InVivoMAb anti-mouse Dendritic Cell Marker (33D1)

Catalog #BE0426

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The 33D1 monoclonal antibody is used as a marker of murine splenic Dendritic Cells (DCs). The protein recognized by this antibody i.e. clone 33D1 is a 236 AA long protein with a predicted molecular weight of 27.3 kDa. In post-translational modifications, this protein shows disulfide bond formation which may result in the appearance of dimers in an immunoblot assay. The 33D1 antigen is also known as Dendritic cell inhibitory receptor 2 (DCIR2) or C-type lectin domain family 4, member a4 (Clec4a4). This antigen is expressed in a variety of dendritic cell sub-populations from mouse thymus, spleen, lymph node, and Peyser's patch. Recent studies have shown that DCIR2 is mainly expressed by conventional type 2 dendritic cells (cDC2), and that it is involved in the process of antigen recognition, suppression of autoimmunity through down-regulation of T cell priming, the modulation of T cell response and in the progression of diet‐induced obesity and inflammation. It is also reported that DCIR2 rich DCs ameliorate diseases with a strong immune inflammatory component, e.g. experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), experimental melanoma, and diabetes. The 33D1 monoclonal antibody has been extensively used for in vitro and in vivo depletion of 33D1+ dendritic cell in experimental studies involving mouse models.


Isotype Rat IgG2b, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb rat IgG2b isotype control, anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Immunogen Mouse spleen and lymph node dendritic cells in complete Freund's adjuvant
Reported Applications in vivo depletion of 33D1+ dendritic cell
in vitro depletion of 33D1+ dendritic cell
in vitro Binding assay
Flow cytometry
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vivo depletion of 33D1+ dendritic cell, Flow Cytometry
Murakami R, Nakagawa Y, Shimizu M, Wakabayashi A, Negishi Y, Hiroi T, Okubo K, Takahashi H. (2015). "Effects of Dendritic Cell Subset Manipulation on Airway Allergy in a Mouse Model" Int Arch Allergy Immunol 168(4):219-32. PubMed

Background: Two major distinct subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) are arranged to regulate immune responses: DEC-205+ DCs drive Th1 polarization and 33D1+ DCs establish Th2 dominancy. Th1 polarization can be achieved either by depletion of 33D1+ DCs with a 33D1-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) or by activation of DEC-205+ DCs via intraperitoneal injection of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). We studied the effect of 33D1+ DC depletion or DEC-205+ DC activation in vivo using an established mouse model of allergic rhinitis (AR).

Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Flow Cytometry
Lindmark E, Chen Y, Georgoudaki AM, Dudziak D, Lindh E, Adams WC, Loré K, Winqvist O, Chambers BJ, Karlsson MC. (2013). "AIRE expressing marginal zone dendritic cells balances adaptive immunity and T-follicular helper cell recruitment" J Autoimmun 42:62-70. PubMed

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome Type I (APS I) results in multiple endocrine organ destruction and is caused by mutations in the Autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). In the thymic stroma, cells expressing the AIRE gene dictate T cell education and central tolerance. Although this function is the most studied, AIRE is also expressed in the periphery in DCs and stromal cells. Still, how AIRE regulated transcription modifies cell behaviour in the periphery is largely unknown. Here we show that AIRE is specifically expressed by 33D1(+) DCs and dictates the fate of antibody secreting cell movement within the spleen. We also found that AIRE expressing 33D1(+) DCs expresses self-antigens as exemplified by the hallmark gene insulin. Also, as evidence for a regulatory function, absence of Aire in 33D1(+) DCs led to reduced levels of the chemokine CXCL12 and increased co-stimulatory properties. This resulted in altered activation and recruitment of T-follicular helper cells and germinal centre B cells. The altered balance leads to a change of the early response to a T cell-dependent antigen in Aire(-/-) mice. These findings add to the understanding of how specific DC subtypes regulate the early responses during T cell-dependent antibody responses within the spleen and further define the role of AIRE in the periphery as regulator of self-antigen expression and lymphocyte migration.

