InVivoMAb anti-mouse IL-10

Catalog #BE0049
Product Citations:
36
Clone:
JES5-2A5
Reactivities:
Mouse

$164.00 - $4,280.00

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Product Details

The JES5-2A5 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse IL-10. IL-10 is a 17-21 kDa cytokine which is primarily produced by monocytes and, to a lesser extent, Th2 cells, mast cells, T regulatory cells, and certain subsets of activated T and B cells. IL-10 has pleiotropic effects in immunoregulation and inflammation. It down-regulates the expression of Th1 cytokines, MHC class II antigens, and costimulatory molecules on macrophages. It also enhances B cell survival, proliferation, and antibody production. This cytokine can block NF-κB activity, and is involved in the regulation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this cytokine is an essential immunoregulator in the intestinal tract. The JES5-2A5 antibody has been shown to neutralize the bioactivity of natural or recombinant IL-10.

Specifications

Isotype Rat IgG1, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb rat IgG1 isotype control, anti-horseradish peroxidase
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen Recombinant mouse IL-10
Reported Applications in vivo IL-10 neutralization
in vitro IL-10 neutralization
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107696
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vivo IL-10 neutralization
Komai, T., et al. (2018). "Transforming Growth Factor-beta and Interleukin-10 Synergistically Regulate Humoral Immunity via Modulating Metabolic Signals" Front Immunol 9: 1364. PubMed

Inhibitory cytokines, such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), are humoral factors involved in the suppressive function of regulatory T cells and play critical roles in maintaining immune homeostasis. However, TGF-beta and IL-10 also have pleiotropic effects and induce humoral immune responses depending on conditions, and thus their therapeutic application to autoimmune diseases remains limited. Here, we show that a combination of TGF-beta and IL-10, but not single cytokine, is required to suppress B cell activation induced by toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. In in vivo analyses, the simultaneous presence of TGF-beta and IL-10 effectively suppressed TLR-mediated antigen-specific immune responses and ameliorated pathologies in imiquimod (TLR7 agonist)-induced lupus model and lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice. Intriguingly, TGF-beta and IL-10 synergistically modulated transcriptional programs and suppressed cellular energetics of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation via inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)/S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) pathway in TLR-stimulated B cells. On the other hand, enhancement of mTOR signaling and mitochondrial biosynthesis in TLR-stimulated B cells counteracted the synergistic inhibitory effects. The inhibitory cytokine synergy of TGF-beta and IL-10 via suppression of energy metabolism was also observed in human TLR-stimulated B cells. There is increasing evidence supporting the importance of adequate metabolic signals in various immune cells to exert their immune function. In this study, we have shown that a previously unrecognized synergy of inhibitory cytokines regulates systemic humoral immune responses via modulating immunometabolism in B cells. Our findings indicate that inhibition of B cell metabolism mediated by two synergistic cytokines contributes to the induction of immune tolerance and could be a new therapeutic strategy for autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus.

in vivo IL-10 neutralization
Clemente-Casares, X., et al. (2016). "Expanding antigen-specific regulatory networks to treat autoimmunity" Nature 530(7591): 434-440. PubMed

Regulatory T cells hold promise as targets for therapeutic intervention in autoimmunity, but approaches capable of expanding antigen-specific regulatory T cells in vivo are currently not available. Here we show that systemic delivery of nanoparticles coated with autoimmune-disease-relevant peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHCII) molecules triggers the generation and expansion of antigen-specific regulatory CD4(+) T cell type 1 (TR1)-like cells in different mouse models, including mice humanized with lymphocytes from patients, leading to resolution of established autoimmune phenomena. Ten pMHCII-based nanomedicines show similar biological effects, regardless of genetic background, prevalence of the cognate T-cell population or MHC restriction. These nanomedicines promote the differentiation of disease-primed autoreactive T cells into TR1-like cells, which in turn suppress autoantigen-loaded antigen-presenting cells and drive the differentiation of cognate B cells into disease-suppressing regulatory B cells, without compromising systemic immunity. pMHCII-based nanomedicines thus represent a new class of drugs, potentially useful for treating a broad spectrum of autoimmune conditions in a disease-specific manner.

in vivo IL-10 neutralization
Tsukamoto, H., et al. (2015). "IL-6-mediated environmental conditioning of defective Th1 differentiation dampens antitumour immune responses in old age" Nat Commun 6: 6702. PubMed

Decline in immune function and inflammation concomitantly develop with ageing. Here we focus on the impact of this inflammatory environment on T cells, and demonstrate that in contrast to successful tumour elimination in young mice, replenishment of tumour-specific CD4(+) T cells fails to induce tumour regression in aged hosts. The impaired antitumour effect of CD4(+) T cells with their defective Th1 differentiation in an aged environment is restored by interleukin (IL)-6 blockade or IL-6 deficiency. IL-6 blockade also restores the impaired ability of CD4(+) T cells to promote CD8(+) T-cell-dependent tumour elimination in aged mice, which requires IFN-gamma. Furthermore, IL-6-stimulated production of IL-4/IL-21 through c-Maf induction is responsible for impaired Th1 differentiation. IL-6 also contributes to IL-10 production from CD4(+) T cells in aged mice, causing attenuated responses of CD8(+) T cells. These findings suggest that IL-6 serves as an extrinsic factor counteracting CD4(+) T-cell-mediated immunity against tumour in old age.

in vivo IL-10 neutralization
Martinson, H. A., et al. (2015). "Wound healing-like immune program facilitates postpartum mammary gland involution and tumor progression" Int J Cancer 136(8): 1803-1813. PubMed

