InVivoMAb anti-mouse IL-2

Catalog #BE0042
Product Citations:
14
Clone:
JES6-5H4
Reactivities:
Mouse

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Product Details

The JES6-5H4 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse IL-2, a 17 kDa cytokine that is mainly produced by T cells in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation. IL-2 is required for T cell proliferation and other activities crucial to the regulation of immunity. The cytokine can also stimulate the growth and differentiation of B cells, monocytes/macrophages, and NK cells. Additionally, IL-2 prevents autoimmune diseases by promoting the differentiation of certain immature T cells into regulatory T cells. The JES6-5H4 antibody has been shown to neutralize IL-2 in vivo.

Specifications

Isotype Rat IgG2b, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb rat IgG2b isotype control, anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen Recombinant mouse IL-2
Reported Applications in vivo IL-2 neutralization
in vitro IL-2 neutralization
in vivo IL-2 receptor stimulation (as a complex with IL-2)
ELISPOT
Flow cytometry
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107703
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vivo IL-2 neutralization
Villegas-Mendez, A., et al. (2015). "Parasite-specific CD4+IFN-gamma+IL-10+ T cells distribute within both lymphoid and non-lymphoid compartments and are controlled systemically by IL-27 and ICOS during blood-stage malaria infection" Infect Immun. pii : IAI.01100-15. PubMed

Immune-mediated pathology in IL-10 deficient mice during blood-stage malaria infection typically manifests in non-lymphoid organs, such as the liver and lung. Thus, it is critical to define the cellular sources of IL-10 in these sensitive non-lymphoid compartments during infection. Moreover, it is important to determine if IL-10 production is controlled through conserved or disparate molecular programmes in distinct anatomical locations during malaria infection, as this may enable spatiotemporal tuning of the regulatory immune response. In this study, using dual IFN-gamma-YFP and IL-10-GFP reporter mice we show that CD4+YFP+ T cells are the major source of IL-10 in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid compartments throughout the course of blood-stage P. yoelii infection. Mature splenic CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells, which preferentially expressed high levels of CCR5, were capable of migrating to and seeding the non-lymphoid tissues, indicating that the systemically distributed host-protective cells have a common developmental history. Despite exhibiting comparable phenotypes, CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells from the liver and lung produced significantly higher quantities of IL-10 than their splenic counterparts, showing that the CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells exert graded functions in distinct tissue locations during infection. Unexpectedly, given the unique environmental conditions within discrete non-lymphoid and lymphoid organs, we show that IL-10 production by CD4+YFP+ T cells is controlled systemically during malaria infection through IL-27R signalling that is supported post-CD4+ T cell priming by ICOS signalling. The results in this study substantially improve our understanding of the systemic IL-10 response to malaria infection, particularly within sensitive non-lymphoid organs.

in vivo IL-2 receptor stimulation (as a complex with IL-2)
Srivastava, S., et al. (2014). "Type I interferons directly inhibit regulatory T cells to allow optimal antiviral T cell responses during acute LCMV infection" J Exp Med 211(5): 961-974. PubMed

Regulatory T (T reg) cells play an essential role in preventing autoimmunity but can also impair clearance of foreign pathogens. Paradoxically, signals known to promote T reg cell function are abundant during infection and could inappropriately enhance T reg cell activity. How T reg cell function is restrained during infection to allow the generation of effective antiviral responses remains largely unclear. We demonstrate that the potent antiviral type I interferons (IFNs) directly inhibit co-stimulation-dependent T reg cell activation and proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo during acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Loss of the type I IFN receptor specifically in T reg cells results in functional impairment of virus-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells and inefficient viral clearance. Together, these data demonstrate that inhibition of T reg cells by IFNs is necessary for the generation of optimal antiviral T cell responses during acute LCMV infection.

in vivo IL-2 neutralization
Gwyer Findlay, E., et al. (2013). "IL-27 receptor signaling regulates CD4+ T cell chemotactic responses during infection" J Immunol 190(9): 4553-4561. PubMed