in vivo depletion of 33D1+ dendritic cell
Negishi Y, Wakabayashi A, Shimizu M, Ichikawa T, Kumagai Y, Takeshita T, Takahashi H. (2012). "Disruption of maternal immune balance maintained by innate DC subsets results in spontaneous pregnancy loss in mice" Immunobiology 217(10):951-61. PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in providing an appropriate fetal/maternal balance between Th1 and Th2 during pregnancy. The Th1/Th2 balance seems to be regulated mainly by two distinct DC subsets, DEC-205(+) DCs having the capacity to establish Th1 polarization and 33D1(+) DCs to induce Th2 dominance. Pregnancy is established and maintained by maternal hormones, such as progesterone and estrogen, and the balance of DC subtypes was affected mainly by progesterone, which induced a dose-dependent reduction of the DEC-205/33D1 ratio together with/without a stable amount of estrogen. The DEC-205/33D1 ratio decreased gradually with the progress of pregnancy and rapid augmentation of the ratio was seen around delivery in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of 33D1(+) DCs during the perinatal period caused substantial fetal loss probably mediated through Th1 up-regulation via transient IL-12 secretion, and pre-administration of progesterone could rescue the fetal loss. Similar miscarriages were also observed when pregnant mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected twice with IL-12 on Gd 9.5 and 10.5. Moreover, prior inoculation of progesterone suppressed the enhanced serum IL-12 production in mice treated with 33D1 antibody, indicating that progesterone might inhibit temporal IL-12 secretion around Gd 10.5 and miscarriage was avoided. These findings suggest the importance of balancing DC subsets during pregnancy and reveal that we can avoid miscarriage by manipulating the activity of the DC subpopulation of pregnant individuals with maternal hormones.

in vivo depletion of 33D1+ dendritic cell, Flow Cytometry
Moriya K, Wakabayashi A, Shimizu M, Tamura H, Dan K, Takahashi H. (2010). "Induction of tumor-specific acquired immunity against already established tumors by selective stimulation of innate DEC-205(+) dendritic cells" Cancer Immunol Immunother 59(7):1083-95. PubMed

Two major distinct subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) are arranged to regulate our immune responses in vivo; 33D1(+) and DEC-205(+) DCs. Using anti-33D1-specific monoclonal antibody, 33D1(+) DCs were successfully depleted from C57BL/6 mice. When 33D1(+) DC-depleted mice were stimulated with LPS, serum IL-12, but not IL-10 secretion that may be mediated by the remaining DEC-205(+) DCs was markedly enhanced, which may induce Th1 dominancy upon TLR signaling. The 33D1(+) DC-depleted mice, implanted with syngeneic Hepa1-6 hepatoma or B16-F10 melanoma cells into the dermis, showed apparent inhibition of already established tumor growth in vivo when they were subcutaneously (sc) injected once or twice with LPS after tumor implantation. Moreover, the development of lung metastasis of B16-F10 melanoma cells injected intravenously was also suppressed when 33D1(+) DC-deleted mice were stimulated twice with LPS in a similar manner, in which the actual cell number of NK1.1(+)CD3(-) NK cells in lung tissues was markedly increased. Furthermore, intraperitoneal (ip) administration of a very small amount of melphalan (L: -phenylalanine mustard; L: -PAM) (0.25 mg/kg) in LPS-stimulated 33D1(+) DC-deleted mice helped to induce H-2K(b)-restricted epitope-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes against already established syngeneic E.G7-OVA lymphoma. These findings indicate the importance and effectiveness of selective targeting of a specific subset of DCs, such as DEC-205(+) DCs alone or with a very small amount of anticancer drugs to activate both CD8(+) CTLs and NK effectors without externally added tumor antigen stimulation in vivo and provide a new direction for tumor immunotherapy.

Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry
Sekine C, Moriyama Y, Koyanagi A, Koyama N, Ogata H, Okumura K, Yagita H. (2009). "Differential regulation of splenic CD8- dendritic cells and marginal zone B cells by Notch ligands" Int Immunol 21(3):295-301. PubMed

The importance of Notch signaling to maintain CD8- dendritic cells (DCs) in the spleen has recently been revealed. However, the ligand responsible for this Notch signaling has not been determined yet. In this study, we demonstrated that blocking of Delta-like (Dll) 1 alone had no significant effect on the maintenance of CD8- DCs while marginal zone (MZ) B cells were significantly reduced in the spleen of mice. On the other hand, blocking of Dll1, Dll4, Jagged1 and Jagged2 significantly decreased CD8- DCs. All these Notch ligands are expressed predominantly in the red pulp of the spleen where CD8- DCs reside. These results indicate a differential regulation of CD8- DCs and MZ B cells by Notch ligands in the spleen.

Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry
Dudziak D, Kamphorst AO, Heidkamp GF, Buchholz VR, Trumpfheller C, Yamazaki S, Cheong C, Liu K, Lee HW, Park CG, Steinman RM, Nussenzweig MC. (2007). "Differential antigen processing by dendritic cell subsets in vivo" Science 315(5808):107-11. PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs) process and present self and foreign antigens to induce tolerance or immunity. In vitro models suggest that induction of immunity is controlled by regulating the presentation of antigen, but little is known about how DCs control antigen presentation in vivo. To examine antigen processing and presentation in vivo, we specifically targeted antigens to two major subsets of DCs by using chimeric monoclonal antibodies. Unlike CD8+ DCs that express the cell surface protein CD205, CD8- DCs, which are positive for the 33D1 antigen, are specialized for presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. This difference in antigen processing is intrinsic to the DC subsets and is associated with increased expression of proteins involved in MHC processing.

in vivo depletion of 33D1+ dendritic cell
Finkelman FD, Lees A, Birnbaum R, Gause WC, Morris SC. (1996). "Dendritic cells can present antigen in vivo in a tolerogenic or immunogenic fashion" J Immunol 157(4):1406-14. PubMed

Dendritic cells (DC) are unmatched among APCs in their ability to bind, process, and present Ag. Presentation by such potent APCs, if always immunogenic and never tolerogenic, might stimulate pathogenic autoimmune responses. To determine whether Ag presentation by DC can induce tolerance, mice were injected with a rat IgG2b anti-splenic DC mAb, 33D1, and challenged 13 to 28 days later with a stimulatory rat IgG2b mAb. Injection of mice with 1 ng/100 micrograms of 33D1 rarely induced an anti-rat IgG2b Ab response and, in most mice, induced rat IgG2b-specific T cell and B cell tolerance. Tolerant mice had decreased ability to secrete Ab and make both type 1 and type 2 cytokine mRNA and protein in response to immunization with rat IgG2b. 33D1 was 100- to 1000-fold more potent as a tolerogen than an isotype-matched control rat IgG2b mAb. Injecting mice with aggregated 33D1, 33D1 plus anti-IgD mAb, or 33D1 plus IL-1 induced an IgG1 anti-rat IgG2b Ab response rather than tolerance. IL-1 injected 3 days after 33D1 still induced an Ab response rather than tolerance. Not all anti-DC mAbs are tolerogenic. Injection of a DC-specific hamster anti-CD11c mAb (N418) stimulates an IgG anti-hamster response, and injection of 33D1 plus N418 stimulates both anti-hamster and anti-rat IgG2b responses. These observations indicate that DCs can present Ag in either a tolerogenic or stimulatory manner and suggest that inflammatory stimuli can convert an otherwise tolerogenic signal to a stimulatory signal.

in vivo depletion of 33D1+ dendritic cell
Pollard AM, Lipscomb MF. (1990). "Characterization of murine lung dendritic cells: similarities to Langerhans cells and thymic dendritic cells" J Exp Med 172(1):159-67. PubMed

Dendritic cells (DC) are potent accessory cells (AC) for the initiation of primary immune responses. Although murine lymphoid DC and Langerhans cells have been extensively characterized, DC from murine lung have been incompletely described. We isolated cells from enzyme-digested murine lungs and bronchoalveolar lavages that were potent stimulators of a primary mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). The AC had a low buoyant density, were loosely adherent and nonphagocytic. AC function was unaffected by depletion of cells expressing the splenic DC marker, 33D1. In addition, antibody and complement depletion of cells bearing the macrophage marker F4/80, or removal of phagocytic cells with silica also failed to decrease AC activity. In contrast, AC function was decreased by depletion of cells expressing the markers J11d and the low affinity interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R), both present on thymic and skin DC. AC function was approximately equal in FcR+ and FcR- subpopulations, indicating there was heterogeneity within the AC population. Consistent with the functional data, a combined two-color immunofluorescence and latex bead uptake technique revealed that lung cells high in AC activity were enriched in brightly Ia+ dendritic-shaped cells that (a) were nonphagocytic, (b) lacked specific T and B lymphocyte markers and the macrophage marker F4/80, but (c) frequently expressed C3biR, low affinity IL-2R, FcRII, and the markers NLDC-145 and J11d. Taken together, the functional and phenotypic data suggest the lung cells that stimulate resting T cells in an MLR and that might be important in local pulmonary immune responses are DC that bear functional and phenotypic similarity to other tissues DC, such as Langerhans cells and thymic DC.

Steinman RM, Gutchinov B, Witmer MD, Nussenzweig MC. (1983). "Dendritic cells are the principal stimulators of the primary mixed leukocyte reaction in mice" J Exp Med 157(2):613-27. PubMed