Women diagnosed with breast cancer within 5 years postpartum have poor survival rates. The process of postpartum mammary gland involution, whereby the lactating gland remodels to its prepregnant state, promotes breast cancer progression in xenograft models. Macrophage influx occurs during mammary gland involution, implicating immune modulation in the promotion of postpartum breast cancer. Herein, we characterize the postpartum murine mammary gland and find an orchestrated influx of immune cells similar to that which occurs during wound healing. Further, the normal involuting gland may be in an immunosuppressed state as discerned by the transient presence of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and IL-10(+) macrophages with T cell suppressive function. To determine the influence of the postpartum immune microenvironment on mammary tumor promotion, we developed an immune-competent model. In this model, mammary tumors in the involution group are sixfold larger than nulliparous group tumors, have decreased CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell infiltrates and contain a greater number of macrophages with the ability to inhibit T cell activation. Targeting involution with a neutralizing antibody against the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 reduces tumor growth in involution group mice but not in nulliparous mice, implicating the involution microenvironment as the primary target of alphaIL-10 treatment. Relevance to women is implicated, as we find postlactational human breast tissue has transient high IL-10(+) and Foxp3(+) immune cell infiltrate. These data show an immune modulated microenvironment within the normal involuting mammary gland suggestive of immunosuppression, that when targeted reduces tumor promotion, revealing possible immune-based strategies for postpartum breast cancer.

in vivo IL-10 neutralization
Yue, S., et al. (2014). "Myeloid PTEN deficiency protects livers from ischemia reperfusion injury by facilitating M2 macrophage differentiation" J Immunol 192(11): 5343-5353. PubMed

Although the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in regulating cell proliferation is well established, its function in immune responses remains to be fully appreciated. In the current study, we analyzed myeloid-specific PTEN function in regulating tissue inflammatory immune response in a murine liver partial warm ischemia model. Myeloid-specific PTEN knockout (KO) resulted in liver protection from ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) by deviating the local innate immune response against ischemia reperfusion toward the regulatory type: expression of proinflammatory genes was selectively decreased and anti-inflammatory IL-10 was simultaneously increased in ischemia reperfusion livers of PTEN KO mice compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice. PI3K inhibitor and IL-10-neutralizing Abs, but not exogenous LPS, recreated liver IRI in these KO mice. At the cellular level, Kupffer cells and peritoneal macrophages isolated from KO mice expressed higher levels of M2 markers and produced lower TNF-alpha and higher IL-10 in response to TLR ligands than did their WT counterparts. They had enhanced Stat3- and Stat6-signaling pathway activation, but diminished Stat1-signaling pathway activation, in response to TLR4 stimulation. Inactivation of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride enhanced proinflammatory immune activation and increased IRI in livers of myeloid PTEN KO mice. Thus, myeloid PTEN deficiency protects livers from IRI by facilitating M2 macrophage differentiation.

in vivo IL-10 neutralization
Vegran, F., et al. (2014). "The transcription factor IRF1 dictates the IL-21-dependent anticancer functions of TH9 cells" Nat Immunol 15(8): 758-766. PubMed

The TH9 subset of helper T cells was initially shown to contribute to the induction of autoimmune and allergic diseases, but subsequent evidence has suggested that these cells also exert antitumor activities. However, the molecular events that account for their effector properties are elusive. Here we found that the transcription factor IRF1 enhanced the effector function of TH9 cells and dictated their anticancer properties. Under TH9-skewing conditions, interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT1 and subsequent expression of IRF1, which bound to the promoters of Il9 and Il21 and enhanced secretion of the cytokines IL-9 and IL-21 from TH9 cells. Furthermore, IL-1beta-induced TH9 cells exerted potent anticancer functions in an IRF1- and IL-21-dependent manner. Our findings thus identify IRF1 as a target for controlling the function of TH9 cells.

in vivo IL-10 neutralization, in vitro IL-10 neutralization
de Almeida, P. E., et al. (2014). "Transplanted terminally differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells are accepted by immune mechanisms similar to self-tolerance" Nat Commun 5: 3903. PubMed

The exact nature of the immune response elicited by autologous-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) progeny is still not well understood. Here we show in murine models that autologous iPSC-derived endothelial cells (iECs) elicit an immune response that resembles the one against a comparable somatic cell, the aortic endothelial cell (AEC). These cells exhibit long-term survival in vivo and prompt a tolerogenic immune response characterized by elevated IL-10 expression. In contrast, undifferentiated iPSCs elicit a very different immune response with high lymphocytic infiltration and elevated IFN-gamma, granzyme-B and perforin intragraft. Furthermore, the clonal structure of infiltrating T cells from iEC grafts is statistically indistinguishable from that of AECs, but is different from that of undifferentiated iPSC grafts. Taken together, our results indicate that the differentiation of iPSCs results in a loss of immunogenicity and leads to the induction of tolerance, despite expected antigen expression differences between iPSC-derived versus original somatic cells.

in vivo IL-10 neutralization
Podojil, J. R., et al. (2013). "B7-H4Ig inhibits mouse and human T-cell function and treats EAE via IL-10/Treg-dependent mechanisms" J Autoimmun 44: 71-81. PubMed

We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms of action of both mouse and human B7-H4 Immunoglobulin fusion proteins (mB7-H4Ig; hB7-H4Ig) in treating EAE. The present data show that mB7-H4Ig both directly and indirectly (via increasing Treg function) inhibited CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and differentiation in both Th1- and Th17-cell promoting conditions while inducing production of IL-10. B7-H4Ig treatment effectively ameliorated progression of both relapsing (R-EAE) and chronic EAE correlating with decreased numbers of activated CD4(+) T-cells within the CNS and spleen, and a concurrent increase in number and function of Tregs. The functional requirement for Treg activation in treating EAE was demonstrated by a loss of therapeutic efficacy of hB7-H4Ig in R-EAE following inactivation of Treg function either by anti-CD25 treatment or blockade of IL-10. Significant to the eventual translation of this treatment into clinical practice, hB7-H4Ig similarly inhibited the in vitro differentiation of naive human CD4(+) T-cells in both Th1- and Th17-promoting conditions, while promoting the production of IL-10. B7-H4Ig thus regulates pro-inflammatory T-cell responses by a unique dual mechanism of action and demonstrates significant promise as a therapeutic for autoimmune diseases, including MS.