IL-27 exerts pleiotropic suppressive effects on naive and effector T cell populations during infection and inflammation. Surprisingly, however, the role of IL-27 in restricting or shaping effector CD4(+) T cell chemotactic responses, as a mechanism to reduce T cell-dependent tissue inflammation, is unknown. In this study, using Plasmodium berghei NK65 as a model of a systemic, proinflammatory infection, we demonstrate that IL-27R signaling represses chemotaxis of infection-derived splenic CD4(+) T cells in response to the CCR5 ligands, CCL4 and CCL5. Consistent with these observations, CCR5 was expressed on significantly higher frequencies of splenic CD4(+) T cells from malaria-infected, IL-27R-deficient (WSX-1(-/-)) mice than from infected wild-type mice. We find that IL-27 signaling suppresses splenic CD4(+) T cell CCR5-dependent chemotactic responses during infection by restricting CCR5 expression on CD4(+) T cell subtypes, including Th1 cells, and also by controlling the overall composition of the CD4(+) T cell compartment. Diminution of the Th1 response in infected WSX-1(-/-) mice in vivo by neutralization of IL-12p40 attenuated CCR5 expression by infection-derived CD4(+) T cells and also reduced splenic CD4(+) T cell chemotaxis toward CCL4 and CCL5. These data reveal a previously unappreciated role for IL-27 in modulating CD4(+) T cell chemotactic pathways during infection, which is related to its capacity to repress Th1 effector cell development. Thus, IL-27 appears to be a key cytokine that limits the CCR5-CCL4/CCL5 axis during inflammatory settings.

in vivo IL-2 neutralization, Flow Cytometry
Villegas-Mendez, A., et al. (2013). "IL-27 receptor signalling restricts the formation of pathogenic, terminally differentiated Th1 cells during malaria infection by repressing IL-12 dependent signals" PLoS Pathog 9(4): e1003293. PubMed

The IL-27R, WSX-1, is required to limit IFN-gamma production by effector CD4(+) T cells in a number of different inflammatory conditions but the molecular basis of WSX-1-mediated regulation of Th1 responses in vivo during infection has not been investigated in detail. In this study we demonstrate that WSX-1 signalling suppresses the development of pathogenic, terminally differentiated (KLRG-1(+)) Th1 cells during malaria infection and establishes a restrictive threshold to constrain the emergent Th1 response. Importantly, we show that WSX-1 regulates cell-intrinsic responsiveness to IL-12 and IL-2, but the fate of the effector CD4(+) T cell pool during malaria infection is controlled primarily through IL-12 dependent signals. Finally, we show that WSX-1 regulates Th1 cell terminal differentiation during malaria infection through IL-10 and Foxp3 independent mechanisms; the kinetics and magnitude of the Th1 response, and the degree of Th1 cell terminal differentiation, were comparable in WT, IL-10R1(-)/(-) and IL-10(-)/(-) mice and the numbers and phenotype of Foxp3(+) cells were largely unaltered in WSX-1(-)/(-) mice during infection. As expected, depletion of Foxp3(+) cells did not enhance Th1 cell polarisation or terminal differentiation during malaria infection. Our results significantly expand our understanding of how IL-27 regulates Th1 responses in vivo during inflammatory conditions and establishes WSX-1 as a critical and non-redundant regulator of the emergent Th1 effector response during malaria infection.

in vivo IL-2 neutralization
Gasteiger, G., et al. (2013). "IL-2-dependent adaptive control of NK cell homeostasis" J Exp Med 210(6): 1179-1187. PubMed

Activation and expansion of T and B lymphocytes and myeloid cells are controlled by Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells), and their deficiency results in a fatal lympho- and myeloproliferative syndrome. A role for T reg cells in the homeostasis of innate lymphocyte lineages remained unknown. Here, we report that T reg cells restrained the expansion of immature CD127(+) NK cells, which had the unique ability to up-regulate the IL2Ralpha (CD25) in response to the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12. In addition, we observed the preferential accumulation of CD127(+) NK cells in mice bearing progressing tumors or suffering from chronic viral infection. CD127(+) NK cells expanded in an IL-2-dependent manner upon T reg cell depletion and were able to give rise to mature NK cells, indicating that the latter can develop through a CD25(+) intermediate stage. Thus, T reg cells restrain the IL-2-dependent CD4(+) T cell help for CD127(+) immature NK cells. These findings highlight the adaptive control of innate lymphocyte homeostasis.

