InVivoMAb anti-mouse/human IL-5

Catalog #BE0198
Product Citations:
19
Clone:
TRFK5
Reactivities:
Mouse, Human

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Product Details

The TRFK5 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse and human interleukin-5 (IL-5), a 26 kDa homodimeric cytokine. IL-5 stimulates B lymphocyte differentiation and proliferation and increases the secretion of IgM and IgA. It is also a key mediator in eosinophil activation and differentiation. IL-5 has long been associated with the cause of several allergic diseases including allergic rhinitis and asthma, wherein a large increase in the number of circulating, airway tissue, and induced sputum eosinophils have been observed. The TRFK5 antibody has been shown to neutralize the bioactivity of natural or recombinant IL-5.

Specifications

Isotype Rat IgG1, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb rat IgG1 isotype control, anti-horseradish peroxidase
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen Mouse partially-purified T cell clone supernatant
Reported Applications in vivo IL-5 neutralization
in vivo eosinophil depletion
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_10950522
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vivo eosinophil depletion
Moynihan, K. D., et al. (2016). "Eradication of large established tumors in mice by combination immunotherapy that engages innate and adaptive immune responses" Nat Med. doi : 10.1038/nm.4200. PubMed

Checkpoint blockade with antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; also known as PD-1) elicits durable tumor regression in metastatic cancer, but these dramatic responses are confined to a minority of patients. This suboptimal outcome is probably due in part to the complex network of immunosuppressive pathways present in advanced tumors, which are unlikely to be overcome by intervention at a single signaling checkpoint. Here we describe a combination immunotherapy that recruits a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells to eliminate large tumor burdens in syngeneic tumor models and a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma; to our knowledge tumors of this size have not previously been curable by treatments relying on endogenous immunity. Maximal antitumor efficacy required four components: a tumor-antigen-targeting antibody, a recombinant interleukin-2 with an extended half-life, anti-PD-1 and a powerful T cell vaccine. Depletion experiments revealed that CD8+ T cells, cross-presenting dendritic cells and several other innate immune cell subsets were required for tumor regression. Effective treatment induced infiltration of immune cells and production of inflammatory cytokines in the tumor, enhanced antibody-mediated tumor antigen uptake and promoted antigen spreading. These results demonstrate the capacity of an elicited endogenous immune response to destroy large, established tumors and elucidate essential characteristics of combination immunotherapies that are capable of curing a majority of tumors in experimental settings typically viewed as intractable.

in vivo IL-5 neutralization
Sanfilippo, A. M., et al. (2015). "Allergic Lung Inflammation Reduces Tissue Invasion and Enhances Survival from Pulmonary Pneumococcal Infection in Mice, Which Correlates with Increased Expression of Transforming Growth Factor beta1 and SiglecF(low) Alveolar Macrophages" Infect Immun 83(7): 2976-2983. PubMed

Asthma is generally thought to confer an increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in humans. However, recent reports suggest that mortality rates from IPD are unaffected in patients with asthma and that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a condition similar to asthma, protects against the development of complicated pneumonia. To clarify the effects of asthma on the subsequent susceptibility to pneumococcal infection, ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic lung inflammation (ALI) was induced in mice followed by intranasal infection with A66.1 serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae. Surprisingly, mice with ALI were significantly more resistant to lethal infection than non-ALI mice. The heightened resistance observed following ALI correlated with enhanced early clearance of pneumococci from the lung, decreased bacterial invasion from the airway into the lung tissue, a blunted inflammatory cytokine and neutrophil response to infection, and enhanced expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1). Neutrophil depletion prior to infection had no effect on enhanced early bacterial clearance or resistance to IPD in mice with ALI. Although eosinophils recruited into the lung during ALI appeared to be capable of phagocytizing bacteria, neutralization of interleukin-5 (IL-5) to inhibit eosinophil recruitment likewise had no effect on early clearance or survival following infection. However, enhanced resistance was associated with an increase in levels of clodronate-sensitive, phagocytic SiglecF(low) alveolar macrophages within the airways following ALI. These findings suggest that, while the risk of developing IPD may actually be decreased in patients with acute asthma, additional clinical data are needed to better understand the risk of IPD in patients with different asthma phenotypes.

