InVivoMAb anti-mouse CD70

Catalog #BE0022
Product Citations:
8
Clone:
FR70
Reactivities:
Mouse

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Product Details

The FR70 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD70, a 30-33 kDa type II transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the TNF superfamily. CD70 is expressed by activated mouse T and B lymphocytes and dendritic cells. CD70 is a ligand for CD27 and their interaction promotes T and B cell cross-stimulation and co-stimulation of B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production. Cells expressing CD70 have been shown to co-stimulate T cell proliferation and induce cytokine production. The FR70 antibody is reported to block CD70 binding to CD27.

Specifications

Isotype Rat IgG2b, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb rat IgG2b isotype control, anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen BALB/c mouse B lymphoma A20.2J
Reported Applications in vivo CD70 blockade
in vitro CD70 blockade
Flow cytometry
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107667
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
In vivo CD70 blockade
Quinn, M., et al. (2015). "Memory T cells specific for murine cytomegalovirus re-emerge after multiple challenges and recapitulate immunity in various adoptive transfer scenarios" J Immunol 194(4): 1726-1736. PubMed

Reconstitution of CMV-specific immunity after transplant remains a primary clinical objective to prevent CMV disease, and adoptive immunotherapy of CMV-specific T cells can be an effective therapeutic approach. Because of viral persistence, most CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells become terminally differentiated effector phenotype CD8(+) T cells (TEFF). A minor subset retains a memory-like phenotype (memory phenotype CD8(+) T cells ), but it is unknown whether these cells retain memory function or persist over time. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells with different phenotypes have different abilities to reconstitute sustained immunity after transfer. The immunology of human CMV infections is reflected in the murine CMV (MCMV) model. We found that human CMV- and MCMV-specific T cells displayed shared genetic programs, validating the MCMV model for studies of CMV-specific T cells in vivo. The MCMV-specific TM population was stable over time and retained a proliferative capacity that was vastly superior to TEFF. Strikingly, after transfer, TM established sustained and diverse T cell populations even after multiple challenges. Although both TEFF and TM could protect Rag(-/-) mice, only TM persisted after transfer into immune replete, latently infected recipients and responded if recipient immunity was lost. Interestingly, transferred TM did not expand until recipient immunity was lost, supporting that competition limits the Ag stimulation of TM. Ultimately, these data show that CMV-specific TM retain memory function during MCMV infection and can re-establish CMV immunity when necessary. Thus, TM may be a critical component for consistent, long-term adoptive immunotherapy success.

In vivo CD70 blockade
Villegas-Mendez, A., et al. (2015). "Parasite-specific CD4+IFN-gamma+IL-10+ T cells distribute within both lymphoid and non-lymphoid compartments and are controlled systemically by IL-27 and ICOS during blood-stage malaria infection" Infect Immun. pii : IAI.01100-15. PubMed

Immune-mediated pathology in IL-10 deficient mice during blood-stage malaria infection typically manifests in non-lymphoid organs, such as the liver and lung. Thus, it is critical to define the cellular sources of IL-10 in these sensitive non-lymphoid compartments during infection. Moreover, it is important to determine if IL-10 production is controlled through conserved or disparate molecular programmes in distinct anatomical locations during malaria infection, as this may enable spatiotemporal tuning of the regulatory immune response. In this study, using dual IFN-gamma-YFP and IL-10-GFP reporter mice we show that CD4+YFP+ T cells are the major source of IL-10 in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid compartments throughout the course of blood-stage P. yoelii infection. Mature splenic CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells, which preferentially expressed high levels of CCR5, were capable of migrating to and seeding the non-lymphoid tissues, indicating that the systemically distributed host-protective cells have a common developmental history. Despite exhibiting comparable phenotypes, CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells from the liver and lung produced significantly higher quantities of IL-10 than their splenic counterparts, showing that the CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells exert graded functions in distinct tissue locations during infection. Unexpectedly, given the unique environmental conditions within discrete non-lymphoid and lymphoid organs, we show that IL-10 production by CD4+YFP+ T cells is controlled systemically during malaria infection through IL-27R signalling that is supported post-CD4+ T cell priming by ICOS signalling. The results in this study substantially improve our understanding of the systemic IL-10 response to malaria infection, particularly within sensitive non-lymphoid organs.