in vivo IL-2 neutralization
Cho, H. I., et al. (2012). "A potent vaccination strategy that circumvents lymphodepletion for effective antitumor adoptive T-cell therapy" Cancer Res 72(8): 1986-1995. PubMed

Adoptive cell therapy using tumor-reactive T lymphocytes is a promising approach for treating advanced cancer. Successful tumor eradication depends primarily on the expansion and survival of the adoptively transferred T cells. Lymphodepletion using total body irradiation (TBI) and administering high-dose interleukin (IL)-2 have been used with adoptive cell therapy to promote T-cell expansion and survival to achieve maximal therapeutic effects. However, TBI and high-dose IL-2 increase the risk for major complications that impact overall survival. Here we describe an alternative approach to TBI and high-dose IL-2 for optimizing adoptive cell therapy, resulting in dramatic therapeutic effects against established melanomas in mice. Administration of a potent, noninfectious peptide vaccine after adoptive cell therapy dramatically increased antigen-specific T-cell numbers leading to enhancement in the survival of melanoma-bearing mice. Furthermore, combinations of peptide vaccination with PD1 blockade or IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes led to complete disease eradication and long-term survival in mice with large tumors receiving adoptive cell therapy. Our results indicate that PD1 blockade and IL-2/anti-IL-2 complexes enhance both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the T-cell responses induced by peptide vaccination after adoptive cell therapy. These findings could be useful for the optimization of adoptive cell therapy in cancer patients without the need of toxic adjunct procedures.

ELISPOT
Weber, K. S., et al. (2010). "Trpm4 differentially regulates Th1 and Th2 function by altering calcium signaling and NFAT localization" J Immunol 185(5): 2836-2846. PubMed

Th cell subsets have unique calcium (Ca(2+)) signals when activated with identical stimuli. The regulation of these Ca(2+) signals and their correlation to the biological function of each T cell subset remains unclear. Trpm4 is a Ca(2+)-activated cation channel that we found is expressed at higher levels in Th2 cells compared with Th1 cells. Inhibition of Trpm4 expression increased Ca(2+) influx and oscillatory levels in Th2 cells and decreased influx and oscillations in Th1 cells. This inhibition of Trpm4 expression also significantly altered T cell cytokine production and motility. Our experiments revealed that decreasing Trpm4 levels divergently regulates nuclear localization of NFATc1. Consistent with this, gene profiling did not show Trpm4-dependent transcriptional regulation, and T-bet and GATA-3 levels remain identical. Thus, Trpm4 is expressed at different levels in Th cells and plays a distinctive role in T cell function by differentially regulating Ca(2+) signaling and NFATc1 localization.

in vitro IL-2 neutralization
Carlson, M. J., et al. (2009). "In vitro-differentiated TH17 cells mediate lethal acute graft-versus-host disease with severe cutaneous and pulmonary pathologic manifestations" Blood 113(6): 1365-1374. PubMed

The morbidity and mortality associated with graft-host-disease (GVHD) is a significant obstacle to the greater use of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Donor T cells that predominantly differentiate into TH1/Tc1 T cells and generate pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mediate GVHD. Although numerous studies have described a pathogenic role for IFN-gamma, multiple reports have demonstrated that the lack of IFN-gamma paradoxically exacerbated GVHD lethality. This has led to speculation that another subset of T cells may significantly contribute to GVHD mortality. Several groups have demonstrated a new lineage of CD4+ T helper cell development distinct from TH1 or TH2 differentiation. This lineage is characterized by production of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, and IL-21 and has been termed TH17 cells. Here, we demonstrate that a highly purified population of TH17 cells is capable of inducing lethal GVHD, hallmarked by extensive pathologic cutaneous and pulmonary lesions. Upon transfer, these cells migrate to and expand in GVHD target organs and secondary lymphoid tissues. Finally, we demonstrate differential roles for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-17A in the clinical manifestations of GVHD induced by TH17 cells. Our studies demonstrate that cells other than TH1/Tc1 can mediate acute GVHD.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    Multidimensional Analysis of Lung Lymph Nodes in a Mouse Model of Allergic Lung Inflammation following PM2.5 and Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene Exposure.