Clone 33D1 is a mouse-rat hybridoma that secretes a specific anti-dendritic cell (DC) monoclonal antibody (14). Because the antibody kills DC in the presence of rabbit complement, it can be used to study the functional consequences of selective DC depletion. Previous data on the cell specificity of 33D1 were first extended. By cytotoxicity (rabbit complement) and indirect immunofluorescence (biotin-avidin technique), 33D1 reacted with DC but not with macrophages nor other splenocytes. In contrast, the monoclonal antibody, F4/80 (15), reacted with macrophages but not DC. The functional assay evaluated in this paper was stimulation of the primary mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). 33D1 antibody itself did not inhibit stimulation by enriched populations of DC. In the presence of complement, 33D1 killed DC and ablated stimulatory function. The effect of 33D1 and complement on MLR stimulation by heterogenous cell mixtures was then evaluated. Removal of DC from unfractionated spleen suspensions reduced stimulatory capacity 75-90 percent, comparable to that produced with specific anti-Ia antibody and complement. Stimulation of both proliferative and cytotoxic responses was reduced. DC depletion had similar effects on MLR generated across full strain differences, or across selected subregions (H2I, H-2K/D) of the major histocompatibility complex. To further compare the functional properties of spleen DC and macrophages, MLR stimulation by adherent and nonadherent fractions of spleen were tested separately. 62 +/- 8 percent of the total stimulatory capacity of spleen was in the plastic adherent population. Activity was ablated greater than 90 percent after elimination of DC. MLR stimulation by 24-h cultures of spleen adherent cells, which contained a three- to sixfold excess of Ia(+) macrophages, was also ablated when DC were removed. Stimulation by nonadherent spleen was more resistant, but was reduced 50-75 percent by 33D1 and complement. The function of spleen cells treated with 33D1 or anti-Ia antibody and complement was restored with a small inoculum of purified DC. The latter corresponded to 0.5 percent of total stimulator cells and were enriched by previously described techniques that did not require the 33D1 antibody. We conclude that the DC, a trace component of mouse spleen, is the principal cell type required for stimulation of the primary MLR. Because other cells are not immunogenic, but do express Ia and H-2 alloantigens, DC likely represent the critical accessory cell required for the induction of lymphocyte responses.

in vivo depletion of 33D1+ dendritic cell
Inaba K, Steinman RM, Van Voorhis WC, Muramatsu S. (1983). "Dendritic cells are critical accessory cells for thymus-dependent antibody responses in mouse and in man" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80(19):6041-5. PubMed

We report that dendritic cells (DC) are necessary and potent accessory cells for anti-sheep erythrocyte responses in both mouse and man. In mice, a small number of DC (0.3-1% of the culture) restores the response of B/T-lymphocyte mixtures to that observed in unfractionated spleen. An even lower dose (0.03-0.1% DC) is needed if the T cells have been primed to antigen. Responses are both antigen and T cell dependent. Selective depletion of DC from unfractionated spleen with the monoclonal antibody 33D1 and complement ablates the antibody response. In contrast to DC, purified spleen macrophages are weak or inactive stimulators. However, when mixed with DC, macrophages can increase the yield of antibody-secreting cells about 2-fold. In man, small numbers (0.3-1%) of blood DC stimulate antibody formation in vitro. Purified human monocytes do not stimulate but in low doses (1% of the culture) inhibit the antibody response. Likewise, selective removal of human monocytes with antibody and complement enhances or accelerates the development of antibody-secreting cells. We conclude that DC are required for the development of T-dependent antibody responses by mouse and human lymphocytes in vitro.

in vitro cytotoxicity assay, in vitro binding assay
Nussenzweig MC, Steinman RM, Witmer MD, Gutchinov B. (1982). "A monoclonal antibody specific for mouse dendritic cells" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79(1):161-5. PubMed

Dendritic cells (DC) are a small subpopulation of lymphoid cells with distinctive cytologic features, surface properties, and functions. This report describes the DC-specific antibody (Ab) secreted by clone 33DI. Rat spleen cells immune to mouse DC were fused to the P3U myeloma. Hybrid culture supernatants were screened simultaneously against DC, a macrophage (M phi) cell line, and mitogen-stimulated lymphoblasts. 33DI Ab specifically killed 80-90% of DC from spleen and lymph node, but no other leukocytes, including Ia+ and Ia- M phi (Ia, I-region-associated antigen,). Quantitative binding studies with 5H-labeled 33D1 Ab showed that DC had an average of 14,000 binding sites per cell. Binding to DC was inhibited with Fab fragment of 33D1 Ab but not with a panel of other monoclonal antibodies, including anti-Ia Ab. Adherence and flotation procedures that enriched for DC enriched for 3H-labeled 33D1 Ab binding in parallel. 33D1 antigen was not detectable on: M phi from spleen, peritoneal cavity, and blood; three M phi cell lines; lymphocytes; granulocytes; platelets; and erythroid cells. DC continued to express the 33D1 antigen after 4 days in culture, whereas M phi and lymphocytes did not acquire it. Quantitative and autoradiographic studies confirmed that spleen and lymph node suspensions contain less than 1% DC. We conclude that 33D1 Ab detects a stable and specific DC antigen and can be used to monitor DC content in complex lymphoid mixtures.