InVivoMAb anti-mouse/human/rat CD47 (IAP)

Catalog #BE0283
Product Citations:
Mouse, Human, Rat

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Product Details

The MIAP410 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD47 otherwise known as integrin-associated protein (IAP). CD47 is an approximately 50 kDa glycosylated five transmembrane protein that is ubiquitously expressed by both hematopoietic cells such as T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets and erythrocytes and non-hematopoietic cells. CD47 is involved in a range of cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Furthermore, it plays a key role in immune and angiogenic responses. CD47 is a receptor for thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a secreted glycoprotein that plays a role in vascular development and angiogenesis. CD47 Is has been found to be overexpressed in many different tumor cells. Because of this, anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies have been proposed and studied as a therapeutic treatment for human cancers. The MIAP410 antibody has been shown to neutralize CD47 in vivo and in vitro.


Isotype Mouse IgG1, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb mouse IgG1 isotype control, unknown specificity
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen purified human placental CD47
Reported Applications in vivo CD47 blockade
in vitro CD47 blocking
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_2687806
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.

Additional Formats

in vivo CD47 blockade, in vitro CD47 blockade
Kojima, Y., et al. (2016). "CD47-blocking antibodies restore phagocytosis and prevent atherosclerosis" Nature. DOI : 10.1038/nature18935. PubMed

Atherosclerosis is the disease process that underlies heart attack and stroke. Advanced lesions at risk of rupture are characterized by the pathological accumulation of diseased vascular cells and apoptotic cellular debris. Why these cells are not cleared remains unknown. Here we show that atherogenesis is associated with upregulation of CD47, a key anti-phagocytic molecule that is known to render malignant cells resistant to programmed cell removal, or ‘efferocytosis’. We find that administration of CD47-blocking antibodies reverses this defect in efferocytosis, normalizes the clearance of diseased vascular tissue, and ameliorates atherosclerosis in multiple mouse models. Mechanistic studies implicate the pro-atherosclerotic factor TNF-alpha as a fundamental driver of impaired programmed cell removal, explaining why this process is compromised in vascular disease. Similar to recent observations in cancer, impaired efferocytosis appears to play a pathogenic role in cardiovascular disease, but is not a fixed defect and may represent a novel therapeutic target.

in vivo CD47 blockade, in vitro CD47 blockade, Immunofluorescence
Willingham, S. B., et al. (2012). "The CD47-signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) interaction is a therapeutic target for human solid tumors" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(17): 6662-6667. PubMed

CD47, a “don’t eat me” signal for phagocytic cells, is expressed on the surface of all human solid tumor cells. Analysis of patient tumor and matched adjacent normal (nontumor) tissue revealed that CD47 is overexpressed on cancer cells. CD47 mRNA expression levels correlated with a decreased probability of survival for multiple types of cancer. CD47 is a ligand for SIRPalpha, a protein expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells. In vitro, blockade of CD47 signaling using targeted monoclonal antibodies enabled macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells that were otherwise protected. Administration of anti-CD47 antibodies inhibited tumor growth in orthotopic immunodeficient mouse xenotransplantation models established with patient tumor cells and increased the survival of the mice over time. Anti-CD47 antibody therapy initiated on larger tumors inhibited tumor growth and prevented or treated metastasis, but initiation of the therapy on smaller tumors was potentially curative. The safety and efficacy of targeting CD47 was further tested and validated in immune competent hosts using an orthotopic mouse breast cancer model. These results suggest all human solid tumor cells require CD47 expression to suppress phagocytic innate immune surveillance and elimination. These data, taken together with similar findings with other human neoplasms, show that CD47 is a commonly expressed molecule on all cancers, its function to block phagocytosis is known, and blockade of its function leads to tumor cell phagocytosis and elimination. CD47 is therefore a validated target for cancer therapies.