    In Environmental Health Perspectives on 1 March 2023 by Liu, K. Y., Gao, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Ambient particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) is suggested to act as an adjuvant for allergen-mediated sensitization and recent evidence suggests the importance of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in allergic diseases. However, the impact of PM2.5 exposure and its absorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) on Tfh cells and humoral immunity remains unknown. We aimed to explore the impact of environmental PM2.5 and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP), a prominent PAH, as a model, on Tfh cells and the subsequent pulmonary allergic responses. PM2.5- or IP-mediated remodeling of cellular composition in lung lymph nodes (LNs) was determined by mass cytometry in a house dust mite (HDM)-induced mouse allergic lung inflammation model. The differentiation and function of Tfh cells in vitro were analyzed by flow cytometry, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, immunoprecipitation, and western blot analyses. Mice exposed to PM2.5 during the HDM sensitization period demonstrated immune cell population shifts in lung LNs as compared with those sensitized with HDM alone, with a greater number of differentiated Tfh2 cells, enhanced allergen-induced immunoglobulin E (IgE) response and pulmonary inflammation. Similarly enhanced phenotypes were also found in mice exposed to IP and sensitized with HDM. Further, IP administration was found to induce interleukin-21 (Il21) and Il4 expression and enhance Tfh2 cell differentiation in vitro, a finding which was abrogated in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-deficient CD4+ T cells. Moreover, we showed that IP exposure increased the interaction of AhR and cellular musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma (c-Maf) and its occupancy on the Il21 and Il4 promoters in differentiated Tfh2 cells. These findings suggest that the PM2.5 (IP)-AhR-c-Maf axis in Tfh2 cells was important in allergen sensitization and lung inflammation, thus adding a new dimension in the understanding of Tfh2 cell differentiation and function and providing a basis for establishing the environment-disease causal relationship. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP11580.

    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Control of Foxp3 induction and maintenance by sequential histone acetylation and DNA demethylation.

    In Cell Reports on 14 December 2021 by Li, J., Xu, B., et al.

    PubMed

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play crucial roles in suppressing deleterious immune response. Here, we investigate how Treg cells are mechanistically induced in vitro (iTreg) and stabilized via transcriptional regulation of Treg lineage-specifying factor Foxp3. We find that acetylation of histone tails at the Foxp3 promoter is required for inducing Foxp3 transcription. Upon induction, histone acetylation signals via bromodomain-containing proteins, particularly targets of inhibitor JQ1, and sustains Foxp3 transcription via a global or trans effect. Subsequently, Tet-mediated DNA demethylation of Foxp3 cis-regulatory elements, mainly enhancer CNS2, increases chromatin accessibility and protein binding, stabilizing Foxp3 transcription and obviating the need for the histone acetylation signal. These processes transform stochastic iTreg induction into a stable cell fate, with the former sensitive and the latter resistant to genetic and environmental perturbations. Thus, sequential histone acetylation and DNA demethylation in Foxp3 induction and maintenance reflect stepwise mechanical switches governing iTreg cell lineage specification. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    STING agonist promotes CAR T cell trafficking and persistence in breast cancer.

    In The Journal of Experimental Medicine on 1 February 2021 by Xu, N., Palmer, D. C., et al.