In vivo CD70 blockade
Riether, C., et al. (2015). "Tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced CD70 expression mediates drug resistance in leukemia stem cells by activating Wnt signaling" Sci Transl Med 7(298): 298ra119. PubMed

In chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), oncogenic BCR-ABL1 activates the Wnt pathway, which is fundamental for leukemia stem cell (LSC) maintenance. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment reduces Wnt signaling in LSCs and often results in molecular remission of CML; however, LSCs persist long term despite BCR-ABL1 inhibition, ultimately causing disease relapse. We demonstrate that TKIs induce the expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family ligand CD70 in LSCs by down-regulating microRNA-29, resulting in reduced CD70 promoter DNA methylation and up-regulation of the transcription factor specificity protein 1. The resulting increase in CD70 triggered CD27 signaling and compensatory Wnt pathway activation. Combining TKIs with CD70 blockade effectively eliminated human CD34(+) CML stem/progenitor cells in xenografts and LSCs in a murine CML model. Therefore, targeting TKI-induced expression of CD70 and compensatory Wnt signaling resulting from the CD70/CD27 interaction is a promising approach to overcoming treatment resistance in CML LSCs.

In vivo CD70 blockade
Krupnick, A. S., et al. (2014). "Central memory CD8+ T lymphocytes mediate lung allograft acceptance" J Clin Invest 124(3): 1130-1143. PubMed

Memory T lymphocytes are commonly viewed as a major barrier for long-term survival of organ allografts and are thought to accelerate rejection responses due to their rapid infiltration into allografts, low threshold for activation, and ability to produce inflammatory mediators. Because memory T cells are usually associated with rejection, preclinical protocols have been developed to target this population in transplant recipients. Here, using a murine model, we found that costimulatory blockade-mediated lung allograft acceptance depended on the rapid infiltration of the graft by central memory CD8+ T cells (CD44(hi)CD62L(hi)CCR7+). Chemokine receptor signaling and alloantigen recognition were required for trafficking of these memory T cells to lung allografts. Intravital 2-photon imaging revealed that CCR7 expression on CD8+ T cells was critical for formation of stable synapses with antigen-presenting cells, resulting in IFN-gamma production, which induced NO and downregulated alloimmune responses. Thus, we describe a critical role for CD8+ central memory T cells in lung allograft acceptance and highlight the need for tailored approaches for tolerance induction in the lung.

In vivo CD70 blockade, Flow Cytometry
Mahmud, S. A., et al. (2014). "Costimulation via the tumor-necrosis factor receptor superfamily couples TCR signal strength to the thymic differentiation of regulatory T cells" Nat Immunol 15(5): 473-481. PubMed

Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) express members of the tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), but the role of those receptors in the thymic development of Treg cells is undefined. We found here that Treg cell progenitors had high expression of the TNFRSF members GITR, OX40 and TNFR2. Expression of those receptors correlated directly with the signal strength of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and required the coreceptor CD28 and the kinase TAK1. The neutralization of ligands that are members of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF) diminished the development of Treg cells. Conversely, TNFRSF agonists enhanced the differentiation of Treg cell progenitors by augmenting responsiveness of the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) and transcription factor STAT5. Costimulation with the ligand of GITR elicited dose-dependent enrichment for cells of lower TCR affinity in the Treg cell repertoire. In vivo, combined inhibition of GITR, OX40 and TNFR2 abrogated the development of Treg cells. Thus, expression of members of the TNFRSF on Treg cell progenitors translated strong TCR signals into molecular parameters that specifically promoted the development of Treg cells and shaped the Treg cell repertoire.