in vivo IL-5 neutralization
Griseri, T., et al. (2015). "Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-Activated Eosinophils Promote Interleukin-23 Driven Chronic Colitis" Immunity 43(1): 187-199. PubMed

The role of intestinal eosinophils in immune homeostasis is enigmatic and the molecular signals that drive them from protective to tissue damaging are unknown. Most commonly associated with Th2 cell-mediated diseases, we describe a role for eosinophils as crucial effectors of the interleukin-23 (IL-23)-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) axis in colitis. Chronic intestinal inflammation was characterized by increased bone marrow eosinopoiesis and accumulation of activated intestinal eosinophils. IL-5 blockade or eosinophil depletion ameliorated colitis, implicating eosinophils in disease pathogenesis. GM-CSF was a potent activator of eosinophil effector functions and intestinal accumulation, and GM-CSF blockade inhibited chronic colitis. By contrast neutrophil accumulation was GM-CSF independent and dispensable for colitis. In addition to TNF secretion, release of eosinophil peroxidase promoted colitis identifying direct tissue-toxic mechanisms. Thus, eosinophils are key perpetrators of chronic inflammation and tissue damage in IL-23-mediated immune diseases and it suggests the GM-CSF-eosinophil axis as an attractive therapeutic target.

in vivo eosinophil depletion
Shi, Y., et al. (2014). "Pristane-induced granulocyte recruitment promotes phenotypic conversion of macrophages and protects against diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage in Mac-1 deficiency" J Immunol 193(10): 5129-5139. PubMed

Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage (DPH) is an uncommon but critical complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. Peritoneal administration of 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (pristane) can recapitulate a lupus-like syndrome in mice, which can develop into DPH within a few weeks, especially in C57BL/6 mice. Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18), a leukocyte adhesion molecule, is known to play a role in inflammation by regulating migration of leukocytes into injured tissue. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of Mac-1 in pristane-induced DPH, using Mac-1(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice on a C57BL/6 background. After pristane injection, Mac-1(-/-) mice showed reduced prevalence of DPH and attenuated peritonitis compared with WT mice. Analysis of the peritoneal lavage on days 5 and 10 after pristane treatment revealed increased numbers of eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages, but decreased numbers of neutrophils and classically activated macrophages in Mac-1(-/-) mice compared with WT. Enhanced production of IL-4 and IL-13, both key mediators of macrophage polarization toward the mannose receptor(+) (MMR(+)) phenotype, was observed in the peritoneal cavity of Mac-1(-/-) mice. Depletion of neutrophils and eosinophils or adoptive transfer of classically activated macrophages resulted in the exacerbation of pristane-mediated DPH in both WT and Mac-1(-/-) mice. Moreover, peritoneal transfer of F4/80(high)MMR(+) alternatively activated macrophages successfully reduced the prevalence of DPH in WT mice. Collectively, Mac-1 promoted acute inflammatory responses in the peritoneal cavity and the lungs by downregulating granulocyte migration and subsequent phenotypic conversion of macrophages in a pristane-induced systemic lupus erythematosus model.

in vivo IL-5 neutralization
Weng, M., et al. (2011). "Eosinophils are necessary for pulmonary arterial remodeling in a mouse model of eosinophilic inflammation-induced pulmonary hypertension" Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 301(6): L927-936. PubMed