    PubMed

    CAR T therapy targeting solid tumors is restrained by limited infiltration and persistence of those cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Here, we developed approaches to enhance the activity of CAR T cells using an orthotopic model of locally advanced breast cancer. CAR T cells generated from Th/Tc17 cells given with the STING agonists DMXAA or cGAMP greatly enhanced tumor control, which was associated with enhanced CAR T cell persistence in the TME. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we demonstrate that DMXAA promoted CAR T cell trafficking and persistence, supported by the generation of a chemokine milieu that promoted CAR T cell recruitment and modulation of the immunosuppressive TME through alterations in the balance of immune-stimulatory and suppressive myeloid cells. However, sustained tumor regression was accomplished only with the addition of anti-PD-1 and anti-GR-1 mAb to Th/Tc17 CAR T cell therapy given with STING agonists. This study provides new approaches to enhance adoptive T cell therapy in solid tumors. © 2020 Xu et al.

    • FC/FACS
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    PRMT5 Is Required for T Cell Survival and Proliferation by Maintaining Cytokine Signaling.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 25 April 2020 by Tanaka, Y., Nagai, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Arginine methylation is a post-translational modification that regulates many biological processes. However, the role of arginine methylation in immune cells is not well studied. Here we report an essential role of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) in T cell homeostasis and activation-induced expansion. Using T cell-specific PRMT5 conditional knockout mice, we found that PRMT5 is required for natural killer T (NKT) cell but not for conventional or regulatory T (Treg) cell development after the double positive (DP) stage in the thymus. In contrast, PRMT5 was required for optimal peripheral T cell maintenance, for the transition of naïve T cells to effector/memory phenotype, and for early T cell development before the DP stage in a cell-intrinsic manner. Accordingly, PRMT5-deleted T cells showed impaired IL-7-mediated survival and TCR-induced proliferation in vitro. The latter was more pronounced and attributed to reduced responsiveness to IL-2. Acute deletion of PRMT5 revealed that not only naïve but also effector/memory T cells were impaired in TCR-induced proliferation in a development-independent manner. Reduced expression of common γ chain (γc), a shared receptor component for several cytokines including IL-7 and IL-2, on PRMT5-deleted T cells may be in part responsible for the defect. We further showed that PRMT5 was partially required for homeostatic T cell survival but absolutely required for lymphopenic T cell expansion in vivo. Thus, we propose that PRMT5 is required for T cell survival and proliferation by maintaining cytokine signaling, especially during proliferation. The inhibition of PRMT5 may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of diseases where uncontrolled T cell activation has a role, such as autoimmunity. Copyright © 2020 Tanaka, Nagai, Okumura, Greene and Kambayashi.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Host conditioning with IL-1β improves the antitumor function of adoptively transferred T cells.

    In The Journal of Experimental Medicine on 4 November 2019 by Lee, P. H., Yamamoto, T. N., et al.

    PubMed

    Host conditioning has emerged as an important component of effective adoptive cell transfer-based immunotherapy for cancer. High levels of IL-1β are induced by host conditioning, but its impact on the antitumor function of T cells remains unclear. We found that the administration of IL-1β increased the population size and functionality of adoptively transferred T cells within the tumor. Most importantly, IL-1β enhanced the ability of tumor-specific T cells to trigger the regression of large, established B16 melanoma tumors in mice. Mechanistically, we showed that the increase in T cell numbers was associated with superior tissue homing and survival abilities and was largely mediated by IL-1β-stimulated host cells. In addition, IL-1β enhanced T cell functionality indirectly via its actions on radio-resistant host cells in an IL-2- and IL-15-dependent manner. Our findings not only underscore the potential of provoking inflammation to enhance antitumor immunity but also uncover novel host regulations of T cell responses. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Regulatory T cells mediate specific suppression by depleting peptide-MHC class II from dendritic cells.