in vitro IL-10 neutralization
Tai, N., et al. (2013). "TLR9 deficiency promotes CD73 expression in T cells and diabetes protection in nonobese diabetic mice" J Immunol 191(6): 2926-2937. PubMed

TLR9-deficient (TLR9(-)/(-)) NOD mice develop a significantly reduced incidence of diabetes. This study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the protective role of TLR9 deficiency. Through gene screening and confirmation by both mRNA and protein expression, we found a significant increase in CD73-expressing immune cells from peripheral lymphoid tissues in TLR9(-)/(-) NOD mice. The elevated frequency of CD73-expressing immune cells seemed to be specific for TLR9 deficiency and was MyD88 independent. Moreover, the increased frequency of CD73 expression was limited to the NOD background. Increased frequency of CD73 expression was also associated with lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines and more anti-inflammatory cytokine production in CD4(+) T cells in TLR9(-)/(-) NOD mice. Purified CD73(+)CD4(+) T cells showed stronger immunosuppressive function in vitro and delayed diabetes development in vivo. The immunosuppression appeared to be mediated by TGF-beta. In addition, elevated frequency of CD73-expressing cells was associated with improved beta cell function. Our observations were further confirmed by protection from diabetes with similar alterations in CD73 in the NY8.3 TCR NOD mouse model crossed with TLR9(-)/(-) mice and by the use of a TLR9 inhibitor in NOD mice. Our novel findings suggest an important immune-regulatory role of CD73 in regulation of diabetes development and may offer a new therapeutic strategy for specific intervention to prevent type 1 diabetes.

in vivo IL-10 neutralization
Pastille, E., et al. (2011). "Modulation of dendritic cell differentiation in the bone marrow mediates sustained immunosuppression after polymicrobial sepsis" J Immunol 186(2): 977-986. PubMed

Murine polymicrobial sepsis is associated with a sustained reduction of dendritic cell (DC) numbers in lymphoid organs and with a dysfunction of DC that is considered to mediate the chronic susceptibility of post-septic mice to secondary infections. We investigated whether polymicrobial sepsis triggered an altered de novo formation and/or differentiation of DC in the bone marrow. BrdU labeling experiments indicated that polymicrobial sepsis did not affect the formation of splenic DC. DC that differentiated from bone marrow (bone marrow-derived DC [BMDC]) of post-septic mice released enhanced levels of IL-10 but did not show an altered phenotype in comparison with BMDC from sham mice. Adoptive transfer experiments of BMDC into naive mice revealed that BMDC from post-septic mice impaired Th1 priming but not Th cell expansion and suppressed the innate immune defense mechanisms against Pseudomonas bacteria in the lung. Accordingly, BMDC from post-septic mice inhibited the release of IFN-gamma from NK cells that are critical for the protection against Pseudomonas. Additionally, sepsis was associated with a loss of resident DC in the bone marrow. Depletion of resident DC from bone marrow of sham mice led to the differentiation of BMDC that were impaired in Th1 priming similar to BMDC from post-septic mice. Thus, in response to polymicrobial sepsis, DC precursor cells in the bone marrow developed into regulatory DC that impaired Th1 priming and NK cell activity and mediated immunosuppression. The absence of resident DC in the bone marrow after sepsis might have contributed to the modulation of DC differentiation.

in vivo IL-10 neutralization
Muenzer, J. T., et al. (2010). "Characterization and modulation of the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis" Infect Immun 78(4): 1582-1592. PubMed

Sepsis continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Studies of patients and animal models have revealed that changes in the immune response during sepsis play a decisive role in the outcome. Using a clinically relevant two-hit model of sepsis, i.e., cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) followed by the induction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, we characterized the host immune response. Second, AS101 [ammonium trichloro(dioxoethylene-o,o’)tellurate], a compound that blocks interleukin 10 (IL-10), a key mediator of immunosuppression in sepsis, was tested for its ability to reverse immunoparalysis and improve survival. Mice subjected to pneumonia following CLP had different survival rates depending upon the timing of the secondary injury. Animals challenged with P. aeruginosa at 4 days post-CLP had approximately 40% survival, whereas animals challenged at 7 days had 85% survival. This improvement in survival was associated with decreased lymphocyte apoptosis, restoration of innate cell populations, increased proinflammatory cytokines, and restoration of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production by stimulated splenocytes. These animals also showed significantly less P. aeruginosa growth from blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Importantly, AS101 improved survival after secondary injury 4 days following CLP. This increased survival was associated with many of the same findings observed in the 7-day group, i.e., restoration of IFN-gamma production, increased proinflammatory cytokines, and decreased bacterial growth. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that immunosuppression following initial septic insult increases susceptibility to secondary infection. However, by 7 days post-CLP, the host’s immune system has recovered sufficiently to mount an effective immune response. Modulation of the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis may aid in the development of new therapeutic strategies.

in vivo IL-10 neutralization
Perone, M. J., et al. (2009). "Suppression of autoimmune diabetes by soluble galectin-1" J Immunol 182(5): 2641-2653. PubMed

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that targets the beta-cells of the pancreas. We investigated the ability of soluble galectin-1 (gal-1), an endogenous lectin that promotes T cell apoptosis, to down-regulate the T cell response that destroys the pancreatic beta-cells. We demonstrated that in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, gal-1 therapy reduces significantly the amount of Th1 cells, augments the number of T cells secreting IL-4 or IL-10 specific for islet cell Ag, and causes peripheral deletion of beta-cell-reactive T cells. Administration of gal-1 prevented the onset of hyperglycemia in NOD mice at early and subclinical stages of T1D. Preventive gal-1 therapy shifted the composition of the insulitis into an infiltrate that did not invade the islets and that contained a significantly reduced number of Th1 cells and a higher percentage of CD4(+) T cells with content of IL-4, IL-5, or IL-10. The beneficial effects of gal-1 correlated with the ability of the lectin to trigger apoptosis of the T cell subsets that cause beta-cell damage while sparing naive T cells, Th2 lymphocytes, and regulatory T cells in NOD mice. Importantly, gal-1 reversed beta-cell autoimmunity and hyperglycemia in NOD mice with ongoing T1D. Because gal-1 therapy did not cause major side effects or beta-cell toxicity in NOD mice, the use of gal-1 to control beta-cell autoimmunity represents a novel alternative for treatment of subclinical or ongoing T1D.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    Oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve improves anti-angiogenic drugs-derived oral mucosal wound healing impairment via upregulation of interleukin-10.

