formation of airway-like cysts with persistent loss of functional cell types and parenchymal architecture. Using live-cell imaging of human lung epithelial cultures and mouse precision-cut lung slices, we demonstrated that distal airway epithelia are aberrantly fluidized both after injury and in fibrotic lung disease. Through transcriptomic profiling and pharmacologic stimulation of epithelial cultures, we identified interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling as a driver of tissue fluidization. This signaling cascade occurred independently of canonical Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling but instead was dependent on a downstream SRC family kinase (SFK)-yes-associated protein (YAP) axis. Airway epithelial-fibroblast cocultures revealed that the fibrotic mesenchyme acts as a source of IL-6 family cytokines, which drive airway fluidization. Inhibition of the IL-6-SFK-YAP cascade was sufficient to prevent fluidization in both in vitro and ex vivo models. Last, we demonstrated a reduction in fibrotic lung remodeling in mice through genetic or pharmacologic targeting of IL-6-related signaling. Together, our findings illustrate the critical role of airway epithelial fluidization in coordinating the balance between homeostatic lung repair and fibrotic airspace remodeling.

    • Neuroscience
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    An Intercellular Flow of Glutathione Regulated by Interleukin 6 Links Astrocytes and the Liver in the Pathophysiology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    In Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) on 16 December 2021 by López-Blanch, R., Salvador-Palmer, R., et al.

    PubMed

    Oxidative stress has been proposed as a major mechanism of damage to motor neurons associated with the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Astrocytes are the most numerous glial cells in the central nervous system and, under physiological conditions, protect neurons from oxidative damage. However, it is uncertain how their reactive phenotype may affect motor neurons during ALS progression. In two different ALS mouse models (SOD1G93A and FUS-R521C), we found that increased levels of proinflammatory interleukin 6 facilitate glutathione (GSH) release from the liver to blood circulation, which can reach the astrocytes and be channeled towards motor neurons as a mechanism of antioxidant protection. Nevertheless, although ALS progression is associated with an increase in GSH efflux from astrocytes, generation of reactive oxygen species also increases, suggesting that as the disease progresses, astrocyte-derived oxidative stress could be key to motor-neuron damage.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Microenvironmental IL-6 inhibits anti-cancer immune responses generated by cytotoxic chemotherapy.

    In Nature Communications on 28 October 2021 by Bent, E. H., Millán-Barea, L. R., et al.

    PubMed

    Cytotoxic chemotherapeutics primarily function through DNA damage-induced tumor cell apoptosis, although the inflammation provoked by these agents can stimulate anti-cancer immune responses. The mechanisms that control these distinct effects and limit immunogenic responses to DNA-damage mediated cell death in vivo are currently unclear. Using a mouse model of BCR-ABL+ B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, we show that chemotherapy-induced anti-cancer immunity is suppressed by the tumor microenvironment through production of the cytokine IL-6. The chemotherapeutic doxorubicin is curative in IL-6-deficient mice through the induction of CD8+ T-cell-mediated anti-cancer responses, while moderately extending lifespan in wild type tumor-bearing mice. We also show that IL-6 suppresses the effectiveness of immune-checkpoint inhibition with anti-PD-L1 blockade. Our results suggest that IL-6 is a key regulator of anti-cancer immune responses induced by genotoxic stress and that its inhibition can switch cancer cell clearance from primarily apoptotic to immunogenic, promoting and maintaining durable anti-tumor immune responses. © 2021. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cardiovascular biology
    • ,
    • Stem Cells and Developmental Biology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Tumor-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier promotes host death.

    In Developmental Cell on 11 October 2021 by Kim, J., Chuang, H. C., et al.