There is increasing evidence that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of some forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH). We recently demonstrated that deficiency of adiponectin (APN) in a mouse model of PH induced by eosinophilic inflammation increases pulmonary arterial remodeling, pulmonary pressures, and the accumulation of eosinophils in the lung. Based on these data, we hypothesized that APN deficiency exacerbates PH indirectly by increasing eosinophil recruitment. Herein, we examined the role of eosinophils in the development of inflammation-induced PH. Elimination of eosinophils in APN-deficient mice by treatment with anti-interleukin-5 antibody attenuated pulmonary arterial muscularization and PH. In addition, we observed that transgenic mice that are devoid of eosinophils also do not develop pulmonary arterial muscularization in eosinophilic inflammation-induced PH. To investigate the mechanism by which APN deficiency increased eosinophil accumulation in response to an allergic inflammatory stimulus, we measured expression levels of the eosinophil-specific chemokines in alveolar macrophages isolated from the lungs of mice with eosinophilic inflammation-induced PH. In these experiments, the levels of CCL11 and CCL24 were higher in macrophages isolated from APN-deficient mice than in macrophages from wild-type mice. Finally, we demonstrate that the extracts of eosinophil granules promoted the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells in vitro. These data suggest that APN deficiency may exacerbate PH, in part, by increasing eosinophil recruitment into the lung and that eosinophils could play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced PH. These results may have implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of PH caused by vascular inflammation.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Type 2 innate lymphoid cells are not involved in mouse bladder tumor development.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 29 January 2024 by Schneider, A. K., Domingos-Pereira, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Therapies for bladder cancer patients are limited by side effects and failures, highlighting the need for novel targets to improve disease management. Given the emerging evidence highlighting the key role of innate lymphoid cell subsets, especially type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immune responses, we investigated the contribution of ILC2s in bladder tumor development. Using the orthotopic murine MB49 bladder tumor model, we found a strong enrichment of ILC2s in the bladder under steady-state conditions, comparable to that in the lung. However, as tumors grew, we observed an increase in ILC1s but no changes in ILC2s. Targeting ILC2s by blocking IL-4/IL-13 signaling pathways, IL-5, or IL-33 receptor, or using IL-33-deficient or ILC2-deficient mice, did not affect mice survival following bladder tumor implantation. Overall, these results suggest that ILC2s do not contribute significantly to bladder tumor development, yet further investigations are required to confirm these results in bladder cancer patients. Copyright © 2024 Schneider, Domingos-Pereira, Cesson, Polak, Fallon, Zhu, Roth, Nardelli-Haefliger and Derré.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Active eosinophils regulate host defence and immune responses in colitis.

    In Nature on 1 March 2023 by Gurtner, A., Borrelli, C., et al.

    PubMed

    In the past decade, single-cell transcriptomics has helped to uncover new cell types and states and led to the construction of a cellular compendium of health and disease. Despite this progress, some difficult-to-sequence cells remain absent from tissue atlases. Eosinophils-elusive granulocytes that are implicated in a plethora of human pathologies1-5-are among these uncharted cell types. The heterogeneity of eosinophils and the gene programs that underpin their pleiotropic functions remain poorly understood. Here we provide a comprehensive single-cell transcriptomic profiling of mouse eosinophils. We identify an active and a basal population of intestinal eosinophils, which differ in their transcriptome, surface proteome and spatial localization. By means of a genome-wide CRISPR inhibition screen and functional assays, we reveal a mechanism by which interleukin-33 (IL-33) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) induce the accumulation of active eosinophils in the inflamed colon. Active eosinophils are endowed with bactericidal and T cell regulatory activity, and express the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and PD-L1. Notably, active eosinophils are enriched in the lamina propria of a small cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, and are closely associated with CD4+ T cells. Our findings provide insights into the biology of eosinophils and highlight the crucial contribution of this cell type to intestinal homeostasis, immune regulation and host defence. Furthermore, we lay a framework for the characterization of eosinophils in human gastrointestinal diseases. © 2022. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Induction of tumor cell autosis by myxoma virus-infected CAR-T and TCR-T cells to overcome primary and acquired resistance.