Han, X., et al. (2000). "CD47, a ligand for the macrophage fusion receptor, participates in macrophage multinucleation" J Biol Chem 275(48): 37984-37992. PubMed

The macrophage fusion receptor (MFR), also called P84/BIT/SIRPalpha/SHPS-1, is a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the superfamily of immunoglobulins. Previously, we showed that MFR expression is highly induced at the onset of fusion in macrophages, and that MFR appears to play a role in macrophage-macrophage adhesion/fusion leading to multinucleation. The recent finding that IAP/CD47 acts as a ligand for MFR led us to hypothesize that it interacts with CD47 at the onset of cell-cell fusion. CD47 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which, like MFR, belongs to the superfamily of immunoglobulins. We show that macrophages express the hemopoietic form of CD47, the expression of which is induced at the onset of fusion, but to a lower level than MFR. A glutathione S-transferase CD47 fusion protein engineered to contain the extracellular domain of CD47, binds macrophages, associates with MFR, and prevents multinucleation. CD47 and MFR associate via their amino-terminal immunoglobulin variable domain. Of the nine monoclonal antibodies raised against the extracellular domain of CD47, three block fusion, as well as MFR-CD47 interaction, whereas the others have no effect. Together, these data suggest that CD47 is involved in macrophage multinucleation by virtue of interacting with MFR during adhesion/fusion.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    Practical Mouse Model to Investigate Therapeutics for Staphylococcusaureus Contaminated Surgical Mesh Implants.

    In The Journal of Surgical Research on 1 March 2023 by Collins, M. M., Race, B., et al.


    The use of prosthetic mesh in hernia repair provides a powerful tool to increase repair longevity, decrease recurrence rates, and facilitate complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Overall infection rates with mesh are low, but for those affected there is high morbidity and economic cost. The availability of a practicable small animal model would be advantageous for the preclinical testing of prophylactics, therapeutics, and new biomaterials. To this end, we have developed a novel mouse model for implantation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-infected surgical mesh and provide results from antibiotic and immunotherapeutic testing. Implantation of surgical mesh between fascial planes of the mouse hind limb was used to approximate hernia repair in humans. Surgical mesh was inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to test the efficacy of antibiotic therapy with daptomycin and/or immunotherapy to induce macrophage phagocytosis using antibody blockade of the CD47 "don't eat me" molecule. Clinical outcomes were assessed by daily ambulation scores of the animals and by enumeration of mesh-associated bacteria at predetermined end points. A single prophylactic treatment with daptomycin at the time of surgery led to improved ambulation scores and undetectable levels of bacteria in seven of eight mice by 21 days postinfection. Anti-CD47, an activator of macrophage phagocytosis, was ineffective when administered alone or in combination with daptomycin treatment. Ten days of daily antibiotic therapy begun 3 days after infection was ineffective at clearing infection. This fast and simple model allows rapid in vivo testing of novel antimicrobials and immunomodulators to treat surgical implant infections. Published by Elsevier Inc.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Immunological conversion of solid tumours using a bispecific nanobioconjugate for cancer immunotherapy.

    In Nature Nanotechnology on 1 December 2022 by Lu, Y., Huntoon, K., et al.


    Solid tumours display a limited response to immunotherapies. By contrast, haematological malignancies exhibit significantly higher response rates to immunotherapies as compared with solid tumours. Among several microenvironmental and biological disparities, the differential expression of unique immune regulatory molecules contributes significantly to the interaction of blood cancer cells with immune cells. The self-ligand receptor of the signalling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 7 (SLAMF7), a molecule that is critical in promoting the body's innate immune cells to detect and engulf cancer cells, is expressed nearly exclusively on the cell surface of haematologic tumours, but not on solid ones. Here we show that a bispecific nanobioconjugate that enables the decoration of SLAMF7 on the surface of solid tumours induces robust phagocytosis and activates the phagocyte cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) pathway, sensitizing the tumours to immune checkpoint blockade. Our findings support an immunological conversion strategy that uses nano-adjuvants to improve the effectiveness of immunotherapies for solid tumours. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

    CD47-SIRPα axis blockade in NASH promotes necroptotic hepatocyte clearance by liver macrophages and decreases hepatic fibrosis.

    In Science Translational Medicine on 23 November 2022 by Shi, H., Wang, X., et al.


