InVivoMAb anti-mouse DKK3

Catalog #BE0385
Clone:
DKK3-4.22
Reactivities:
Mouse

$159.00 - $4,155.00

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  • 100 mg - $4,155.00
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Product Details

The DKK3-4.22 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse Dickkopf-3 (DKK3), a secreted glycoprotein and member of the Dickkopf family of molecules. DKK3 is expressed by multiple cell types, including neurons, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, and zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex. DKK3 is a multifunctional protein involved in various cellular processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, via the Wnt pathway. DKK-3 has been shown to potentiate Wnt signaling through interactions with the high-affinity, transmembrane co-receptors Kremen-1 and Kremen-2. DKK3 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including cancer, chronic heart failure, and kidney disease. The expression of DKK3 is decreased in a variety of cancer cell lines and it may function as a tumor suppressor gene.

Specifications

Isotype Mouse IgG1, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb mouse IgG1 isotype control, unknown specificity
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Immunogen Mouse DKK3-IgG2b fusion protein
Reported Applications in vivo DKK3 blocking
in vitro DKK3 blocking
Western blot
Flow cytometry
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility
Purification Protein G
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vivo DKK3 blocking, ELISA
Federico G, Meister M, Mathow D, Heine GH, Moldenhauer G, Popovic ZV, Nordström V, Kopp-Schneider A, Hielscher T, Nelson PJ, Schaefer F, Porubsky S, Fliser D, Arnold B, Gröne HJ. (2016). "Tubular Dickkopf-3 promotes the development of renal atrophy and fibrosis" JCI Insight 1(1):e84916. PubMed

Renal tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis are common hallmarks of etiologically different progressive chronic kidney diseases (CKD) that eventually result in organ failure. Even though these pathological manifestations constitute a major public health problem, diagnostic tests, as well as therapeutic options, are currently limited. Members of the dickkopf (DKK) family, DKK1 and -2, have been associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and organ fibrosis. Here, we identify DKK3 as a stress-induced, tubular epithelia-derived, secreted glycoprotein that mediates kidney fibrosis. Genetic as well as antibody-mediated abrogation of DKK3 led to reduced tubular atrophy and decreased interstitial matrix accumulation in two mouse models of renal fibrosis. This was facilitated by an amplified, antifibrogenic, inflammatory T cell response and diminished canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in stressed tubular epithelial cells. Moreover, in humans, urinary DKK3 levels specifically correlated with the extent of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis in different glomerular and tubulointerstitial diseases. In summary, our data suggest that DKK3 constitutes an immunosuppressive and a profibrotic epithelial protein that might serve as a potential therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in renal fibrosis.

ELISA
Meister M, Papatriantafyllou M, Nordström V, Kumar V, Ludwig J, Lui KO, Boyd AS, Popovic ZV, Fleming TH, Moldenhauer G, Nawroth PP, Gröne HJ, Waldmann H, Oelert T, Arnold B. (2015). "Dickkopf-3, a tissue-derived modulator of local T-cell responses" Front Immunol 6:78. PubMed

The adaptive immune system protects organisms from harmful environmental insults. In parallel, regulatory mechanisms control immune responses in order to assure preservation of organ integrity. Yet, molecules involved in the control of T-cell responses in peripheral tissues are poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the function of Dickkopf-3 in the modulation of local T-cell reactivity. Dkk3 is a secreted, mainly tissue-derived protein with highest expression in organs considered as immune-privileged such as the eye, embryo, placenta, and brain. While T-cell development and activation status in naïve Dkk3-deficient mice was comparable to littermate controls, we found that Dkk3 contributes to the immunosuppressive microenvironment that protects transplanted, class-I mismatched embryoid bodies from T-cell-mediated rejection. Moreover, genetic deletion or antibody-mediated neutralization of Dkk3 led to an exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This phenotype was accompanied by a change of T-cell polarization displayed by an increase of IFNγ-producing T cells within the central nervous system. In the wild-type situation, Dkk3 expression in the brain was up-regulated during the course of EAE in an IFNγ-dependent manner. In turn, Dkk3 decreased IFNγ activity and served as part of a negative feedback mechanism. Thus, our findings suggest that Dkk3 functions as a tissue-derived modulator of local CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses.

in vivo DKK3 blocking, ELISA
Meister M, Tounsi A, Gaffal E, Bald T, Papatriantafyllou M, Ludwig J, Pougialis G, Bestvater F, Klotz L, Moldenhauer G, Tüting T, Hämmerling GJ, Arnold B, Oelert T. (2015). "Self-Antigen Presentation by Keratinocytes in the Inflamed Adult Skin Modulates T-Cell Auto-Reactivity" Self-Antigen Presentation by Keratinocytes in the Inflamed Adult Skin Modulates T-Cell Auto-Reactivity 135(8):1996-2004. PubMed

Keratinocytes have a pivotal role in the regulation of immune responses, but the impact of antigen presentation by these cells is still poorly understood, particularly in a situation where the antigen will be presented only in adult life. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse model in which keratinocytes exclusively present a myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide covalently linked to the major histocompatibility complex class II β-chain, solely under inflammatory conditions. In these mice, inflammation caused by epicutaneous contact sensitizer treatment resulted in keratinocyte-mediated expansion of MBP-specific CD4(+) T cells in the skin. Moreover, repeated contact sensitizer application preceding a systemic MBP immunization reduced the reactivity of the respective CD4(+) T cells and lowered the symptoms of the resulting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. This downregulation was CD4(+) T-cell-mediated and dependent on the presence of the immune modulator Dickkopf-3. Thus, presentation of a neo self-antigen by keratinocytes in the inflamed, adult skin can modulate CD4(+) T-cell auto-aggression at a distal organ.

in vitro DKK3 blocking, Western Blot, Flow Cytometry
Papatriantafyllou M, Moldenhauer G, Ludwig J, Tafuri A, Garbi N, Hollmann G, Küblbeck G, Klevenz A, Schmitt S, Pougialis G, Niehrs C, Gröne HJ, Hämmerling GJ, Arnold B, Oelert T. (2012). "Dickkopf-3, an immune modulator in peripheral CD8 T-cell tolerance" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(5):1631-6. PubMed

In healthy individuals, T cells react against incoming pathogens, but remain tolerant to self-antigens, thereby preventing autoimmune reactions. CD4 regulatory T cells are major contributors in induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance, but a regulatory role has been also reported for several subsets of CD8 T cells. To determine the molecular basis of peripheral CD8 T-cell tolerance, we exploited a double transgenic mouse model in which CD8 T cells are neonatally tolerized following interaction with a parenchymal self-antigen. These tolerant CD8 T cells have regulatory capacity and can suppress T cells in an antigen-specific manner during adulthood. Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) was found to be expressed in the tolerant CD8 T cells and to be essential for the observed CD8 T-cell tolerance. In vitro, genetic deletion of DKK3 or blocking with antibodies restored CD8 T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production in response to the tolerizing self-antigen. Moreover, exogenous DKK3 reduced CD8 T-cell reactivity. In vivo, abrogation of DKK3 function reversed tolerance, leading to eradication of tumors expressing the target antigen and to rejection of autologous skin grafts. Thus, our findings define DKK3 as a immune modulator with a crucial role for CD8 T-cell tolerance.