InVivoMAb anti-mouse CXCL9 (MIG)

Catalog #BE0309

$164.00 - $4,280.00

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Product Details

The MIG-2F5.5 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CXCL9 also known as MIG. CXCL9 is a chemotactic cytokine that belongs to the CXC subfamily of chemokines. CXCL9 is expressed on monocytes, macrophages, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, and primary glial cells in response to IFNγ stimulation. CXCL9 has been shown to be a chemoattractant for resting memory and activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and NK cells expressing its receptor, CXCR3. Binding of CXCL9 to CXCR3 induces various cellular responses, including integrin activation, cytoskeletal changes and chemotactic migration.


Isotype Armenian Hamster IgG, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb polyclonal Armenian hamster IgG
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Reported Applications in vivo CXCL9 neutralization
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 μM filtered
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein A
RRID AB_2736989
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vivo CXCL9 neutralization
Moreno-Fernandez, M. E., et al. (2021). "PKM2-dependent metabolic skewing of hepatic Th17 cells regulates pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease" Cell Metab 33(6): 1187-1204 e1189. PubMed

Emerging evidence suggests a key contribution to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis by Th17 cells. The pathogenic characteristics and mechanisms of hepatic Th17 cells, however, remain unknown. Here, we uncover and characterize a distinct population of inflammatory hepatic CXCR3(+)Th17 (ihTh17) cells sufficient to exacerbate NAFLD pathogenesis. Hepatic ihTh17 cell accrual was dependent on the liver microenvironment and CXCR3 axis activation. Mechanistically, the pathogenic potential of ihTh17 cells correlated with increased chromatin accessibility, glycolytic output, and concomitant production of IL-17A, IFNgamma, and TNFalpha. Modulation of glycolysis using 2-DG or cell-specific PKM2 deletion was sufficient to reverse ihTh17-centric inflammatory vigor and NAFLD severity. Importantly, ihTh17 cell characteristics, CXCR3 axis activation, and hepatic expression of glycolytic genes were conserved in human NAFLD. Together, our data show that the steatotic liver microenvironment regulates Th17 cell accrual, metabolism, and competence toward an ihTh17 fate. Modulation of these pathways holds potential for development of novel therapeutic strategies for NAFLD.

in vivo CXCL9 neutralization
Wang, C., et al. (2021). "Reprogramming NK cells and macrophages via combined antibody and cytokine therapy primes tumors for elimination by checkpoint blockade" Cell Rep 37(8): 110021. PubMed

Treatments aiming to augment immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) in cancer often focus on T cell immunity, but innate immune cells may have important roles to play. Here, we demonstrate a single-dose combination treatment (termed AIP) using a pan-tumor-targeting antibody surrogate, half-life-extended interleukin-2 (IL-2), and anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), which primes tumors to respond to subsequent ICB and promotes rejection of large established tumors in mice. Natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages activated by AIP treatment underwent transcriptional reprogramming; rapidly killed cancer cells; governed the recruitment of cross-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) and other leukocytes; and induced normalization of the tumor vasculature, facilitating further immune infiltration. Thus, innate cell-activating therapies can initiate critical steps leading to a self-sustaining cycle of T cell priming driven by ICB.

in vivo CXCL9 neutralization
Qu, Y., et al. (2020). "Baseline Frequency of Inflammatory Cxcl9-Expressing Tumor-Associated Macrophages Predicts Response to Avelumab Treatment" Cell Rep 32(1): 107873. PubMed

The tumor microenvironment is rich with immune-suppressive macrophages that are associated with cancer progression and resistance to immune checkpoint therapy. Using pre-treatment tumor biopsies complemented with single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we characterize intratumoral immune heterogeneity to unveil potential mechanisms of resistance to avelumab (anti-PD-L1). We identify a proinflammatory F480(+)MHCII(+)Ly6C(lo) macrophage population that is associated with response rather than resistance to avelumab. These macrophages are the primary source of the interferon-inducible chemokine Cxcl9, which facilitates the recruitment of protective Cxcr3(+) T cells. Consequently, the efficacy of avelumab in mouse tumor models is dependent on Cxcr3 and Cxcl9, and baseline levels of Cxcl9 in patients treated with avelumab are associated with clinical response and overall survival. These data suggest that, within the broadly immune-suppressive macrophage compartment, a pro-inflammatory population exists that promotes responsiveness to PD-L1 blockade.

in vivo CXCL9 neutralization
Dangaj, D., et al. (2019). "Cooperation between Constitutive and Inducible Chemokines Enables T Cell Engraftment and Immune Attack in Solid Tumors" Cancer Cell 35(6): 885-900 e810. PubMed

We investigated the role of chemokines in regulating T cell accumulation in solid tumors. CCL5 and CXCL9 overexpression was associated with CD8(+) T cell infiltration in solid tumors. T cell infiltration required tumor cell-derived CCL5 and was amplified by IFN-gamma-inducible, myeloid cell-secreted CXCL9. CCL5 and CXCL9 coexpression revealed immunoreactive tumors with prolonged survival and response to checkpoint blockade. Loss of CCL5 expression in human tumors was associated with epigenetic silencing through DNA methylation. Reduction of CCL5 expression caused tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) desertification, whereas forced CCL5 expression prevented Cxcl9 expression and TILs loss, and attenuated tumor growth in mice through IFN-gamma. The cooperation between tumor-derived CCL5 and IFN-gamma-inducible CXCR3 ligands secreted by myeloid cells is key for orchestrating T cell infiltration in immunoreactive and immunoresponsive tumors.