    Necroptosis contributes to hepatocyte death in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but the fate and roles of necroptotic hepatocytes (necHCs) in NASH remain unknown. We show here that the accumulation of necHCs in human and mouse NASH liver is associated with an up-regulation of the "don't-eat-me" ligand CD47 on necHCs, but not on apoptotic hepatocytes, and an increase in the CD47 receptor SIRPα on liver macrophages, consistent with impaired macrophage-mediated clearance of necHCs. In vitro, necHC clearance by primary liver macrophages was enhanced by treatment with either anti-CD47 or anti-SIRPα. In a proof-of-concept mouse model of inducible hepatocyte necroptosis, anti-CD47 antibody treatment increased necHC uptake by liver macrophages and inhibited markers of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, which is responsible for liver fibrogenesis. Treatment of two mouse models of diet-induced NASH with anti-CD47, anti-SIRPα, or AAV8-H1-shCD47 to silence CD47 in hepatocytes increased the uptake of necHC by liver macrophages and decreased markers of HSC activation and liver fibrosis. Anti-SIRPα treatment avoided the adverse effect of anemia found in anti-CD47-treated mice. These findings provide evidence that impaired clearance of necHCs by liver macrophages due to CD47-SIRPα up-regulation contributes to fibrotic NASH, and suggest therapeutic blockade of the CD47-SIRPα axis as a strategy to decrease the accumulation of necHCs in NASH liver and dampen the progression of hepatic fibrosis.

    • Cardiovascular biology
    Comparative efficacy and mechanism of action of cardiac progenitor cells after cardiac injury.

    In IScience on 19 August 2022 by Gunasekaran, M., Mishra, R., et al.


    Successful cell therapy requires cells to resist the hostile ischemic myocardium, be retained to continue secreting cardioprotective growth factors/exosomes, and resist immunological host responses. Clinically relevant stem/progenitor cells in a rodent model of acute myocardial infarction (MI) demonstrated that neonatal cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (nMSCs) provide the most robust cardiac functional recovery. Transplanted nMSCs significantly increased the number of tissue reparative macrophages and regulatory T-cells and decreased monocyte-derived inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils in the host myocardium. mRNA microarray and single-cell analyses combined with targeted depletion studies established CD47 in nMSCs as a key molecule responsible for cell retention in the myocardium through an antiphagocytic mechanism regulated by miR34a-5p. Gain and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that miR34a-5p also regulated the production of exosomes and cardioprotective paracrine factors in the nMSC secretome. In conclusion, miR34a-5p and CD47 play an important role in determining the composition of nMSCs' secretome and immune evasion, respectively.© 2022.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Alpha-emitter radium-223 mediates STING-dependent pyroptosis to trigger robust tumor immunogenicity

    Preprint on Research Square on 5 May 2022 by Yang, M., Cheng, C., et al.


    h4>Purpose: /h4> Radium-223 ( 223 Ra) is the first-in-class alpha-emitter to mediate tumor eradication, which radiation emitted from alpha-emitter are routinely regarded can reduce tumor burden by directly cleaving double-strand DNA and killing tumor cells. However, the immunogenic characteristics and various cell death modalities triggered by alpha-emitter are remain unclear. h4>Methods: /h4> We evaluated biological effects of 223 Ra in cancer cell lines and mice models by biological endpoints. Concurrently, we explored immunogenicity and cell death modalities triggered by 223 Ra and excavated its mechanisms of pyroptosis induction. Besides, synergistic effect with checkpoint blockade was also assessed. h4>Results: /h4> 223 Ra has efficient therapeutic antitumor effects, which examined by cell viability study, foci analysis for DNA damage, and tumor regression. We further demonstrated that irradiated cells released pro-inflammatory damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), including surface-exposed calreticulin (CALR), released high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), and secreted heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), which actively shape tumor immunogenicity. Pyroptosis, an immunogenic cell death (ICD) accompanied by activation of inflammasome, was also found to play significant roles in the modulation of cancer progression under the therapeutic 223 Ra. Mechanically, this effect relies on 223 Ra-induced DNA damage, which activates the STING-mediated DNA sensing pathway, leading to NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis. When combined with anti-CD47 therapy, 223 Ra can trigger robust antitumor effect. h4>Conclusion: /h4> These findings highlight the tumor eradication effect of 223 Ra, which exhibit both direct antitumor effects and indirect immune-stimulating capabilities. Importantly, STING/NLRP3 axis has a crucial role in pyroptosis under the therapeutic 223 Ra, which may shed light on promising targets for therapeutic interventions.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    SIRPα - CD47 axis regulates dendritic cell-T cell interactions and TCR activation during T cell priming in spleen.

    In PLoS ONE on 13 April 2022 by Autio, A., Wang, H., et al.