    PubMed

    Cancer patients often die from symptoms that manifest at a distance from any tumor. Mechanisms underlying these systemic physiological perturbations, called paraneoplastic syndromes, may benefit from investigation in non-mammalian systems. Using a non-metastatic Drosophila adult model, we find that malignant-tumor-produced cytokines drive widespread host activation of JAK-STAT signaling and cause premature lethality. STAT activity is particularly high in cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), where it induces aberrant BBB permeability. Remarkably, inhibiting STAT in the BBB not only rescues barrier function but also extends the lifespan of tumor-bearing hosts. We identify BBB damage in other pathological conditions that cause elevated inflammatory signaling, including obesity and infection, where BBB permeability also regulates host survival. IL-6-dependent BBB dysfunction is further seen in a mouse tumor model, and it again promotes host morbidity. Therefore, BBB alterations constitute a conserved lethal tumor-host interaction that also underlies other physiological morbidities. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Stem Cells and Developmental Biology
    Exosomes from primed MSCs can educate monocytes as a cellular therapy for hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome.

    In Stem Cell Research & Therapy on 18 August 2021 by Forsberg, M. H., Kink, J. A., et al.

    PubMed

    Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is caused by acute exposure to ionizing radiation that damages multiple organ systems but especially the bone marrow (BM). We have previously shown that human macrophages educated with exosomes from human BM-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prolonged survival in a xenogeneic lethal ARS model. The purpose of this study was to determine if exosomes from LPS-primed MSCs could directly educate human monocytes (LPS-EEMos) for the treatment of ARS. Human monocytes were educated by exosomes from LPS-primed MSCs and compared to monocytes educated by unprimed MSCs (EEMos) and uneducated monocytes to assess survival and clinical improvement in a xenogeneic mouse model of ARS. Changes in surface molecule expression of exosomes and monocytes after education were determined by flow cytometry, while gene expression was determined by qPCR. Irradiated human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were co-cultured with LPS-EEMos, EEMos, or uneducated monocytes to assess effects on HSC survival and proliferation. LPS priming of MSCs led to the production of exosomes with increased expression of CD9, CD29, CD44, CD146, and MCSP. LPS-EEMos showed increases in gene expression of IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, IDO, and FGF-2 as compared to EEMos generated from unprimed MSCs. Generation of LPS-EEMos induced a lower percentage of CD14+ monocyte subsets that were CD16+, CD73+, CD86+, or CD206+ but a higher percentage of PD-L1+ cells. LPS-EEMos infused 4 h after lethal irradiation significantly prolonged survival, reducing clinical scores and weight loss as compared to controls. Complete blood counts from LPS-EEMo-treated mice showed enhanced hematopoietic recovery post-nadir. IL-6 receptor blockade completely abrogated the radioprotective survival benefit of LPS-EEMos in vivo in female NSG mice, but only loss of hematopoietic recovery was noted in male NSG mice. PD-1 blockade had no effect on survival. Furthermore, LPS-EEMos also showed benefits in vivo when administered 24 h, but not 48 h, after lethal irradiation. Co-culture of unprimed EEMos or LPS-EEMos with irradiated human CD34+ HSCs led to increased CD34+ proliferation and survival, suggesting hematopoietic recovery may be seen clinically. LPS-EEMos are a potential counter-measure for hematopoietic ARS, with a reduced biomanufacturing time that facilitates hematopoiesis. © 2021. The Author(s).

    • Cardiovascular biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Viral coinfection promotes tuberculosis immunopathogenesis by type I IFN signaling-dependent impediment of Th1 pulmonary influx

    Preprint on Research Square on 23 June 2021 by Shin, S. J., Kang, T. G., et al.