    In Nature Immunology on 1 February 2019 by Akkaya, B., Oya, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) can activate multiple suppressive mechanisms in vitro after activation via the T cell antigen receptor, resulting in antigen-independent suppression. However, it remains unclear whether similar pathways operate in vivo. Here we found that antigen-specific Treg cells activated by dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with two antigens suppressed conventional naive T cells (Tnaive cells) specific for both cognate antigens and non-cognate antigens in vitro but suppressed only Tnaive cells specific for cognate antigen in vivo. Antigen-specific Treg cells formed strong interactions with DCs, resulting in selective inhibition of the binding of Tnaive cells to cognate antigen yet allowing bystander Tnaive cell access. Strong binding resulted in the removal of the complex of cognate peptide and major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHCII) from the DC surface, reducing the capacity of DCs to present antigen. The enhanced binding of Treg cells to DCs, coupled with their capacity to deplete pMHCII, represents a novel pathway for Treg cell-mediated suppression and may be a mechanism by which Treg cells maintain immune homeostasis.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Activation of NKT Cells in an Anti-PD-1-Resistant Tumor Model Enhances Antitumor Immunity by Reinvigorating Exhausted CD8 T Cells.

    In Cancer Research on 15 September 2018 by Bae, E. A., Seo, H., et al.

    PubMed

    PD-1-based cancer immunotherapy is a successful example of immune checkpoint blockade that provides long-term durable therapeutic effects in patients with cancer across a wide spectrum of cancer types. Accumulating evidence suggests that anti-PD-1 therapy enhances antitumor immunity by reversing the function of exhausted T cells in the tumor environment. However, the responsiveness rate of patients with cancer to anti-PD-1 therapy remains low, providing an urgent need for optimization and improvement. In this study, we designed an anti-PD-1-resistant mouse tumor model and showed that unresponsiveness to anti-PD-1 is associated with a gradual increase in CD8 T-cell exhaustion. We also found that invariant natural killer T cell stimulation by the synthetic ligand α-galactosylceramide (αGC) can enhance the antitumor effect in anti-PD-1-resistant tumors by restoring the effector function of tumor antigen-specific exhausted CD8 T cells. IL2 and IL12 were among the cytokines produced by αGC stimulation critical for reinvigorating exhausted CD8 T cells in tumor-bearing mice and patients with cancer. Furthermore, we observed a synergistic increase in the antitumor effect between αGC-loaded antigen-presenting cells and PD-1 blockade in a therapeutic murine tumor model. Our study suggests NKT cell stimulation as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with anti-PD-1-resistant cancer.Significance: These findings provide mechanistic insights into the application of NKT cell stimulation as a potent adjuvant for immunotherapy against advanced cancer. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5315-26. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Role of MDA5 and interferon-I in dendritic cells for T cell expansion by anti-tumor peptide vaccines in mice.

    In Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy : CII on 1 July 2018 by Sultan, H., Wu, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are effective components of the immune system capable of destroying tumor cells. Generation of CTLs using peptide vaccines is a practical approach to treat cancer. We have previously described a peptide vaccination strategy that generates vast numbers of endogenous tumor-reactive CTLs after two sequential immunizations (prime-boost) using poly-ICLC adjuvant, which stimulates endosomal toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and cytoplasmic melanoma differentiation antigen 5 (MDA5). Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role not only in antigen presentation but are critical in generating costimulatory cytokines that promote CTL expansion. Poly-ICLC was shown to be more effective than poly-IC in generating type-I interferon (IFN-I) in various DC subsets, through its enhanced ability to escape the endosomal compartment and stimulate MDA5. In our system, IFN-I did not directly function as a T cell costimulatory cytokine, but enhanced CTL expansion through the induction of IL15. With palmitoylated peptide vaccines, CD8α+ DCs were essential for peptide crosspresentation. For vaccine boosts, non-professional antigen-presenting cells were able to present minimal epitope peptides, but DCs were still required for CTL expansions through the production of IFN-I mediated by poly-ICLC. Overall, these results clarify the roles of DCs, TLR3, MDA5, IFN-I and IL15 in the generation of vast and effective antitumor CTL responses using peptide and poly-IC vaccines.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Sustained Persistence of IL2 Signaling Enhances the Antitumor Effect of Peptide Vaccines through T-cell Expansion and Preventing PD-1 Inhibition.

    In Cancer Immunology Research on 1 May 2018 by Sultan, H., Kumai, T., et al.