    The SIRPα-CD47 axis plays an important role in T cell recruitment to sites of immune reaction and inflammation but its role in T cell antigen priming is incompletely understood. Employing OTII TCR transgenic mice bred to Cd47-/- (Cd47KO) or SKI mice, a knock-in transgenic animal expressing non-signaling cytoplasmic-truncated SIRPα, we investigated how the SIRPα-CD47 axis contributes to antigen priming. Here we show that adoptive transfer of Cd47KO or SKI Ova-specific CD4+ T cells (OTII) into Cd47KO and SKI recipients, followed by Ova immunization, elicited reduced T cell division and proliferation indices, increased apoptosis, and reduced expansion compared to transfer into WT mice. We confirmed prior reports that splenic T cell zone, CD4+ conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and CD4+ T cell numbers were reduced in Cd47KO and SKI mice. We report that in vitro derived DCs from Cd47KO and SKI mice exhibited impaired migration in vivo and exhibited reduced CD11c+ DC proximity to OTII T cells in T cell zones after Ag immunization, which correlates with reduced TCR activation in transferred OTII T cells. These findings suggest that reduced numbers of CD4+ cDCs and their impaired migration contributes to reduced T cell-DC proximity in splenic T cell zone and reduced T cell TCR activation, cell division and proliferation, and indirectly increased T cell apoptosis.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Anti-CD47 antibody treatment attenuates liver inflammation and fibrosis in experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis models.

    In Liver International : Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver on 1 April 2022 by Gwag, T., Ma, E., et al.


    With the epidemic burden of obesity and metabolic diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including steatohepatitis (NASH) has become the most common chronic liver disease in the western world. NASH may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, no treatment is available for NASH. Therefore, finding a therapy for NAFLD/NASH is in urgent need. Previously we have demonstrated that mice lacking CD47 or its ligand thrombospondin1 (TSP1) are protected from obesity-associated NALFD. This suggests that CD47 blockade might be a novel treatment for obesity-associated metabolic disease. Thus, in this study, the therapeutic potential of an anti-CD47 antibody in NAFLD progression was determined. Both diet-induced NASH mouse model and human NASH organoid model were utilized in this study. NASH was induced in mice by feeding with diet enriched with fat, fructose and cholesterol (AMLN diet) for 20 weeks and then treated with anti-CD47 antibody or control IgG for 4 weeks. Body weight, body composition and liver phenotype were analysed. We found that anti-CD47 antibody treatment did not affect mice body weight, fat mass or liver steatosis. However, liver immune cell infiltration, inflammation and fibrosis were significantly reduced by anti-CD47 antibody treatment. In vitro data further showed that CD47 blockade prevented hepatic stellate cell activation and NASH progression in a human NASH organoid model. Collectively, these data suggest that anti-CD47 antibody might be a new therapeutic option for obesity-associated NASH and liver fibrosis. © 2022 John Wiley & Sons A/S . Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

    The pleiotropic benefits of statins include the ability to reduce CD47 and amplify the effect of pro-efferocytic therapies in atherosclerosis.

    In Nat Cardiovasc Res on 1 March 2022 by Jarr, K. U., Ye, J., et al.


    The pleiotropic benefits of statins may result from their impact on vascular inflammation. The molecular process underlying this phenomenon is not fully elucidated. Here, RNA sequencing designed to investigate gene expression patterns following CD47-SIRPα inhibition identifies a link between statins, efferocytosis, and vascular inflammation. In vivo and in vitro studies provide evidence that statins augment programmed cell removal by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of NFκB1 p50 and suppressing the expression of the critical 'don't eat me' molecule, CD47. Statins amplify the phagocytic capacity of macrophages, and thus the anti-atherosclerotic effects of CD47-SIRPα blockade, in an additive manner. Analyses of clinical biobank specimens suggest a similar link between statins and CD47 expression in humans, highlighting the potential translational implications. Taken together, our findings identify efferocytosis and CD47 as pivotal mediators of statin pleiotropy. In turn, statins amplify the anti-atherosclerotic effects of pro-phagocytic therapies independently of any lipid-lowering effect.

    • Cancer Research
    Enhancing Fatty Acid Catabolism of Macrophages Within Aberrant Breast Cancer Tumor Microenvironment Can Re-establish Antitumor Function.

    In Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology on 4 May 2021 by Gu, Y., Niu, X., et al.