    PubMed

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is often exacerbated upon coinfection, but the underlying immunological mechanisms remain unclear. Here, to elucidate these mechanisms, we used a Mtb and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus coinfection model. Viral coinfection significantly suppressed Mtb-specific IFN-γ production, with elevated bacterial loads and hyperinflammation in the lungs. Type I IFN signaling blockade rescued the Mtb-specific IFN-γ response and ameliorated lung immunopathology. Single-cell sequencing, tissue immunofluorescence staining, and adoptive transfer experiments revealed that type I IFN signaling produced in response to viral infection inhibited CXCL9/10 production in myeloid cells, resulting in impaired pulmonary migration of Mtb-specific CD4 + T cells from lymph nodes. Thus, virus coinfection-induced type I IFN signaling prior to the pulmonary localization of Mtb-specific Th1 cells exacerbates TB immunopathogenesis by impeding the Mtb-specific Th1 cell influx. Our study highlights another novel negative role of viral coinfection and/or type I IFNs in delaying Mtb-specific Th1 responses in the lung.

    • FC/FACS
    • ,
    • Homo sapiens (Human)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Notch4 signaling limits regulatory T-cell-mediated tissue repair and promotes severe lung inflammation in viral infections.

    In Immunity on 8 June 2021 by Harb, H., Benamar, M., et al.

    PubMed

    A cardinal feature of COVID-19 is lung inflammation and respiratory failure. In a prospective multi-country cohort of COVID-19 patients, we found that increased Notch4 expression on circulating regulatory T (Treg) cells was associated with disease severity, predicted mortality, and declined upon recovery. Deletion of Notch4 in Treg cells or therapy with anti-Notch4 antibodies in conventional and humanized mice normalized the dysregulated innate immunity and rescued disease morbidity and mortality induced by a synthetic analog of viral RNA or by influenza H1N1 virus. Mechanistically, Notch4 suppressed the induction by interleukin-18 of amphiregulin, a cytokine necessary for tissue repair. Protection by Notch4 inhibition was recapitulated by therapy with Amphiregulin and, reciprocally, abrogated by its antagonism. Amphiregulin declined in COVID-19 subjects as a function of disease severity and Notch4 expression. Thus, Notch4 expression on Treg cells dynamically restrains amphiregulin-dependent tissue repair to promote severe lung inflammation, with therapeutic implications for COVID-19 and related infections. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Pharmacology
    Anti-IL-6 Versus Anti-IL-6R Blocking Antibodies to Treat Acute Ebola Infection in BALB/c Mice: Potential Implications for Treating Cytokine Release Syndrome.

    In Frontiers in Pharmacology on 20 October 2020 by Rubsamen, R., Burkholz, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is known to be a factor in morbidity and mortality associated with acute viral infections including those caused by filoviruses and coronaviruses. IL-6 has been implicated as a cytokine negatively associated with survival after filovirus and coronavirus infection. However, IL-6 has also been shown to be an important mediator of innate immunity and important for the host response to an acute viral infection. Clinical studies are now being conducted by various researchers to evaluate the possible role of IL-6 blockers to improve outcomes in critically ill patients with CRS. Most of these studies involve the use of anti-IL-6R monoclonal antibodies (α-IL-6R mAbs). We present data showing that direct neutralization of IL-6 with an α-IL-6 mAb in a BALB/c Ebolavirus (EBOV) challenge model produced a statistically significant improvement in outcome compared with controls when administered within the first 24 h of challenge and repeated every 72 h. A similar effect was seen in mice treated with the same dose of α-IL-6R mAb when the treatment was delayed 48 h post-challenge. These data suggest that direct neutralization of IL-6, early during the course of infection, may provide additional clinical benefits to IL-6 receptor blockade alone during treatment of patients with virus-induced CRS. Copyright © 2020 Rubsamen, Burkholz, Massey, Brasel, Hodge, Wang, Herst, Carback and Harris.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    IL6 Fuels Durable Memory for Th17 Cell-Mediated Responses to Tumors.

    In Cancer Research on 15 September 2020 by Knochelmann, H. M., Dwyer, C. J., et al.