    In International Journal of Oral Science on 11 December 2023 by Li, Q., Li, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Recent studies have suggested that long-term application of anti-angiogenic drugs may impair oral mucosal wound healing. This study investigated the effect of sunitinib on oral mucosal healing impairment in mice and the therapeutic potential of Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve). A mouse hard palate mucosal defect model was used to investigate the influence of sunitinib and/or zoledronate on wound healing. The volume and density of the bone under the mucosal defect were assessed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Inflammatory factors were detected by protein microarray analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The senescence and biological functions were tested in oral mucosal stem cells (OMSCs) treated with sunitinib. Ligated loop experiments were used to investigate the effect of oral B. breve. Neutralizing antibody for interleukin-10 (IL-10) was used to prove the critical role of IL-10 in the pro-healing process derived from B. breve. Results showed that sunitinib caused oral mucosal wound healing impairment in mice. In vitro, sunitinib induced cellular senescence in OMSCs and affected biological functions such as proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Oral administration of B. breve reduced oral mucosal inflammation and promoted wound healing via intestinal dendritic cells (DCs)-derived IL-10. IL-10 reversed cellular senescence caused by sunitinib in OMSCs, and IL-10 neutralizing antibody blocked the ameliorative effect of B. breve on oral mucosal wound healing under sunitinib treatment conditions. In conclusion, sunitinib induces cellular senescence in OMSCs and causes oral mucosal wound healing impairment and oral administration of B. breve could improve wound healing impairment via intestinal DCs-derived IL-10. © 2023. The Author(s).

    Candida-induced granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells are protective against polymicrobial sepsis.

    In mBio on 31 October 2023 by Esher, S. K., Harriett, A. J., et al.

    PubMed

    Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections are serious clinical infections that can lead to life-threatening sepsis, which is difficult to treat in part due to the complex and dynamic inflammatory responses involved. Our prior studies demonstrated that immunization with low-virulence Candida species can provide strong protection against lethal polymicrobial sepsis challenge in mice. This long-lived protection was found to be mediated by trained Gr-1+ polymorphonuclear leukocytes with features resembling myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Here we definitively characterize these cells as MDSCs and demonstrate that their mechanism of protection involves the abrogation of lethal inflammation, in part through the action of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. These studies highlight the role of MDSCs and IL-10 in controlling acute lethal inflammation and give support for the utility of trained tolerogenic immune responses in the clinical treatment of sepsis.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Blockade of IL-10 Signaling Ensures Mifamurtide Efficacy in Metastatic Osteosarcoma.

    In Cancers on 27 September 2023 by Nastasi, N., Pasha, A., et al.

    PubMed

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of the bone, highly aggressive and metastasizing, and it mainly affects children and adolescents. The current standard of care for OS is a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. However, these treatment options are not always successful, especially in cases of metastatic or recurrent osteosarcomas. For this reason, research into new therapeutic strategies is currently underway, and immunotherapies have received considerable attention. Mifamurtide stands out among the most studied immunostimulant drugs; nevertheless, there are very conflicting opinions on its therapeutic efficacy. Here, we aimed to investigate mifamurtide efficacy through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results led us to identify a new possible target useful to improve mifamurtide effectiveness on metastatic OS: the cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). We provide experimental evidence that the synergic use of an anti-IL-10 antibody in combination with mifamurtide causes a significantly increased mortality rate in highest-grade OS cells and lower metastasis in an in vivo model compared with mifamurtide alone. Overall, our data suggest that mifamurtide in combination with an anti-IL-10 antibody could be proposed as a new treatment protocol to be studied to improve the outcomes of OS patients.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    IL-10 Promotes CXCL13 Expression in Macrophages Following Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection.

    In International Journal of Molecular Sciences on 28 March 2023 by Guo, Z., Chen, F., et al.

    PubMed

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious livestock diseases in the world, posing a constant global threat to the animal trade and national economies. The chemokine C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), a biomarker for predicting disease progression in some diseases, was recently found to be increased in sera from mice infected with FMD virus (FMDV) and to be associated with the progression and severity of the disease. However, it has not yet been determined which cells are involved in producing CXCL13 and the signaling pathways controlling CXCL13 expression in these cells. In this study, the expression of CXCL13 was found in macrophages and T cells from mice infected with FMDV, and CXCL13 was produced in bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) by activating the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and JAK/STAT pathways following FMDV infection. Interestingly, CXCL13 concentration was decreased in sera from interleukin-10 knock out (IL-10-/-) mice or mice blocked IL-10/IL-10R signaling in vivo after FMDV infection. Furthermore, CXCL13 was also decreased in IL-10-/- BMDMs and BMDMs treated with anti-IL-10R antibody following FMDV infection in vitro. Lastly, it was demonstrated that IL-10 regulated CXCL13 expression via JAK/STAT rather than the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, the study demonstrated for the first time that macrophages and T cells were the cellular sources of CXCL13 in mice infected with FMDV; CXCL13 was produced in BMDMs via NF-κB and JAK/STAT pathways; and IL-10 promoted CXCL13 expression in BMDMs via the JAK/STAT pathway.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Excessive IL-10 and IL-18 trigger hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-like hyperinflammation and enhanced myelopoiesis.

    In The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology on 1 November 2022 by Tang, Y., Xu, Q., et al.