In vivo CD70 blockade
Allam, A., et al. (2014). "Dual function of CD70 in viral infection: modulator of early cytokine responses and activator of adaptive responses" J Immunol 193(2): 871-878. PubMed

The role of the TNF family member CD70 in adaptive T cell responses has been intensively studied, but its function in innate responses is still under investigation. In this study, we show that CD70 inhibits the early innate response to murine CMV (MCMV) but is essential for the optimal generation of virus-specific CD8 T cells. CD70(-/-) mice reacted to MCMV infection with a robust type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokine response. This response was sufficient for initial control of MCMV, although at later time points, CD70(-/-) mice became more susceptible to MCMV infection. The heightened cytokine response during the early phase of MCMV infection in CD70(-/-) mice was paralleled by a reduction in regulatory T cells (Treg). Treg from naive CD70(-/-) mice were not as efficient at suppressing T cell proliferation compared with Treg from naive wild-type mice, and depletion of Treg during MCMV infection in Foxp3-diphtheria toxin receptor mice or in wild-type mice recapitulated the phenotype observed in CD70(-/-) mice. Our study demonstrates that although CD70 is required for the activation of the antiviral adaptive response, it has a regulatory role in early cytokine responses to viruses such as MCMV, possibly through maintenance of Treg survival and function.

In vivo CD70 blockade, Flow Cytometry
McKinstry, K. K., et al. (2014). "Effector CD4 T-cell transition to memory requires late cognate interactions that induce autocrine IL-2" Nat Commun 5: 5377. PubMed

It is unclear how CD4 T-cell memory formation is regulated following pathogen challenge, and when critical mechanisms act to determine effector T-cell fate. Here, we report that following influenza infection most effectors require signals from major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and CD70 during a late window well after initial priming to become memory. During this timeframe, effector cells must produce IL-2 or be exposed to high levels of paracrine or exogenously added IL-2 to survive an otherwise rapid default contraction phase. Late IL-2 promotes survival through acute downregulation of apoptotic pathways in effector T cells and by permanently upregulating their IL-7 receptor expression, enabling IL-7 to sustain them as memory T cells. This new paradigm defines a late checkpoint during the effector phase at which cognate interactions direct CD4 T-cell memory generation.

In vivo CD70 blockade, Flow Cytometry
Ballesteros-Tato, A., et al. (2014). "Epitope-specific regulation of memory programming by differential duration of antigen presentation to influenza-specific CD8(+) T cells" Immunity 41(1): 127-140. PubMed

Memory CD8(+) T cells are programmed during the primary response for robust secondary responsiveness. Here we show that CD8(+) T cells responding to different epitopes of influenza virus received qualitatively different signals during the primary response that altered their secondary responsiveness. Nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8(+) T cells encountered antigen on CD40-licensed, CD70-expressing, CD103(-)CD11b(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) at later times in the primary response. As a consequence, they maintained CD25 expression and responded to interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD27, which together programmed their robust secondary proliferative capacity and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing ability. In contrast, polymerase (PA)-specific CD8(+) T cells did not encounter antigen-bearing, CD40-activated DCs at later times in the primary response, did not receive CD27 and CD25 signals, and were not programmed to become memory CD8(+) T cells with strong proliferative and cytokine-producing ability. As a result, CD8(+) T cells responding to abundant antigens, like NP, dominated the secondary response.

In vivo CD70 blockade
Baumgartner, C. K., et al. (2012). "A TCR affinity threshold regulates memory CD4 T cell differentiation following vaccination" J Immunol 189(5): 2309-2317. PubMed