    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains an intractable challenge owing to its aggressive nature and lack of any known therapeutic targets. Macrophages play a crucial role in cancer promotion and poor prognosis within the tumor microenvironment (TME). The phagocytosis checkpoint in macrophages has broader implications for current cancer immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we demonstrate the modulation in the antitumor activity of macrophages within the aberrant metabolic microenvironment of TNBC by metabolic intervention. The co-culture of macrophages with TNBC cell lines led to a decrease in both their phagocytic function and expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The transcription of glycolysis and fatty acid (FA) catabolism-related factors was inhibited within the dysregulated tumor metabolic microenvironment. Enhancement of FA catabolism by treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) agonist, fenofibrate (FF), could re-establish macrophages to gain their antineoplastic activity by activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) signaling pathway and increasing ATP production by FA oxidation. The combination of fenofibrate and anti-CD47 therapy significantly inhibited tumor growth in a 4T1 tumor-bearing mouse model. In conclusion, the enhancement of FA catabolism of macrophages could re-establish them to resume antitumor activity in the TME. Anti-CD47 therapy combined with fenofibrate may serve as a novel and potential immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of TNBC. Copyright © 2021 Gu, Niu, Yin, Wang, Yang, Yang, Zhang and Ji.

    An Acquired and Endogenous Glycocalyx Forms a Bidirectional "Don't Eat" and "Don't Eat Me" Barrier to Phagocytosis.

    In Current Biology : CB on 11 January 2021 by Imbert, P. R. C., Saric, A., et al.


    Macrophages continuously survey their environment in search of pathogens or apoptotic corpses or debris. Targets intended for clearance expose ligands that initiate their phagocytosis ("eat me" signals), while others avoid phagocytosis by displaying inhibitory ligands ("don't eat me" signals). We report that such ligands can be obscured by the glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins that coat pathogenic as well as malignant phagocytic targets. In addition, a reciprocal barrier of self-synthesized or acquired glycocalyx components on the macrophage surface shrouds phagocytic receptors, curtailing their ability to engage particles. The coating layers of macrophages and their targets hinder phagocytosis by both steric and electrostatic means. Their removal by enzymatic means is shown to markedly enhance phagocytic efficiency. In particular, we show that the removal of mucins, which are overexpressed in cancer cells, facilitates their clearance. These results shed light on the physical barriers that modulate phagocytosis, which have been heretofore underappreciated. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Crown Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Selective SIRPα blockade reverses tumor T cell exclusion and overcomes cancer immunotherapy resistance.

    In The Journal of Clinical Investigation on 2 November 2020 by Gauttier, V., Pengam, S., et al.


    T cell exclusion causes resistance to cancer immunotherapies via immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Myeloid cells contribute to resistance by expressing signal regulatory protein-α (SIRPα), an inhibitory membrane receptor that interacts with ubiquitous receptor CD47 to control macrophage phagocytosis in the tumor microenvironment. Although CD47/SIRPα-targeting drugs have been assessed in preclinical models, the therapeutic benefit of selectively blocking SIRPα, and not SIRPγ/CD47, in humans remains unknown. We report a potent synergy between selective SIRPα blockade and ICB in increasing memory T cell responses and reverting exclusion in syngeneic and orthotopic tumor models. Selective SIRPα blockade stimulated tumor nest T cell recruitment by restoring murine and human macrophage chemokine secretion and increased anti-tumor T cell responses by promoting tumor-antigen crosspresentation by dendritic cells. However, nonselective SIRPα/SIRPγ blockade targeting CD47 impaired human T cell activation, proliferation, and endothelial transmigration. Selective SIRPα inhibition opens an attractive avenue to overcoming ICB resistance in patients with elevated myeloid cell infiltration in solid tumors.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Tumoral and paratumoral NK cells and CD8+ T cells of esophageal carcinoma patients express high levels of CD47.

    In Scientific Reports on 18 August 2020 by Strizova, Z., Vachtenheim, J., et al.