    In Cancer Cell on 12 September 2022 by Zheng, N., Fang, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Cytotoxicity of tumor-specific T cells requires tumor cell-to-T cell contact-dependent induction of classic tumor cell apoptosis and pyroptosis. However, this may not trigger sufficient primary responses of solid tumors to adoptive cell therapy or prevent tumor antigen escape-mediated acquired resistance. Here we test myxoma virus (MYXV)-infected tumor-specific T (TMYXV) cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or T cell receptor (TCR), which systemically deliver MYXV into solid tumors to overcome primary resistance. In addition to T cell-induced apoptosis and pyroptosis, tumor eradication by CAR/TCR-TMYXV cells is also attributed to tumor cell autosis induction, a special type of cell death. Mechanistically, T cell-derived interferon γ (IFNγ)-protein kinase B (AKT) signaling synergizes with MYXV-induced M-T5-SKP-1-VPS34 signaling to trigger robust tumor cell autosis. CAR/TCR-TMYXV-elicited autosis functions as a type of potent bystander killing to restrain antigen escape. We uncover an unexpected synergy between T cells and MYXV to bolster solid tumor cell autosis that reinforces tumor clearance. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Context-dependent effects of IL-2 rewire immunity into distinct cellular circuits.

    In The Journal of Experimental Medicine on 4 July 2022 by Whyte, C. E., Singh, K., et al.

    PubMed

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a key homeostatic cytokine, with therapeutic applications in both immunogenic and tolerogenic immune modulation. Clinical use has been hampered by pleiotropic functionality and widespread receptor expression, with unexpected adverse events. Here, we developed a novel mouse strain to divert IL-2 production, allowing identification of contextual outcomes. Network analysis identified priority access for Tregs and a competitive fitness cost of IL-2 production among both Tregs and conventional CD4 T cells. CD8 T and NK cells, by contrast, exhibited a preference for autocrine IL-2 production. IL-2 sourced from dendritic cells amplified Tregs, whereas IL-2 produced by B cells induced two context-dependent circuits: dramatic expansion of CD8+ Tregs and ILC2 cells, the latter driving a downstream, IL-5-mediated, eosinophilic circuit. The source-specific effects demonstrate the contextual influence of IL-2 function and potentially explain adverse effects observed during clinical trials. Targeted IL-2 production therefore has the potential to amplify or quench particular circuits in the IL-2 network, based on clinical desirability.© 2022 Whyte et al.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    TGF-β production by eosinophils drives the expansion of peripherally induced neuropilin- RORγt+ regulatory T-cells during bacterial and allergen challenge.

    In Mucosal Immunology on 1 March 2022 by Fallegger, A., Priola, M., et al.

    PubMed

    Eosinophils regulate intra-adipose axonal plasticity.

    In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America on 18 January 2022 by Meng, X., Qian, X., et al.

    PubMed

    Sympathetic innervation regulates energy balance, and the nerve density in the adipose tissues changes under various metabolic states, resulting in altered neuronal control and conferring resilience to metabolic challenges. However, the impact of the immune milieu on neuronal innervation is not known. Here, we examined the regulatory role on nerve plasticity by eosinophils and found they increased cell abundance in response to cold and produced nerve growth factor (NGF) in the white adipose tissues (WAT). Deletion of Ngf from eosinophils or depletion of eosinophils impairs cold-induced axonal outgrowth and beiging process. The spatial proximity between sympathetic nerves, IL-33-expressing stromal cells, and eosinophils was visualized in both human and mouse adipose tissues. At the cellular level, the sympathetic adrenergic signal induced calcium flux in the stromal cells and subsequent release of IL-33, which drove the up-regulation of IL-5 from group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), leading to eosinophil accretion. We propose a feed-forward loop between sympathetic activity and type 2 immunity that coordinately enhances sympathetic innervation and promotes energy expenditure. Copyright © 2022 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

    Enteric pathogens induce tissue tolerance and prevent neuronal loss from subsequent infections.

    In Cell on 11 November 2021 by Ahrends, T., Aydin, B., et al.