    PubMed

    Peptide vaccines can be a successful and cost-effective way of generating T-cell responses against defined tumor antigens, especially when combined with immune adjuvants such as poly-IC. However, strong immune adjuvants can induce a collateral increase in numbers of irrelevant, nonspecific T cells, which limits the effectiveness of the peptide vaccines. Here, we report that providing prolonged IL2 signaling in the form of either IL2/anti-IL2 complexes or pegylated IL2 overcomes the competitive suppressive effect of irrelevant T cells, allowing the preferential expansion of antigen-specific T cells. In addition to increasing the number of tumor-reactive T cells, sustained IL2 enhanced the ability of T cells to resist PD-1-induced negative signals, increasing the therapeutic effectiveness of the vaccines against established tumors. This vaccination strategy using peptides and sustained IL2 could be taken into the clinic for the treatment of cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(5); 617-27. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Pathology
    Effective antitumor peptide vaccines can induce severe autoimmune pathology.

    In Oncotarget on 19 September 2017 by Sultan, H., Trillo-Tinoco, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Immunotherapy has shown a tremendous success in treating cancer. Unfortunately, this success is frequently associated with severe autoimmune pathology. In this study, we used the transgenic RIP-gp mouse model to assess the antitumor therapeutic benefit of peptide vaccination while evaluating the possible associated autoimmune pathology. We report that palmitoylated gp33-41 peptide and poly-IC adjuvant vaccine (BiVax) generated ∼ 5-10 % of antigen specific T cell responses in wild type and supposedly immune tolerant RIP-gp mice. Boosting with BiVax in combination with αCD40 antibody (TriVax) or BiVax in combination with IL-2/αIL-2 antibody complexes (IL2Cx) significantly increased the immune responses (∼30-50%). Interestingly, although both boosts were equally effective in generating vast T cell responses, BiVax/IL2Cx showed better control of tumor growth than TriVax. However, this effect was associated with high incidence of diabetes in an antigen and CD8 dependent fashion. T cell responses generated by BiVax/IL2Cx, but not those generated by TriVax were highly resistant to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitory signals. Nevertheless, PD-1 blockade enhanced the ability of TriVax to control tumor growth but increased the incidence of diabetes. Finally, we show that severe autoimmunity by BiVax/IL2Cx was prevented while preserving outstanding antitumor responses by utilizing a tumor antigen not expressed in the pancreas. Our data provides a clear evidence that peptide based vaccines can expand vast endogenous T cell responses which effectively control tumor growth but with high potential of autoimmune pathology.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Activated CD8+ T cells induce expansion of Vβ5+ regulatory T cells via TNFR2 signaling.

    In The Journal of Immunology on 15 September 2014 by Joedicke, J. J., Myers, L., et al.

    PubMed

    Vβ5(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are specific for a mouse endogenous retroviral superantigen, become activated and proliferate in response to Friend virus (FV) infection. We previously reported that FV-induced expansion of this Treg subset was dependent on CD8(+) T cells and TNF-α, but independent of IL-2. We now show that the inflammatory milieu associated with FV infection is not necessary for induction of Vβ5(+) Treg expansion. Rather, it is the presence of activated CD8(+) T cells that is critical for their expansion. The data indicate that the mechanism involves signaling between the membrane-bound form of TNF-α on activated CD8(+) T cells and TNFR2 on Tregs. CD8(+) T cells expressing membrane-bound TNF-α but no soluble TNF-α remained competent to induce strong Vβ5(+) Treg expansion in vivo. In addition, Vβ5(+) Tregs expressing only TNFR2 but no TNFR1 were still responsive to expansion. Finally, treatment of naive mice with soluble TNF-α did not induce Vβ5(+) Treg expansion, but treatment with a TNFR2-specific agonist did. These results reveal a new mechanism of intercellular communication between activated CD8(+) T cell effectors and Tregs that results in the activation and expansion of a Treg subset that subsequently suppresses CD8(+) T cell functions.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    In vitro generated Th17 cells support the expansion and phenotypic stability of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in vivo.