    PubMed

    The accessibility of adoptive T-cell transfer therapies (ACT) is hindered by the cost and time required for product development. Here we describe a streamlined ACT protocol using Th17 cells expanded only 4 days ex vivo. While shortening expansion compromised cell yield, this method licensed Th17 cells to eradicate large tumors to a greater extent than cells expanded longer term. Day 4 Th17 cells engrafted, induced release of multiple cytokines including IL6, IL17, MCP-1, and GM-CSF in the tumor-bearing host, and persisted as memory cells. IL6 was a critical component for efficacy of these therapies via its promotion of long-term immunity and resistance to tumor relapse. Mechanistically, IL6 diminished engraftment of FoxP3+ donor T cells, corresponding with robust tumor infiltration by donor effector over regulatory cells for the Day 4 Th17 cell product relative to cell products expanded longer durations ex vivo. Collectively, this work describes a method to rapidly generate therapeutic T-cell products for ACT and implicates IL6 in promoting durable immunity of Th17 cells against large, established solid tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: An abbreviated, 4-day ex vivo expansion method licenses Th17 cells to confer long-lived immunity against solid malignancies via induction of systemic IL6 in the host.See related commentary by Fiering and Ho, p. 3795. ©2020 American Association for Cancer Research.

    Origin and Function of Stress-Induced IL-6 in Murine Models.

    In Cell on 23 July 2020 by Qing, H., Desrouleaux, R., et al.

    PubMed

    Acute psychological stress has long been known to decrease host fitness to inflammation in a wide variety of diseases, but how this occurs is incompletely understood. Using mouse models, we show that interleukin-6 (IL-6) is the dominant cytokine inducible upon acute stress alone. Stress-inducible IL-6 is produced from brown adipocytes in a beta-3-adrenergic-receptor-dependent fashion. During stress, endocrine IL-6 is the required instructive signal for mediating hyperglycemia through hepatic gluconeogenesis, which is necessary for anticipating and fueling "fight or flight" responses. This adaptation comes at the cost of enhancing mortality to a subsequent inflammatory challenge. These findings provide a mechanistic understanding of the ontogeny and adaptive purpose of IL-6 as a bona fide stress hormone coordinating systemic immunometabolic reprogramming. This brain-brown fat-liver axis might provide new insights into brown adipose tissue as a stress-responsive endocrine organ and mechanistic insight into targeting this axis in the treatment of inflammatory and neuropsychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Anti-IL-6 i>versus/i> Anti-IL-6R Blocking Antibodies to Treat Acute Ebola Infection in BALB/c Mice: Potential Implications for Treating Cytokine Release Syndrome

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 21 June 2020 by Rubsamen, R., Burkholz, S., et al.

    PubMed

    h4>ABSTRACT/h4> Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is known to be a factor in morbidity and mortality associated with acute viral infections including those caused by filoviruses and coronaviruses. IL-6 has been implicated as a cytokine negatively associated with survival after filovirus and coronavirus infection. However, IL-6 has also been shown to be an important mediator of innate immunity and important for the host response to an acute viral infection. Clinical studies are now being conducted by various researchers to evaluate the possible role of IL-6 blockers to improve outcomes in critically ill patients with CRS. Most of these studies involve the use of anti-IL-6R monoclonal antibodies (α-IL-6R mAbs). We present data showing that direct neutralization of IL-6 with an α-IL-6 mAb in a BALB/c Ebolavirus (EBOV) challenge model produced a statistically significant improvement in outcome compared with controls when administered within the first 24 hours of challenge and repeated every 72 hours. A similar effect was seen in mice treated with the same dose of α-IL-6R mAb when the treatment was delayed 48 hrs post-challenge. These data suggest that direct neutralization of IL-6, early during the course of infection, may provide additional clinical benefits to IL-6 receptor blockade alone during treatment of patients with virus-induced CRS.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Toxicity Induced by a Bispecific T Cell-Redirecting Protein Is Mediated by Both T Cells and Myeloid Cells in Immunocompetent Mice.

    In The Journal of Immunology on 1 June 2020 by Godbersen-Palmer, C., Coupet, T. A., et al.