    PubMed

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) controls several intestinal functions including motility and nutrient handling, which can be disrupted by infection-induced neuropathies or neuronal cell death. We investigated possible tolerance mechanisms preventing neuronal loss and disruption in gut motility after pathogen exposure. We found that following enteric infections, muscularis macrophages (MMs) acquire a tissue-protective phenotype that prevents neuronal loss, dysmotility, and maintains energy balance during subsequent challenge with unrelated pathogens. Bacteria-induced neuroprotection relied on activation of gut-projecting sympathetic neurons and signaling via β2-adrenergic receptors (β2AR) on MMs. In contrast, helminth-mediated neuroprotection was dependent on T cells and systemic production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 by eosinophils, which induced arginase-expressing MMs that prevented neuronal loss from an unrelated infection located in a different intestinal region. Collectively, these data suggest that distinct enteric pathogens trigger a state of disease or tissue tolerance that preserves ENS number and functionality.Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Enteric pathogens induce tissue tolerance and prevent neuronal loss from subsequent infections

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 11 April 2021 by Ahrends, T., Aydin, B., et al.

    PubMed

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) controls several intestinal functions including motility and nutrient handling, which can be disrupted by infection-induced neuropathies or neuronal cell death. We investigated possible tolerance mechanisms preventing neuronal loss and disruption in gut motility after pathogen exposure. We found that following enteric infections, muscularis macrophages (MMs) acquire a tissue-protective phenotype that prevents neuronal loss and dysmotility during subsequent challenge with unrelated pathogens. Bacteria-induced neuroprotection relied on activation of gut-projecting sympathetic neurons and signaling via β 2 -adrenergic receptors (β2AR) on MMs. In contrast, helminth-mediated neuroprotection was dependent on T cells and systemic production of interleukin (IL)-4 and -13 by eosinophils, which induced arginase-expressing MMs that prevented neuronal loss from an unrelated infection located in a different intestinal region. Collectively, these data suggest that distinct enteric pathogens trigger a state of disease- or tissue tolerance that preserves ENS number and functionality.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Mucosal-associated invariant T cells restrict allergic airway inflammation.

    In The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology on 1 May 2020 by Ye, L., Pan, J., et al.

    PubMed

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Club Cell TRPV4 Serves as a Damage Sensor Driving Lung Allergic Inflammation.

    In Cell Host & Microbe on 8 April 2020 by Wiesner, D. L., Merkhofer, R. M., et al.

    PubMed

    Airway epithelium is the first body surface to contact inhaled irritants and report danger. Here, we report how epithelial cells recognize and respond to aeroallergen alkaline protease 1 (Alp1) of Aspergillus sp., because proteases are critical components of many allergens that provoke asthma. In a murine model, Alp1 elicits helper T (Th) cell-dependent lung eosinophilia that is initiated by the rapid response of bronchiolar club cells to Alp1. Alp1 damages bronchiolar cell junctions, which triggers a calcium flux signaled through calcineurin within club cells of the bronchioles, inciting inflammation. In two human cohorts, we link fungal sensitization and/or asthma with SNP/protein expression of the mechanosensitive calcium channel, TRPV4. TRPV4 is also necessary and sufficient for club cells to sensitize mice to Alp1. Thus, club cells detect junction damage as mechanical stress, which signals danger via TRPV4, calcium, and calcineurin to initiate allergic sensitization. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Neuroscience
    Activation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells alleviates aging-associated cognitive decline.

    In The Journal of Experimental Medicine on 6 April 2020 by Fung, I. T. H., Sankar, P., et al.