    In Cytokine on 1 January 2014 by Zhou, Q., Hu, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    CD4(+) T cells stimulate immune responses through distinct patterns of cytokine produced by Th1, Th2 or Th17 cells, or inhibit immune responses through Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs). Paradoxically, effector T cells were recently shown to activate Tregs, however, it remains unclear which Th subset is responsible for this effect. In this study, we found that Th17 cells expressed the highest levels of TNF among in vitro generated Th subsets, and most potently promoted expansion and stabilized Foxp3 expression by Tregs when co-transferred into Rag1(-/-) mice. Both TNF and IL-2 produced by Th17 cells contributed to this effect. The stimulatory effect of Th17 cells on Tregs was largely abolished when co-transferred with TNFR2-deficient Tregs. Furthermore, Tregs deficient in TNFR2 also supported a much lower production of IL-17A and TNF expression by co-transferred Th17 cells. Thus, our data indicate that the TNF-TNFR2 pathway plays a crucial role in the reciprocal stimulatory effect of Th17 cells and Tregs. This bidirectional interaction should be taken into account when designing therapy targeting Th17 cells, Tregs, TNF and TNFR2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    IL-27 receptor signaling regulates CD4+ T cell chemotactic responses during infection.

    In The Journal of Immunology on 1 May 2013 by Gwyer Findlay, E., Villegas-Mendéz, A., et al.

    PubMed

    IL-27 exerts pleiotropic suppressive effects on naive and effector T cell populations during infection and inflammation. Surprisingly, however, the role of IL-27 in restricting or shaping effector CD4(+) T cell chemotactic responses, as a mechanism to reduce T cell-dependent tissue inflammation, is unknown. In this study, using Plasmodium berghei NK65 as a model of a systemic, proinflammatory infection, we demonstrate that IL-27R signaling represses chemotaxis of infection-derived splenic CD4(+) T cells in response to the CCR5 ligands, CCL4 and CCL5. Consistent with these observations, CCR5 was expressed on significantly higher frequencies of splenic CD4(+) T cells from malaria-infected, IL-27R-deficient (WSX-1(-/-)) mice than from infected wild-type mice. We find that IL-27 signaling suppresses splenic CD4(+) T cell CCR5-dependent chemotactic responses during infection by restricting CCR5 expression on CD4(+) T cell subtypes, including Th1 cells, and also by controlling the overall composition of the CD4(+) T cell compartment. Diminution of the Th1 response in infected WSX-1(-/-) mice in vivo by neutralization of IL-12p40 attenuated CCR5 expression by infection-derived CD4(+) T cells and also reduced splenic CD4(+) T cell chemotaxis toward CCL4 and CCL5. These data reveal a previously unappreciated role for IL-27 in modulating CD4(+) T cell chemotactic pathways during infection, which is related to its capacity to repress Th1 effector cell development. Thus, IL-27 appears to be a key cytokine that limits the CCR5-CCL4/CCL5 axis during inflammatory settings.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Trpm4 differentially regulates Th1 and Th2 function by altering calcium signaling and NFAT localization.

    In The Journal of Immunology on 1 September 2010 by Weber, K. S., Hildner, K., et al.

    PubMed

    Th cell subsets have unique calcium (Ca(2+)) signals when activated with identical stimuli. The regulation of these Ca(2+) signals and their correlation to the biological function of each T cell subset remains unclear. Trpm4 is a Ca(2+)-activated cation channel that we found is expressed at higher levels in Th2 cells compared with Th1 cells. Inhibition of Trpm4 expression increased Ca(2+) influx and oscillatory levels in Th2 cells and decreased influx and oscillations in Th1 cells. This inhibition of Trpm4 expression also significantly altered T cell cytokine production and motility. Our experiments revealed that decreasing Trpm4 levels divergently regulates nuclear localization of NFATc1. Consistent with this, gene profiling did not show Trpm4-dependent transcriptional regulation, and T-bet and GATA-3 levels remain identical. Thus, Trpm4 is expressed at different levels in Th cells and plays a distinctive role in T cell function by differentially regulating Ca(2+) signaling and NFATc1 localization.