    PubMed

    Bispecific T cell engagers have demonstrated clinical efficacy; however, their use can be accompanied by severe toxicity. Mechanistic understanding of these toxicities is limited by a lack of suitable immunocompetent preclinical models. In this study, we describe an immunocompetent mouse tumor model that exhibits bispecific T cell engager-induced toxicity and recapitulates key features similar to those in human cytokine release syndrome. In this study, toxicity occurred between the second and fourth injections of an NK Group 2D bispecific T cell engager protein. Symptoms were transient, peaking 3-4 h after treatment and resolving by 8 h. Mice developed weight loss, elevated plasma cytokines, a significant reduction in spleen white pulp, and lymphocyte infiltration in the liver. Systemic cellular immune changes also occurred; notably, an increase in CD8+ T cell activation, an increase in myeloid cells in the blood, and a population of Ly-6Cint monocytes (CD11b+Ly-6G-F4/80-) emerged in the liver and spleens of bispecific protein-treated mice. IFN-γ was primarily produced by CD8+ T cells in the spleen and was required for the observed changes in both T cell and myeloid populations. Rag deficiency, IFN-γ deficiency, or depletion of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells prevented toxicity, whereas perforin deficiency, GM-CSF deficiency, or modulation of the myeloid population through clodronate-mediated depletion showed a partial abrogation of toxicity. Together, these findings reveal that T cell activation by a bispecific T cell engager leads to changes in the host myeloid cell population, both of which contribute to treatment induced toxicity in immunocompetent mice. Copyright © 2020 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Chikungunya virus replication in skeletal muscle cells is required for disease development.

    In The Journal of Clinical Investigation on 2 March 2020 by Lentscher, A. J., McCarthy, M. K., et al.

    PubMed

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus capable of causing a severe and often debilitating rheumatic syndrome in humans. CHIKV replicates in a wide variety of cell types in mammals, which has made attributing pathologic outcomes to replication at specific sites difficult. To assess the contribution of CHIKV replication in skeletal muscle cells to pathogenesis, we engineered a CHIKV strain exhibiting restricted replication in these cells via incorporation of target sequences for skeletal muscle cell-specific miR-206. This virus, which we term SKE, displayed diminished replication in skeletal muscle cells in a mouse model of CHIKV disease. Mice infected with SKE developed less severe disease signs, including diminished swelling in the inoculated foot and less necrosis and inflammation in the interosseous muscles. SKE infection was associated with diminished infiltration of T cells into the interosseous muscle as well as decreased production of Il1b, Il6, Ip10, and Tnfa transcripts. Importantly, blockade of the IL-6 receptor led to diminished swelling of a control CHIKV strain capable of replication in skeletal muscle, reducing swelling to levels observed in mice infected with SKE. These data implicate replication in skeletal muscle cells and release of IL-6 as important mediators of CHIKV disease.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Inhibition of IL-2 responsiveness by IL-6 is required for the generation of GC-TFH cells.

    In Science Immunology on 13 September 2019 by Papillion, A., Powell, M. D., et al.

    PubMed

    Sustained T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation is required for maintaining germinal center T follicular helper (GC-TFH) cells. Paradoxically, TCR activation induces interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression and IL-2 production, thereby initiating a feedback loop of IL-2 signaling that normally inhibits TFH cells. It is unclear how GC-TFH cells can receive prolonged TCR signaling without succumbing to the detrimental effects of IL-2. Using an influenza infection model, we show here that GC-TFH cells secreted large amounts of IL-2 but responded poorly to it. To maintain their IL-2 hyporesponsiveness, GC-TFH cells required intrinsic IL-6 signaling. Mechanistically, we found that IL-6 inhibited up-regulation of IL-2Rβ (CD122) by preventing association of STAT5 with the Il2rb locus, thus allowing GC-TFH cells to receive sustained TCR signaling and produce IL-2 without initiating a TCR/IL-2 inhibitory feedback loop. Collectively, our results identify a regulatory mechanism that controls the generation of GC-TFH cells. Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

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