Xiong, Y., et al. (2016). "T-bet Regulates Natural Regulatory T Cell Afferent Lymphatic Migration and Suppressive Function" J Immunol 196(6): 2526-2540. PubMed

T-bet is essential for natural regulatory T cells (nTreg) to regulate Th1 inflammation, but whether T-bet controls other Treg functions after entering the inflammatory site is unknown. In an islet allograft model, T-bet(-/-) nTreg, but not induced Treg, failed to prolong graft survival as effectively as wild-type Treg. T-bet(-/-) nTreg had no functional deficiency in vitro but failed to home from the graft to draining lymph nodes (dLN) as efficiently as wild type. T-bet regulated expression of adhesion- and migration-related molecules, influencing nTreg distribution in tissues, so that T-bet(-/-) nTreg remained in the grafts rather than migrating to lymphatics and dLN. In contrast, both wild-type and T-bet(-/-) CD4(+) conventional T cells and induced Treg migrated normally toward afferent lymphatics. T-bet(-/-) nTreg displayed instability in the graft, failing to suppress Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells and prevent their infiltration into the graft and dLN. Thus, T-bet regulates nTreg migration into afferent lymphatics and dLN and consequently their suppressive stability in vivo.

Jin, J. O., et al. (2013). "Innate immune signaling induces interleukin-7 production from salivary gland cells and accelerates the development of primary Sjogren’s syndrome in a mouse model" PLoS One 8(10): e77605. PubMed

Elevated IL-7 in the target tissues is closely associated with multiple autoimmune disorders, including Sjogren’s syndrome (SS). We recently found that IL-7 plays an essential role in the development and onset of primary SS (pSS) in C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice, a well-defined mouse model of primary SS. However, environmental signals that cause excessive IL-7 production are not well-characterized. Innate immune signaling plays a critical role in shaping the adaptive immune responses including autoimmune responses. We and others have previously shown that innate immune signaling can induce IL-7 expression in lungs and intestines of C57BL/6 mice. In this study, we characterized the effects of poly I:C, a double-stranded RNA analog and toll-like receptor 3 agonist, on the induction of IL-7 expression in salivary glands and on pSS development. We showed that poly I:C administration to C57BL/6 mice rapidly induced IL-7 expression in the salivary glands in a type 1 IFN- and IFN-gamma-dependent manner. Moreover, poly I:C-induced IL-7 contributed to the optimal up-regulation of CXCL9 in the salivary glands, which may subsequently promote recruitment of more IFN-gamma-producing T cells. Repeated administration of poly I:C to C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice accelerated the development of SS-like exocrinopathy, and this effect was abolished by the blockade of IL-7 receptor signaling with a neutralizing antibody. Finally, poly I:C or a combination of IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma induced IL-7 gene expression and protein production in a human salivary gland epithelial cell line. Hence, we demonstrate that IL-7 expression in the salivary gland cells can be induced by poly I:C and delineate a crucial mechanism by which innate immune signals facilitate the development of pSS, which is through induction of IL-7 in the target tissues.

Sung, J. H., et al. (2012). "Chemokine guidance of central memory T cells is critical for antiviral recall responses in lymph nodes" Cell 150(6): 1249-1263. PubMed

A defining feature of vertebrate immunity is the acquisition of immunological memory, which confers enhanced protection against pathogens by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Here, we compared responses by virus-specific naive T cells (T(N)) and central memory T cells (T(CM)) to viral antigen challenge in lymph nodes (LNs). In steady-state LNs, both T cell subsets localized in the deep T cell area and interacted similarly with antigen-presenting dendritic cells. However, upon entry of lymph-borne virus, only T(CM) relocalized rapidly and efficiently toward the outermost LN regions in the medullary, interfollicular, and subcapsular areas where viral infection was initially confined. This rapid peripheralization was coordinated by a cascade of cytokines and chemokines, particularly ligands for T(CM)-expressed CXCR3. Consequently, in vivo recall responses to viral infection by CXCR3-deficient T(CM) were markedly compromised, indicating that early antigen detection afforded by intranodal chemokine guidance of T(CM) is essential for efficient antiviral memory.