InVivoMAb anti-mouse Delta-like protein 4 (DLL4)

Catalog #BE0127
Clone:
HMD4-2
Reactivities:
Mouse

$150.00 - $3,920.00

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Product Details

The HMD4-2 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse Delta-like protein 4 (DLL4) one of many Notch ligands. DLL4 is expressed by vascular endothelium, and plays a vital role in embryonic vascular development. The Notch pathway is an important intercellular signaling pathway that plays a major role in controlling cell fate. The HMD4-2 antibody has been shown to neutralize DLL4 in vivo.

Specifications

Isotype Armenian Hamster IgG, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb polyclonal Armenian hamster IgG
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Immunogen Recombinant mouse DLL4
Reported Applications in vivo DLL4 neutralization

in vitro DLL4 neutralization
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 μM filtered
Production Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_10950366
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vitro DLL4 neutralization
Martinez-Lozada, Z. and M. B. Robinson. (2020). "Reciprocal communication between astrocytes and endothelial cells is required for astrocytic glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression" Neurochem Int 139: 104787. PubMed

Astrocytes have diverse functions that are supported by their anatomic localization between neurons and blood vessels. One of these functions is the clearance of extracellular glutamate. Astrocytes clear glutamate using two Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters, GLT-1 (also called EAAT2) and GLAST (also called EAAT1). GLT-1 expression increases during synaptogenesis and is a marker of astrocyte maturation. Over 20 years ago, several groups demonstrated that astrocytes in culture express little or no GLT-1 and that neurons induce expression. We recently demonstrated that co-culturing endothelia with mouse astrocytes also induced expression of GLT-1 and GLAST. These increases were blocked by an inhibitor of γ-secretase. This and other observations are consistent with the hypothesis that Notch signaling is required, but the ligands involved were not identified. In the present study, we used rat astrocyte cultures to further define the mechanisms by which endothelia induce expression of GLT-1 and GLAST. We found that co-cultures of astrocytes and endothelia express higher levels of GLT-1 and GLAST protein and mRNA. That endothelia activate Hes5, a transcription factor target of Notch, in astrocytes. Using recombinant Notch ligands, anti-Notch ligand neutralizing antibodies, and shRNAs, we provide evidence that both Dll1 and Dll4 contribute to endothelia-dependent regulation of GLT-1. We also provide evidence that astrocytes secrete a factor(s) that induces expression of Dll4 in endothelia and that this effect is required for Notch-dependent induction of GLT-1. Together these studies indicate that reciprocal communication between astrocytes and endothelia is required for appropriate astrocyte maturation and that endothelia likely deploy additional non-Notch signals to induce GLT-1.

in vivo DLL4 neutralization
Sakai, M., et al. (2019). "Liver-Derived Signals Sequentially Reprogram Myeloid Enhancers to Initiate and Maintain Kupffer Cell Identity" Immunity 51(4): 655-670.e658. PubMed

Tissue environment plays a powerful role in establishing and maintaining the distinct phenotypes of resident macrophages, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized transcriptomic and epigenetic changes in repopulating liver macrophages following acute Kupffer cell depletion as a means to infer signaling pathways and transcription factors that promote Kupffer cell differentiation. We obtained evidence that combinatorial interactions of the Notch ligand DLL4 and transforming growth factor-b (TGF-β) family ligands produced by sinusoidal endothelial cells and endogenous LXR ligands were required for the induction and maintenance of Kupffer cell identity. DLL4 regulation of the Notch transcriptional effector RBPJ activated poised enhancers to rapidly induce LXRα and other Kupffer cell lineage-determining factors. These factors in turn reprogrammed the repopulating liver macrophage enhancer landscape to converge on that of the original resident Kupffer cells. Collectively, these findings provide a framework for understanding how macrophage progenitor cells acquire tissue-specific phenotypes.

in vivo DLL4 neutralization
Fukuda, D., et al. (2012). "Notch ligand delta-like 4 blockade attenuates atherosclerosis and metabolic disorders" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(27): E1868-1877. PubMed

Atherosclerosis and insulin resistance are major components of the cardiometabolic syndrome, a global health threat associated with a systemic inflammatory state. Notch signaling regulates tissue development and participates in innate and adaptive immunity in adults. The role of Notch signaling in cardiometabolic inflammation, however, remains obscure. We noted that a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet increased expression of the Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4) in atheromata and fat tissue in LDL-receptor-deficient mice. Blockade of Dll4-Notch signaling using neutralizing anti-Dll4 antibody attenuated the development of atherosclerosis, diminished plaque calcification, improved insulin resistance, and decreased fat accumulation. These changes were accompanied by decreased macrophage accumulation, diminished expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and lower levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. In vitro cell culture experiments revealed that Dll4-mediated Notch signaling increases MCP-1 expression via NF-kappaB, providing a possible mechanism for in vivo effects. Furthermore, Dll4 skewed macrophages toward a proinflammatory phenotype (“M1”). These results suggest that Dll4-Notch signaling plays a central role in the shared mechanism for the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders.

in vivo DLL4 neutralization
Riella, L. V., et al. (2011). "Blockade of Notch ligand delta1 promotes allograft survival by inhibiting alloreactive Th1 cells and cytotoxic T cell generation" J Immunol 187(9): 4629-4638. PubMed

The Notch signaling pathway has been recently shown to contribute to T cell differentiation in vitro. However, the in vivo function of Notch signaling in transplantation remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the importance of Delta1 in regulating the alloimmune response in vivo. Delta1 expression was upregulated on dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages upon transplantation in a BALB/c into B6 vascularized cardiac transplant model. Whereas administration of anti-Delta1 mAb only slightly delayed survival of cardiac allografts in this fully MHC-mismatched model, it significantly prolonged graft survival in combination with single-dose CTLA4-Ig or in CD28 knockout recipients. The prolongation of allograft survival was associated with Th2 polarization and a decrease in Th1 and granzyme B-producing cytotoxic T cells. The survival benefit of Delta1 blockade was abrogated after IL-4 neutralization and in STAT6KO recipients, but was maintained in STAT4KO recipients, reinforcing the key role of Th2 cell development in its graft-prolonging effects. To our knowledge, these data demonstrate for the first time an important role of Delta1 in alloimmunity, identifying Delta1 ligand as a potential novel target for immunomodulation in transplantation.