    PubMed

    Increasing evidence has challenged the traditional view about the immune privilege of the brain, but the precise roles of immune cells in regulating brain physiology and function remain poorly understood. Here, we report that tissue-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) accumulate in the choroid plexus of aged brains. ILC2 in the aged brain are long-lived, are relatively resistant to cellular senescence and exhaustion, and are capable of switching between cell cycle dormancy and proliferation. They are functionally quiescent at homeostasis but can be activated by IL-33 to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines and other effector molecules in vitro and in vivo. Intracerebroventricular transfer of activated ILC2 revitalized the aged brain and enhanced the cognitive function of aged mice. Administration of IL-5, a major ILC2 product, was sufficient to repress aging-associated neuroinflammation and alleviate aging-associated cognitive decline. Targeting ILC2 in the aged brain may provide new avenues to combat aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders. © 2020 Fung et al.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cardiovascular biology
    Interleukin-33 activates and recruits natural killer cells to inhibit pulmonary metastatic cancer development.

    In International Journal of Cancer on 1 March 2020 by Qi, L., Zhang, Q., et al.

    PubMed

    Increasing evidence suggests that IL-33 plays an important role in regulating tumor development. However, conflicting results, obtained from numerous studies, have highlighted the divergent functions of IL-33. The detailed mechanisms by which IL-33 modulates tumor development merit further investigation. Here, we report that IL-33 administration can effectively inhibit the development of pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer in a mouse. In our model, IL-33 promotes the production of TNF-α by macrophages, which increases IL-33 specific receptor (ST2) expression on natural killer (NK) cells and is pivotal in IL-33-induced NK cell activation. IL-33 treatment also facilitates the production of CCL5 in the lung by eosinophils and CD8+ T cells, which mediates the recruitment of NK cells to the tumor microenvironment. The systemic activation and local recruitment of NK cells result in potent tumor rejection in the lung. Our study reports a novel mechanism for the IL-33-meditated suppression of metastatic cancer and provides potential therapeutic strategies for targeting metastatic tumor. © 2019 UICC.

    Expression of IL-5 receptor alpha by murine and human lung neutrophils.

    In PLoS ONE on 16 August 2019 by Gorski, S. A., Lawrence, M. G., et al.

    PubMed

    The role of eosinophilia in atopic diseases, including asthma, is well established, as is the well-known role of IL-5 as a major eosinophilopoeitin and chemoattractant. Following influenza A virus infection of mice, type 2 innate lymphoid cells are recruited to the respiratory tract and produce large quantities of IL-5, which contributes to the recruitment of eosinophils into the infected lungs during the recovery phase of infection. We demonstrate here that while IL-5 is required for optimal recovery from influenza A virus infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, the protective effect of IL-5 is independent of eosinophils, suggesting an alternative cellular target. We describe the unexpected finding of IL-5 receptor alpha (CD125) expression on neutrophils infiltrating the inflamed mouse lungs, as well as on neutrophils at other anatomic sites. We extend this finding of neutrophil CD125 expression to humans, specifically to neutrophils found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the inflamed lungs of children with treatment-refractory asthma. We further demonstrate that the IL-5 receptor on neutrophils is capable of signal transduction. Our data provide further evidence that neutrophils can play a role bridging atopic type 2 and innate anti-microbial immunity.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Deficiency in Bhlhe40 impairs resistance toi>H. polygyrus bakeri/i>and reveals novel Csf2rb-dependent regulation of anti-helminth immunity

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 2 July 2019 by Jarjour, N. N., Bradstreet, T. R., et al.

    PubMed

    h4>ABSTRACT/h4> The cytokines GM-CSF and IL-5 are thought to possess largely divergent functions despite a shared dependence on the common beta (β C ) chain to initiate signaling. Although IL-5 is part of the core type 2 cytokine signature and is required for protection against some helminths, it is dispensable for immunity to others, such as Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri ( H. polygyrus ). Whether this is due to compensatory mechanisms is unclear. The transcription factor Bhlhe40 has been shown to control GM-CSF production and is proposed to be a novel regulator of T helper type 2 cells. We have found that Bhlhe40 is required in T cells for a protective memory response to secondary H. polygyrus infection. H. polygyrus rechallenge elicited dramatic Bhlhe40-dependent changes in gene and cytokine expression by lamina propria CD4 + T cells and in vitro -polarized T H 2 cells, including induction of GM-CSF and maximal production of type 2 cytokines including IL-5. β C chain-deficient, but not GM-CSF-deficient, mice rechallenged with H. polygyrus had severely impaired protective immunity. Our results demonstrate that Bhlhe40 is an essential regulator of T H 2 cell immunity during helminth infection and reveal unexpected redundancy of β C chain-dependent cytokines.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Anchoring of intratumorally administered cytokines to collagen safely potentiates systemic cancer immunotherapy.