    In a limited number of human malignancies, anti-CD47 therapy leads to the rapid clearance of tumor cells by macrophages. In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, anti-CD47 treatment has shown promising results in vitro. However, the CD47 expression pattern in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), which are associated with prolonged overall survival and serve as a positive prognostic factor, is largely unknown. In this study, a total of 36 tissue samples from the tumor, peritumoral tissue, and adjacent healthy esophageal tissue was obtained from 12 esophageal carcinoma (EC) patients, and the surface expression of CD47 was evaluated in natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T cells, and the nonlymphocyte cell fraction. We found that the proportions of the evaluated cells and their CD47-expressing populations were comparable across the analyzed tissue compartments. However, the proportions of CD47-expressing populations in the analyzed tissue compartments were significantly higher in NK cells and CD8+ T cells than in the nonlymphocyte cell fraction. Importantly, the intensity of CD47 staining was also significantly higher in the tested immune cells than in the nonlymphocyte cell fraction. High expression of CD47 in tissue-infiltrating NK cells and CD8+ T cells in EC patients can, therefore, affect the efficacy of anti-CD47 therapy in EC.

    • FC/FACS
    Upregulation of CD47 Is a Host Checkpoint Response to Pathogen Recognition.

    In mBio on 23 June 2020 by Tal, M. C., Torrez Dulgeroff, L. B., et al.


    It is well understood that the adaptive immune response to infectious agents includes a modulating suppressive component as well as an activating component. We now show that the very early innate response also has an immunosuppressive component. Infected cells upregulate the CD47 "don't eat me" signal, which slows the phagocytic uptake of dying and viable cells as well as downstream antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions. A CD47 mimic that acts as an essential virulence factor is encoded by all poxviruses, but CD47 expression on infected cells was found to be upregulated even by pathogens, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that encode no mimic. CD47 upregulation was revealed to be a host response induced by the stimulation of both endosomal and cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines, including those found in the plasma of hepatitis C patients, upregulated CD47 on uninfected dendritic cells, thereby linking innate modulation with downstream adaptive immune responses. Indeed, results from antibody-mediated CD47 blockade experiments as well as CD47 knockout mice revealed an immunosuppressive role for CD47 during infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Since CD47 blockade operates at the level of pattern recognition receptors rather than at a pathogen or antigen-specific level, these findings identify CD47 as a novel potential immunotherapeutic target for the enhancement of immune responses to a broad range of infectious agents.IMPORTANCE Immune responses to infectious agents are initiated when a pathogen or its components bind to pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRR binding sets off a cascade of events that activates immune responses. We now show that, in addition to activating immune responses, PRR signaling also initiates an immunosuppressive response, probably to limit inflammation. The importance of the current findings is that blockade of immunomodulatory signaling, which is mediated by the upregulation of the CD47 molecule, can lead to enhanced immune responses to any pathogen that triggers PRR signaling. Since most or all pathogens trigger PRRs, CD47 blockade could be used to speed up and strengthen both innate and adaptive immune responses when medically indicated. Such immunotherapy could be done without a requirement for knowing the HLA type of the individual, the specific antigens of the pathogen, or, in the case of bacterial infections, the antimicrobial resistance profile.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Immunotherapeutic Blockade of CD47 Inhibitory Signaling Enhances Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to Viral Infection.

    In Cell Reports on 14 April 2020 by Cham, L. B., Torrez Dulgeroff, L. B., et al.


    Paradoxically, early host responses to infection include the upregulation of the antiphagocytic molecule, CD47. This suggests that CD47 blockade could enhance antigen presentation and subsequent immune responses. Indeed, mice treated with anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections show increased activation of both macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), enhancement of the kinetics and potency of CD8+ T cell responses, and significantly improved virus control. Treatment efficacy is critically dependent on both APCs and CD8+ T cells. In preliminary results from one of two cohorts of humanized mice infected with HIV-1 for 6 weeks, CD47 blockade reduces plasma p24 levels and restores CD4+ T cell counts. The results indicate that CD47 blockade not only enhances the function of innate immune cells but also links to adaptive immune responses through improved APC function. As such, immunotherapy by CD47 blockade may have broad applicability to treat a wide range of infectious diseases.Published by Elsevier Inc.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Activation of JUN in fibroblasts promotes pro-fibrotic programme and modulates protective immunity

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 20 March 2020 by Cui, L., Chen, S., et al.