    PubMed

    Hyperinflammation is a life-threatening condition associated with various clinical disorders characterized by excessive immune activation and tissue damage. Multiple cytokines promote the development of hyperinflammation; however, the contribution of IL-10 remains unclear despite emerging speculations for a pathological role. Clinical observations from hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a prototypical hyperinflammatory disease, suggest that IL-18 and IL-10 may collectively promote the onset of a hyperinflammatory state. We aimed to investigate the collaborative roles of IL-10 and IL-18 in hyperinflammation. A comprehensive plasma cytokine profile for 87 secondary HLH patients was first depicted and analyzed. We then investigated the systemic and cellular effects of coelevated IL-10 and IL-18 in a transgenic mouse model and cultured macrophages. Single-cell RNA sequencing was performed on the monocytes/macrophages isolated from secondary HLH patients to explore the clinical relevance of IL-10/IL-18-mediated cellular signatures. The therapeutic efficacy of IL-10 blockade was tested in HLH mouse models. Excessive circulating IL-10 and IL-18 triggered a lethal hyperinflammatory disease recapitulating HLH-like phenotypes in mice, driving peripheral lymphopenia and a striking shift toward enhanced myelopoiesis in the bone marrow. IL-10 and IL-18 polarized cultured macrophages to a distinct proinflammatory state with pronounced expression of myeloid cell-recruiting chemokines. Transcriptional characterization suggested the IL-10/IL-18-mediated cellular features were clinically relevant with HLH, showing enhanced granzyme expression and proteasome activation in macrophages. IL-10 blockade protected against the lethal disease in HLH mouse models. Coelevated IL-10 and IL-18 are sufficient to drive HLH-like hyperinflammatory syndrome, and blocking IL-10 is protective in HLH models. Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Inc.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Combinations of anti-GITR antibody and CD28 superagonist induce permanent allograft acceptance by generating type 1 regulatory T cells.

    In Science Advances on 5 August 2022 by Que, W., Ma, K., et al.

    PubMed

    Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells represent a subset of IL-10-producing CD4+Foxp3- T cells and play key roles in promoting transplant tolerance. However, no effective pharmacological approaches have been able to induce Tr1 cells in vivo. We herein report the combined use of a CD28 superagonist (D665) and anti-glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein monoclonal antibody (G3c) to induce Tr1 cells in vivo. Large amounts of IL-10/interferon-γ-co-producing CD4+Foxp3- Tr1 cells were generated by D665-G3c sequential treatment in mice. Mechanistic studies suggested that D665-G3c induced Tr1 cells via transcription factors Prdm1 and Maf. G3c contributed to Tr1 cell generation via the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling. Tr1 cells suppressed dendritic cell maturation and T cell responses and mediated permanent allograft acceptance in fully major histocompatibility complex-mismatched mice in an IL-10-dependent manner. In vivo Tr1 cell induction is a promising strategy for achieving transplant tolerance.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV promotes imiquimod-induced psoriatic inflammation via macrophages and keratinocytes in mice.

    In Nature Communications on 22 July 2022 by Yong, L., Yu, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    CaMK4 has an important function in autoimmune diseases, and the contribution of CaMK4 in psoriasis remains obscure. Here, we show that CaMK4 expression is significantly increased in psoriatic lesional skin from psoriasis patients compared to healthy human skin as well as inflamed skin from an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced mouse model of psoriasis compared to healthy mouse skin. Camk4-deficient (Camk4-/-) mice treated with IMQ exhibit reduced severity of psoriasis compared to wild-type (WT) mice. There are more macrophages and fewer IL-17A+γδ TCR+ cells in the skin of IMQ-treated Camk4-/- mice compared to IMQ-treated WT mice. CaMK4 inhibits IL-10 production by macrophages, thus allowing excessive psoriatic inflammation. Deletion of Camk4 in macrophages alleviates IMQ-induced psoriatic inflammation in mice. In keratinocytes, CaMK4 inhibits apoptosis as well as promotes cell proliferation and the expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as S100A8 and CAMP. Taken together, these data indicate that CaMK4 regulates IMQ-induced psoriasis by sustaining inflammation and provides a potential target for psoriasis treatment. © 2022. The Author(s).

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Low-dose interleukin-2 reverses chronic migraine-related sensitizations through peripheral interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor beta-1 signaling.

    In Neurobiology of Pain (Elsevier) on 24 June 2022 by Guo, Z., Zhang, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Low-dose interleukin-2 (LD-IL-2) treatment has been shown to effectively reverse chronic migraine-related behaviors and the sensitization of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons through expansion and activation of peripheral regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mice. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of LD-IL-2 and Treg cells. LD-IL-2 treatment increases the production of cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) in T cells, especially Treg cells, suggesting that they may mediate the therapeutic effect of LD-IL-2. Indeed, neutralizing antibodies against either IL-10 or TGFβ completely blocked the effects of LD-IL-2 on the facial mechanical hypersensitivity as well as the sensitization of TG neurons resulting from repeated nitroglycerin (NTG, a reliable trigger of migraine in patients) administration in mice, indicating that LD-IL-2 and Treg cells engage both peripheral IL-10 and TGFβ signaling pathways to reverse chronic-migraine related sensitizations. In an in vitro assay, incubation of TG culture with exogenous IL-10 or TGFβ1 fully reversed NTG-induced sensitization of TG neurons, suggesting that the IL-10 and TGFβ1 signaling in TG neurons contribute to LD-IL-2's therapeutic effects. Collectively, these results not only elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which LD-IL-2 and Treg cells reverse chronic-migraine related sensitizations, but also suggest that the IL-10 and TGFβ1 signaling pathways in TG neurons are potential targets for chronic migraine therapy. © 2022 The Author(s).

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Engineered RBCs Encapsulating Antigen Induce Multi-Modal Antigen-Specific Tolerance and Protect Against Type 1 Diabetes.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 22 April 2022 by Raposo, C. J., Cserny, J. D., et al.