    In Science Translational Medicine on 26 June 2019 by Momin, N., Mehta, N. K., et al.

    PubMed

    The clinical application of cytokine therapies for cancer treatment remains limited due to severe adverse reactions and insufficient therapeutic effects. Although cytokine localization by intratumoral administration could address both issues, the rapid escape of soluble cytokines from the tumor invariably subverts this effort. We find that intratumoral administration of a cytokine fused to the collagen-binding protein lumican prolongs local retention and markedly reduces systemic exposure. Combining local administration of lumican-cytokine fusions with systemic immunotherapies (tumor-targeting antibody, checkpoint blockade, cancer vaccine, or T cell therapy) improves efficacy without exacerbating toxicity in syngeneic tumor models and the BrafV600E /Ptenfl/fl genetically engineered melanoma model. Curative abscopal effects on noncytokine-injected tumors were also observed as a result of a protective and systemic CD8+ T cell response primed by local therapy. Cytokine collagen-anchoring constitutes a facile, tumor-agnostic strategy to safely potentiate otherwise marginally effective systemic immunotherapies. Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Intestinal helminth infection promotes IL-5- and CD4+ T cell-dependent immunity in the lung against migrating parasites.

    In Mucosal Immunology on 1 March 2019 by Filbey, K. J., Camberis, M., et al.

    PubMed

    The ability of helminths to manipulate the immune system of their hosts to ensure their own survival is often credited with affecting responses to other pathogens. We undertook co-infection experiments in mice to determine how infection with the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus affected the parasitological, immunological and physiological outcomes of a primary infection with a distinct species of helminth; the lung migratory parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. We found that migrating N. brasiliensis larvae were killed in the lungs of H. polygyrus-infected mice by a process involving IL-33-activated CD4+ T cells that released IL-5 and recruited activated eosinophils. The lung pathology normally associated with N. brasiliensis larval migration was also reduced. Importantly, lung immunity remained intact in mice cleared of prior H. polygyrus infection and also occurred during infection with another entirely enteric helminth, Trichuris muris. This study identifies a cross-mucosal immune mechanism by which intestinal helminths may protect their hosts against co-infection by a different parasite at a distal site, via circulation of activated CD4+ T cells that can be triggered to release effector cytokines and mount inflammatory responses by tissue damage-associated alarmins, such as IL-33.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Commensal-specific T cell plasticity promotes rapid tissue adaptation to injury.

    In Science on 4 January 2019 by Harrison, O. J., Linehan, J. L., et al.

    PubMed

    Barrier tissues are primary targets of environmental stressors and are home to the largest number of antigen-experienced lymphocytes in the body, including commensal-specific T cells. We found that skin-resident commensal-specific T cells harbor a paradoxical program characterized by a type 17 program associated with a poised type 2 state. Thus, in the context of injury and exposure to inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-18, these cells rapidly release type 2 cytokines, thereby acquiring contextual functions. Such acquisition of a type 2 effector program promotes tissue repair. Aberrant type 2 responses can also be unleashed in the context of local defects in immunoregulation. Thus, commensal-specific T cells co-opt tissue residency and cell-intrinsic flexibility as a means to promote both local immunity and tissue adaptation to injury. Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Microbiota-driven interleukin-17-producing cells and eosinophils synergize to accelerate multiple myeloma progression.

    In Nature Communications on 3 December 2018 by Calcinotto, A., Brevi, A., et al.