    In pulmonary fibrosis, the transcription factor JUN is highly expressed in the fibrotic foci. Its induction in adult mice drives lung fibrosis, which is abrogated by administration of anti-CD47. Here, we use high-dimensional mass cytometry to profile protein expression and the secretome of individual fibroblasts and leukocytes from pulmonary fibrosis patients. We show that JUN is activated in fibroblasts derived from fibrotic lungs which also demonstrated increased CD47 and PD-L1 expression. Using ATAC-seq and ChIP-seq, we found that activation of JUN in fibroblasts rendered enhancers of CD47 and PD-L1 accessible, an observation that reporter assays corroborated. Meanwhile we detected increased IL-6 signaling which amplified both JUN-mediated CD47 -enhancer activity and protein expression in fibrotic lung fibroblasts. Using an in vivo mouse model of fibrosis, we found two distinct mechanisms by which blocking IL-6, CD47, and PD-L1 reversed fibrosis—increased phagocytosis of profibrotic fibroblasts and elimination of suppressive effects on adaptive immunity. Our results identify specific immune mechanisms that promote the fibrotic process and suggest a complementary therapeutic approach that could be used alongside conventional anti-fibrotics for pulmonary fibrosis diseases.

    • Cell Biology
    Resolvin D1 promotes the targeting and clearance of necroptotic cells.

    In Cell Death and Differentiation on 1 February 2020 by Gerlach, B. D., Marinello, M., et al.


    Inflammation-resolution is a protective response that is mediated by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). The clearance of dead cells or efferocytosis is a critical cellular program of inflammation-resolution. Impaired efferocytosis can lead to tissue damage in prevalent human diseases, like atherosclerosis. Therefore understanding mechanisms associated with swift clearance of dead cells is of utmost clinical importance. Recently, the accumulation of necroptotic cells (NCs) was observed in human plaques and we postulated that this is due to defective clearance programs. Here we present evidence that NCs are inefficiently taken up by macrophages because they have increased surface expression of a well-known "don't eat me" signal called CD47. High levels of CD47 on NCs stimulated RhoA-pMLC signaling in macrophages that promoted "nibbling", rather than whole-cell engulfment of NCs. Anti-CD47 blocking antibodies limited RhoA-p-MLC signaling and promoted whole-cell NC engulfment. Treatment with anti-CD47 blocking antibodies to Ldlr-/- mice with established atherosclerosis decreased necrotic cores, limited the accumulation of plaque NCs and increased lesional SPMs, including Resolvin D1 (RvD1) compared with IgG controls. Mechanistically, RvD1 promoted whole-cell engulfment of NCs by decreasing RhoA signaling and activating CDC42. RvD1 specifically targeted NCs for engulfment by facilitating the release of the well-known "eat me signal" called calreticulin from macrophages in a CDC42 dependent manner. Lastly, RvD1 enhanced the clearance of NCs in advanced murine plaques. Together, these results suggest new molecules and signaling associated with the clearance of NCs, provide a new paradigm for the regulation of inflammation-resolution, and offer a potential treatment strategy for diseases where NCs underpin the pathology.

    CD47 blockade augmentation of trastuzumab antitumor efficacy dependent on antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis.

    In JCI Insight on 19 December 2019 by Tsao, L. C., Crosby, E. J., et al.


    The HER2-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), trastuzumab, has been the mainstay of therapy for HER2+ breast cancer (BC) for approximately 20 years. However, its therapeutic mechanism of action (MOA) remains unclear, with antitumor responses to trastuzumab remaining heterogeneous and metastatic HER2+ BC remaining incurable. Consequently, understanding its MOA could enable rational strategies to enhance its efficacy. Using both murine and human versions of trastuzumab, we found its antitumor activity dependent on Fcγ receptor stimulation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), but not cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Trastuzumab also stimulated TAM activation and expansion, but did not require adaptive immunity, natural killer cells, and/or neutrophils. Moreover, inhibition of the innate immune ADCP checkpoint, CD47, significantly enhanced trastuzumab-mediated ADCP and TAM expansion and activation, resulting in the emergence of a unique hyperphagocytic macrophage population, improved antitumor responses, and prolonged survival. In addition, we found that tumor-associated CD47 expression was inversely associated with survival in HER2+ BC patients and that human HER2+ BC xenografts treated with trastuzumab plus CD47 inhibition underwent complete tumor regression. Collectively, our study identifies trastuzumab-mediated ADCP as an important antitumor MOA that may be clinically enabled by CD47 blockade to augment therapeutic efficacy.

    • IHC
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Epithelial CD47 is critical for mucosal repair in the murine intestine in vivo.

    In Nature Communications on 1 November 2019 by Reed, M., Luissint, A. C., et al.


    CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that regulates inflammatory responses and tissue repair. Here, we show that normal mice treated with anti-CD47 antibodies, and Cd47-null mice have impaired intestinal mucosal wound healing. Furthermore, intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific loss of CD47 does not induce spontaneous immune-mediated intestinal barrier disruption but results in defective mucosal repair after biopsy-induced colonic wounding or Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced mucosal damage. In vitro analyses using primary cultures of CD47-deficient murine colonic IEC or human colonoid-derived IEC treated with CD47-blocking antibodies demonstrate impaired epithelial cell migration in wound healing assays. Defective wound repair after CD47 loss is linked to decreased epithelial β1 integrin and focal adhesion signaling, as well as reduced thrombospondin-1 and TGF-β1. These results demonstrate a critical role for IEC-expressed CD47 in regulating mucosal repair and raise important considerations for possible alterations in wound healing secondary to therapeutic targeting of CD47.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cardiovascular biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Targeted inhibition of CD47-SIRPα requires Fc-FcγR interactions to maximize activity in T-cell lymphomas.

    In Blood on 24 October 2019 by Jain, S., Van Scoyk, A., et al.


    Antibodies that bind CD47 on tumor cells and prevent interaction with SIRPα on phagocytes are active against multiple cancer types including T-cell lymphoma (TCL). Here we demonstrate that surface CD47 is heterogeneously expressed across primary TCLs, whereas major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, which can also suppress phagocytosis, is ubiquitous. Multiple monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block CD47-SIRPα interaction promoted phagocytosis of TCL cells, which was enhanced by cotreatment with antibodies targeting MHC class I. Expression levels of surface CD47 and genes that modulate CD47 pyroglutamation did not correlate with the extent of phagocytosis induced by CD47 blockade in TCL lines. In vivo treatment of multiple human TCL patient-derived xenografts or an immunocompetent murine TCL model with a short course of anti-CD47 mAb markedly reduced lymphoma burden and extended survival. Depletion of macrophages reduced efficacy in vivo, whereas depletion of neutrophils had no effect. F(ab')2-only fragments of anti-CD47 antibodies failed to induce phagocytosis by human macrophages, indicating a requirement for Fc-Fcγ receptor interactions. In contrast, F(ab')2-only fragments increased phagocytosis by murine macrophages independent of SLAMF7-Mac-1 interaction. Full-length anti-CD47 mAbs also induced phagocytosis by Fcγ receptor-deficient murine macrophages. An immunoglobulin G1 anti-CD47 mAb induced phagocytosis and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity of TCL cells that was augmented by cotreatment with mogamulizumab, an anti-CCR4 mAb, or a mAb blocking MHC class I. These studies help explain the disparate activity of monotherapy with agents that block CD47 in murine models compared with patients. They also have direct translational implications for the deployment of anti-CD47 mAbs alone or in combination. © 2019 by The American Society of Hematology.

    Increased lymphocyte activation and atherosclerosis in CD47-deficient mice.

    In Scientific Reports on 23 July 2019 by Engelbertsen, D., Autio, A., et al.


    CD47, also known as integrin-associated protein (IAP), is a transmembrane protein with multiple biological functions including regulation of efferocytosis and leukocyte trafficking. In this study we investigated the effect of CD47-deficiency on atherosclerosis using a model of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-induced hypercholesterolemia. We observed increased plaque formation in CD47 null mice compared to wild-type controls. Loss of CD47 caused activation of dendritic cells, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, indicating an important role for CD47 in regulating immunity. In particular, Cd47 deficiency increased the proportion of IFN-γ producing CD90+ NK cells. Treatment with depleting anti-NK1.1 monoclonal antibody (mAb), but not depleting anti-CD4/CD8 mAbs, equalized atherosclerotic burden, suggesting NK cells were involved in the enhanced disease in Cd47 deficient mice. Additional studies revealed that levels of CD90+ and IFN-γ+ NK cells were expanded in atherosclerotic aorta and that CD90+ NK cells produce more IFN-γ than CD90- NK cells. Finally, we demonstrate that anti-CD47 (MIAP410) causes splenomegaly and activation of DCs and T cells, without affecting NK cell activation. In summary, we demonstrate that loss of CD47 causes increased lymphocyte activation that results in increased atherosclerosis.

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