    PubMed

    Antigen-specific therapies that suppress autoreactive T cells without inducing systemic immunosuppression are a much-needed treatment for autoimmune diseases, yet effective strategies remain elusive. We describe a microfluidic Cell Squeeze® technology to engineer red blood cells (RBCs) encapsulating antigens to generate tolerizing antigen carriers (TACs). TACs exploit the natural route of RBC clearance enabling tolerogenic presentation of antigens. TAC treatment led to antigen-specific T cell tolerance towards exogenous and autoantigens in immunization and adoptive transfer mouse models of type 1 diabetes (T1D), respectively. Notably, in several accelerated models of T1D, TACs prevented hyperglycemia by blunting effector functions of pathogenic T cells, particularly in the pancreas. Mechanistically, TACs led to impaired trafficking of diabetogenic T cells to the pancreas, induced deletion of autoreactive CD8 T cells and expanded antigen specific Tregs that exerted bystander suppression. Our results highlight TACs as a novel approach for reinstating immune tolerance in CD4 and CD8 mediated autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2022 Raposo, Cserny, Serena, Chow, Cho, Liu, Kotler, Sharei, Bernstein and John.

    Pirfenidone increases IL-10 and improves acute pancreatitis in multiple clinically relevant murine models.

    In JCI Insight on 25 January 2022 by Palathingal Bava, E., George, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Despite decades of research, there is no specific therapy for acute pancreatitis (AP). In the current study, we have evaluated the efficacy of pirfenidone, an antiinflammatory and antifibrotic agent that is approved by the FDA for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), in ameliorating local and systemic injury in AP. Our results suggest that treatment with pirfenidone in therapeutic settings (e.g., after initiation of injury), even when administered at the peak of injury, reduces severity of local and systemic injury and inflammation in multiple models of AP. In vitro evaluation suggests that pirfenidone decreases cytokine release from acini and macrophages and disrupts acinar-macrophage crosstalk. Therapeutic pirfenidone treatment increases IL-10 secretion from macrophages preceding changes in histology and modulates the immune phenotype of inflammatory cells with decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Antibody-mediated IL-10 depletion, use of IL-10-KO mice, and macrophage depletion experiments confirmed the role of IL-10 and macrophages in its mechanism of action, as pirfenidone was unable to reduce severity of AP in these scenarios. Since pirfenidone is FDA approved for IPF, a trial evaluating the efficacy of pirfenidone in patients with moderate to severe AP can be initiated expeditiously.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    B cells imprint adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells with enhanced tumor immunity.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 1 January 2022 by Smith, A. S., Knochelmann, H. M., et al.

    PubMed

    Adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) therapy improves outcomes in patients with advanced malignancies, yet many individuals relapse due to the infusion of T cells with poor function or persistence. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can invigorate antitumor T cell responses when administered directly to patients, but these responses often coincide with toxicities. We posited that TLR agonists could be repurposed ex vivo to condition T cells with remarkable potency in vivo, circumventing TLR-related toxicity. In this study we investigated how tumor-specific murine CD8+ T cells and human tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are impacted when expanded ex vivo with the TLR9 agonist CpG. Herein we reveal a new way to reverse the tolerant state of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells against tumors using TLR-activated B cells. We repurposed the TLR9 agonist, CpG, commonly used in the clinic, to bolster T cell-B cell interactions during expansion for ACT. T cells expanded ex vivo from a CpG-treated culture demonstrated potent antitumor efficacy and prolonged persistence in vivo. This antitumor efficacy was accomplished without in vivo administration of TLR agonists or other adjuvants of high-dose interleukin (IL)-2 or vaccination, which are classically required for effective ACT therapy. CpG-conditioned CD8+ T cells acquired a unique proteomic signature hallmarked by an IL-2RαhighICOShighCD39low phenotype and an altered metabolic profile, all reliant on B cells transiently present in the culture. Likewise, human TILs benefitted from expansion with CpG ex vivo, as they also possessed the IL-2RαhighICOShighCD39low phenotype. CpG fostered the expansion of potent CD8+ T cells with the signature phenotype and antitumor ability via empowering a direct B-T cell interaction. Isolated B cells also imparted T cells with the CpG-associated phenotype and improved tumor immunity without the aid of additional antigen-presenting cells or other immune cells in the culture. Our results demonstrate a novel way to use TLR agonists to improve immunotherapy and reveal a vital role for B cells in the generation of potent CD8+ T cell-based therapies. Our findings have immediate implications in the clinical treatment of advanced solid tumors. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    Interleukin-6 Drives Key Pathologic Outcomes in Experimental Acetaminophen-induced Liver Failure

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 16 November 2021 by Roth, K., Strickland, J., et al.

    PubMed

    h4>Background and Aims/h4> In severe cases of acetaminophen (APAP) overdose, acute liver injury rapidly progresses to acute liver failure (ALF), producing life-threatening complications including, hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and multi-organ failure (MOF). Systemic levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 are highest in ALF patients with the most severe complications and the poorest prognosis. The mechanistic basis for dysregulation of these cytokines, and their association with outcome in ALF, remain poorly defined. h4>Methods/h4> To investigate the impact of IL-6 and IL-10 in ALF, we used an experimental setting of failed liver repair after APAP overdose in which a high dose of APAP is administered (i.e., 500-600 mg/kg). Mice were treated with neutralizing antibodies to block IL-6 and IL-10. h4>Results/h4> In mice with APAP-induced ALF, high levels of IL-10 reduced monocyte recruitment and trafficking in the liver resulting in impaired clearance of dead cell debris. Kupffer cells in these mice, displayed features of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, including high level expression of IL-10 and PD-L1, which were increased in an IL-6-dependent manner. Similar to ALF patients with HE, cerebral blood flow was reduced in mice with APAP-induced ALF. Remarkably, although IL-6 is hepatoprotective in mice treated with low doses of APAP (i.e., 300 mg/kg), IL-6 neutralization in mice with APAP-induced ALF fully restored cerebral blood flow and reduced mortality. h4>Conclusion/h4> Collectively, these studies demonstrate that exaggerated production of IL-6 in APAP-induced ALF triggers immune suppression (i.e., high levels of IL-10 and PD-L1), reduces cerebral blood flow (a feature of hepatic encephalopathy), disrupts liver repair (i.e., failed clearance of dead cells), and increases mortality.