    PubMed

    The gut microbiota has been causally linked to cancer, yet how intestinal microbes influence progression of extramucosal tumors is poorly understood. Here we provide evidence implying that Prevotella heparinolytica promotes the differentiation of Th17 cells colonizing the gut and migrating to the bone marrow (BM) of transgenic Vk*MYC mice, where they favor progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Lack of IL-17 in Vk*MYC mice, or disturbance of their microbiome delayed MM appearance. Similarly, in smoldering MM patients, higher levels of BM IL-17 predicted faster disease progression. IL-17 induced STAT3 phosphorylation in murine plasma cells, and activated eosinophils. Treatment of Vk*MYC mice with antibodies blocking IL-17, IL-17RA, and IL-5 reduced BM accumulation of Th17 cells and eosinophils and delayed disease progression. Thus, in Vk*MYC mice, commensal bacteria appear to unleash a paracrine signaling network between adaptive and innate immunity that accelerates progression to MM, and can be targeted by already available therapies.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Eosinophils suppress Th1 responses and restrict bacterially induced gastrointestinal inflammation.

    In The Journal of Experimental Medicine on 6 August 2018 by Arnold, I. C., Artola-Borán, M., et al.

    PubMed

    Eosinophils are predominantly known for their contribution to allergy. Here, we have examined the function and regulation of gastrointestinal eosinophils in the steady-state and during infection with Helicobacter pylori or Citrobacter rodentium We find that eosinophils are recruited to sites of infection, directly encounter live bacteria, and activate a signature transcriptional program; this applies also to human gastrointestinal eosinophils in humanized mice. The genetic or anti-IL-5-mediated depletion of eosinophils results in improved control of the infection, increased inflammation, and more pronounced Th1 responses. Eosinophils control Th1 responses via the IFN-γ-dependent up-regulation of PD-L1. Furthermore, we find that the conditional loss of IFN-γR in eosinophils phenocopies the effects of eosinophil depletion. Eosinophils further possess bactericidal properties that require their degranulation and the deployment of extracellular traps. Our results highlight two novel functions of this elusive cell type and link it to gastrointestinal homeostasis and anti-bacterial defense. © 2018 Arnold et al.

    • Cardiovascular biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Allergic Lung Inflammation Reduces Tissue Invasion and Enhances Survival from Pulmonary Pneumococcal Infection in Mice, Which Correlates with Increased Expression of Transforming Growth Factor β1 and SiglecF(low) Alveolar Macrophages.

    In Infection and Immunity on 1 July 2015 by Sanfilippo, A. M., Furuya, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Asthma is generally thought to confer an increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in humans. However, recent reports suggest that mortality rates from IPD are unaffected in patients with asthma and that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a condition similar to asthma, protects against the development of complicated pneumonia. To clarify the effects of asthma on the subsequent susceptibility to pneumococcal infection, ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic lung inflammation (ALI) was induced in mice followed by intranasal infection with A66.1 serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae. Surprisingly, mice with ALI were significantly more resistant to lethal infection than non-ALI mice. The heightened resistance observed following ALI correlated with enhanced early clearance of pneumococci from the lung, decreased bacterial invasion from the airway into the lung tissue, a blunted inflammatory cytokine and neutrophil response to infection, and enhanced expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Neutrophil depletion prior to infection had no effect on enhanced early bacterial clearance or resistance to IPD in mice with ALI. Although eosinophils recruited into the lung during ALI appeared to be capable of phagocytizing bacteria, neutralization of interleukin-5 (IL-5) to inhibit eosinophil recruitment likewise had no effect on early clearance or survival following infection. However, enhanced resistance was associated with an increase in levels of clodronate-sensitive, phagocytic SiglecF(low) alveolar macrophages within the airways following ALI. These findings suggest that, while the risk of developing IPD may actually be decreased in patients with acute asthma, additional clinical data are needed to better understand the risk of IPD in patients with different asthma phenotypes. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.