    • FC/FACS
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Homo sapiens (Human)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Interleukin-10 suppression enhances T-cell antitumor immunity and responses to checkpoint blockade in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    In Leukemia on 1 November 2021 by Rivas, J. R., Liu, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    T-cell dysfunction is a hallmark of B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), where CLL cells downregulate T-cell responses through regulatory molecules including programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10). Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) aims to restore T-cell function by preventing the ligation of inhibitory receptors like PD-1. However, most CLL patients do not respond well to this therapy. Thus, we investigated whether IL-10 suppression could enhance antitumor T-cell activity and responses to ICB. Since CLL IL-10 expression depends on Sp1, we utilized a novel, better tolerated analogue of the Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin (MTMox32E) to suppress CLL IL-10. MTMox32E treatment inhibited mouse and human CLL IL-10 production and maintained T-cell effector function in vitro. In the Eμ-Tcl1 mouse model, treatment reduced plasma IL-10 and CLL burden and increased CD8+ T-cell proliferation, effector and memory cell prevalence, and interferon-γ production. When combined with ICB, suppression of IL-10 improved responses to anti-PD-L1 as shown by a 4.5-fold decrease in CLL cell burden compared to anti-PD-L1 alone. Combination therapy also produced more interferon-γ+, cytotoxic effector KLRG1+, and memory CD8+ T-cells, and fewer exhausted T-cells. Since current therapies for CLL do not target IL-10, this provides a novel strategy to improve immunotherapies. © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    LN Monocytes Limit DC-Poly I:C Induced Cytotoxic T Cell Response via IL-10 and Induction of Suppressor CD4 T Cells.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 26 October 2021 by Tewari, A., Prabagar, M. G., et al.

    PubMed

    Every immune response has accelerators and brakes. Depending on the pathogen or injury, monocytes can play either role, promoting or resolving immunity. Poly I:C, a potent TLR3 ligand, licenses cross-presenting dendritic cells (DC1) to accelerate a robust cytotoxic T cells response against a foreign antigen. Poly I:C thus has promise as an adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy and viral subunit vaccines. Like DC1s, monocytes are also abundant in the LNs. They may act as either immune accelerators or brakes, depending on the inflammatory mediator they encounter. However, little is known about their contribution to adaptive immunity in the context of antigen and Poly I:C. Using monocyte-deficient and chimeric mice, we demonstrate that LN monocytes indirectly dampen a Poly I:C induced antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell response, exerting a "braking" function. This effect is mediated by IL-10 production and induction of suppressor CD4+ T cells. In a metastatic melanoma model, we show that a triple-combination prophylactic treatment consisting of anti-IL-10, tumor peptides and Poly I:C works because removing IL-10 counteracts the monocytic brake, resulting in significantly fewer tumors compared to mice treated with tumor peptides and Poly I:C alone. Finally, in human LN tissue, we observed that monocytes (unlike DCs) express high levels of IL-10, suggesting that anti-IL-10 may be an important addition to treatments. Overall, our data demonstrates that LN monocytes regulate the induction of a robust DC1-mediated immune response. Neutralization of either IL-10 or monocytes can augment Poly I:C-based treatments and enhance T cell cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2021 Tewari, Prabagar, Gibbings, Rawat and Jakubzick.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Regulatory B Cells (Bregs) Inhibit Osteoclastogenesis and Play a Potential Role in Ameliorating Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 20 July 2021 by Sapra, L., Bhardwaj, A., et al.

    PubMed

    Increasing evidence in recent years has suggested that regulatory B cells (Bregs) are one of the crucial modulators in various inflammatory disease conditions. However, no study to date has investigated the significance of Bregs in modulating osteoclastogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, in the present study, we for the first time examined the anti-osteoclastogenic potential of Bregs under in vitro conditions and observed that Bregs suppress RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We further elucidated the mechanism behind the observed suppression of osteoclasts differentiation via Bregs. Our results clearly suggested that the observed anti-osteoclastogenic property of Bregs is mediated via the production of IL-10 cytokine. Next, we explored whether Bregs have any role in mediating inflammatory bone loss under post-menopausal osteoporotic conditions in ovx mice. Remarkably, our in vivo data clearly suggest that the frequencies of both CD19+IL-10+ Bregs and CD19+CD1dhiCD5+IL-10+ "B10" Bregs were significantly reduced in case of osteoporotic mice model. Moreover, we also found a significant reduction in serum IL-10 cytokine levels in osteoporotic mice, thereby further supporting our observations. Taken together, the present study for the first time establishes the direct role of regulatory B cells in modulating osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Further, our in vivo data suggest that modulations in the percentage of Bregs population along with its reduced potential to produce IL-10 might further exacerbate the observed bone loss in ovx mice. Copyright © 2021 Sapra, Bhardwaj, Mishra, Garg, Verma, Mishra and Srivastava.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    Kdm6a suppresses the alternative activation of macrophages and impairs energy expenditure in obesity.

    In Cell Death and Differentiation on 1 May 2021 by Chen, J., Xu, X., et al.

    PubMed

    Histone lysine demethylase 6a (Kdm6a) mediates the removal of repressive trimethylation from histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) to activate target gene expression. Obesity is associated with metabolic inflammation, and adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are key players orchestrating metabolic inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether the Kdm6a pathway in ATMs regulates energy homeostasis. Here, we identified Kdm6a as a critical epigenetic switch that modulates macrophage polarisation and further disrupts energy balance. Myeloid-specific Kdm6a knockout in Kdm6aF/Y;Lyz2-Cre mice significantly reversed the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced M1-M2 imbalance in white adipose tissue (WAT) and blocked HFD-induced obesity. The brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, WAT browning and energy expenditure were significantly increased in Kdm6aF/Y;Lyz2-Cre mice. Furthermore, Kdm6a regulated the Ire1α expression in a demethylase activity-dependent manner and augmented the M2 polarisation of macrophages. Macrophage with higher Kdm6a significantly promotes adipogenesis in white adipocyte and inhibits thermogenesis in beige adipocytes. These results suggest that the Kdm6a in macrophages drives obesity and metabolic syndrome by impairing BAT activity and WAT differentiation.

    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Immunosuppressive Myeloid Cells Induce Nitric Oxide-Dependent DNA Damage and p53 Pathway Activation in CD8+ T Cells.

    In Cancer Immunology Research on 1 April 2021 by Cartwright, A. N. R., Suo, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are associated with poor survival outcomes in many human cancers. MDSCs inhibit T cell-mediated tumor immunity in part because they strongly inhibit T-cell function. However, whether MDSCs inhibit early or later steps of T-cell activation is not well established. Here we show that MDSCs inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of CD8+ T cells even in the presence of dendritic cells (DC) presenting a high-affinity cognate peptide. This inhibitory effect was also observed with delayed addition of MDSCs to cocultures, consistent with functional data showing that T cells expressed multiple early activation markers even in the presence of MDSCs. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis of CD8+ T cells demonstrated a p53 transcriptional signature in CD8+ T cells cocultured with MDSCs and DCs. Confocal microscopy showed induction of DNA damage and nuclear accumulation of activated p53 protein in a substantial fraction of these T cells. DNA damage in T cells was dependent on the iNOS enzyme and subsequent nitric oxide release by MDSCs. Small molecule-mediated inhibition of iNOS or inactivation of the Nos2 gene in MDSCs markedly diminished DNA damage in CD8+ T cells. DNA damage in CD8+ T cells was also observed in KPC pancreatic tumors but was reduced in tumors implanted into Nos2-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that MDSCs do not block early steps of T-cell activation but rather induce DNA damage and p53 pathway activation in CD8+ T cells through an iNOS-dependent pathway. ©2021 American Association for Cancer Research.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Liver-specific T regulatory type-1 cells program local neutrophils to suppress hepatic autoimmunity via CRAMP.

    In Cell Reports on 30 March 2021 by Umeshappa, C. S., Solé, P., et al.

    PubMed

    Neutrophils with immunoregulatory properties, also referred to as type-2 neutrophils (N2), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), or tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs), comprise a heterogeneous subset of cells that arise from unknown precursors in response to poorly understood cues. Here, we find that, in several models of liver autoimmunity, pharmacologically induced, autoantigen-specific T regulatory type-1 (TR1) cells and TR1-cell-induced B regulatory (Breg) cells use five immunoregulatory cytokines to coordinately recruit neutrophils into the liver and program their transcriptome to generate regulatory neutrophils. The liver-associated neutrophils from the treated mice, unlike their circulating counterparts or the liver neutrophils of sick mice lacking antigen-specific TR1 cells, are proliferative, can transfer disease protection to immunocompromised hosts engrafted with pathogenic effectors, and blunt antigen-presentation and local autoimmune responses via cathelin-related anti-microbial peptide (CRAMP), a cathelicidin, in a CRAMP-receptor-dependent manner. These results, thus, identify antigen-specific regulatory T cells as drivers of tissue-restricted regulatory neutrophil formation and CRAMP as an effector of regulatory neutrophil-mediated immunoregulation.Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    The E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH1 regulates antimalaria immunity through interferon signaling and T cell activation.

    In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America on 14 July 2020 by Wu, J., Xia, L., et al.

    PubMed

    Malaria infection induces complex and diverse immune responses. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying host-parasite interaction, we performed a genetic screen during early (24 h) Plasmodium yoelii infection in mice and identified a large number of interacting host and parasite genes/loci after transspecies expression quantitative trait locus (Ts-eQTL) analysis. We next investigated a host E3 ubiquitin ligase gene (March1) that was clustered with interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) based on the similarity of the genome-wide pattern of logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores (GPLS). March1 inhibits MAVS/STING/TRIF-induced type I IFN (IFN-I) signaling in vitro and in vivo. However, in malaria-infected hosts, deficiency of March1 reduces IFN-I production by activating inhibitors such as SOCS1, USP18, and TRIM24 and by altering immune cell populations. March1 deficiency increases CD86+DC (dendritic cell) populations and levels of IFN-γ and interleukin 10 (IL-10) at day 4 post infection, leading to improved host survival. T cell depletion reduces IFN-γ level and reverse the protective effects of March1 deficiency, which can also be achieved by antibody neutralization of IFN-γ. This study reveals functions of MARCH1 (membrane-associated ring-CH-type finger 1) in innate immune responses and provides potential avenues for activating antimalaria immunity and enhancing vaccine efficacy.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Potential Mechanisms of Mucin-Enhanced Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence in the Mouse Model of Intraperitoneal Infection.

    In Infection and Immunity on 1 November 2019 by Harris, G., Holbein, B. E., et al.

    PubMed

    Porcine mucin has been commonly used to enhance the infectivity of bacterial pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumannii, in animal models, but the mechanisms for enhancement by mucin remain relatively unknown. In this study, using the mouse model of intraperitoneal (i.p.) mucin-enhanced A. baumannii infection, we characterized the kinetics of bacterial replication and dissemination and the host innate immune responses, as well as their potential contribution to mucin-enhanced bacterial virulence. We found that mucin, either admixed with or separately injected with the challenge bacterial inoculum, was able to enhance the tissue and blood burdens of A. baumannii strains of different virulence. Intraperitoneal injection of A. baumannii-mucin or mucin alone induced a significant but comparable reduction of peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes, accompanied by a significant neutrophil recruitment and early interleukin-10 (IL-10) responses, suggesting that the resulting inflammatory cellular and cytokine responses were largely induced by the mucin. Depletion of peritoneal macrophages or neutralization of endogenous IL-10 activities showed no effect on the mucin-enhanced infectivity. However, pretreatment of mucin with iron chelator DIBI, but not deferoxamine, partially abolished its virulence enhancement ability, and replacement of mucin with iron significantly enhanced the bacterial burdens in the peritoneal cavity and lung. Taken together, our results favor the hypothesis that iron at least partially contributes to the mucin-enhanced infectivity of A. baumannii in this model. © Crown copyright 2019.

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