Diverse Ag-specific memory TCR repertoires are essential for protection against pathogens. Subunit vaccines that combine peptide or protein Ags with TLR agonists are very potent at inducing T cell immune responses, but their capacity to elicit stable and diverse memory CD4 T cell repertoires has not been evaluated. In this study, we examined the evolution of a complex Ag-specific population during the transition from primary effectors to memory T cells after peptide or protein vaccination. Both vaccination regimens induced equally diverse effector CD4 TCR repertoires, but peptide vaccines skewed the memory CD4 TCR repertoire toward high-affinity clonotypes whereas protein vaccines maintained low-affinity clonotypes in the memory compartment. CD27-mediated signaling was essential for the maintenance of low-affinity clonotypes after protein vaccination but was not sufficient to promote their survival following peptide vaccination. The rapid culling of the TCR repertoire in peptide-immunized mice coincided with a prolonged proliferation phase during which low-affinity clonotypes disappeared despite exhibiting no sign of enhanced apoptosis. Our study reveals a novel affinity threshold for memory CD4 T cell differentiation following vaccination and suggests a role for nonapoptotic cell death in the regulation of CD4 T cell clonal selection.

In vivo CD70 blockade
Alkhamis, T., et al. (2012). "Antibody combination therapy targeting CD25, CD70 and CD8 reduces islet inflammation and improves glycaemia in diabetic mice" Clin Exp Immunol 170(2): 139-148. PubMed

Destruction of pancreatic islets in type 1 diabetes is caused by infiltrating, primed and activated T cells. In a clinical setting this autoimmune process is already in an advanced stage before intervention therapy can be administered. Therefore, an effective intervention needs to reduce islet inflammation and preserve any remaining islet function. In this study we have investigated the role of targeting activated T cells in reversing autoimmune diabetes. A combination therapy consisting of CD25-, CD70- and CD8-specific monoclonal antibodies was administered to non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with either new-onset diabetes or with advanced diabetes. In NOD mice with new-onset diabetes antibody combination treatment reversed hyperglycaemia and achieved long-term protection from diabetes (blood glucose <13.9 mmol/l) in >50% of mice. In contrast, in the control, untreated group blood glucose levels continued to increase and none of the mice were protected from diabetes (P < 0.0001). Starting therapy early when hyperglycaemia was relatively mild proved critical, as the mice with advanced diabetes showed less efficient control of blood glucose and shorter life span. Histological analysis (insulitis score) showed islet preservation and reduced immune infiltration in all treated groups, compared to their controls. In conclusion, antibody combination therapy that targets CD25, CD70 and CD8 results in decreased islet infiltration and improved blood glucose levels in NOD mice with established diabetes.

In vivo CD70 blockade
Kurche, J. S., et al. (2010). "Comparison of OX40 ligand and CD70 in the promotion of CD4+ T cell responses" J Immunol 185(4): 2106-2115. PubMed

The TNF superfamily members CD70 and OX40 ligand (OX40L) were reported to be important for CD4(+) T cell expansion and differentiation. However, the relative contribution of these costimulatory signals in driving CD4(+) T cell responses has not been addressed. In this study, we found that OX40L is a more important determinant than CD70 of the primary CD4(+) T cell response to multiple immunization regimens. Despite the ability of a combined TLR and CD40 agonist (TLR/CD40) stimulus to provoke appreciable expression of CD70 and OX40L on CD8(+) dendritic cells, resulting CD4(+) T cell responses were substantially reduced by Ab blockade of OX40L and, to a lesser degree, CD70. In contrast, the CD8(+) T cell responses to combined TLR/CD40 immunization were exclusively dependent on CD70. These requirements for CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell activation were not limited to the use of combined TLR/CD40 immunization, because vaccinia virus challenge elicited primarily OX40L-dependent CD4 responses and exclusively CD70-dependent CD8(+) T cell responses. Attenuation of CD4(+) T cell priming induced by OX40L blockade was independent of signaling through the IL-12R, but it was reduced further by coblockade of CD70. Thus, costimulation by CD70 or OX40L seems to be necessary for primary CD4(+) T cell responses to multiple forms of immunization, and each may make independent contributions to CD4(+) T cell priming.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    B cells require licensing by dendritic cells to serve as primary antigen-presenting cells for plasmid DNA.

    In Oncoimmunology on 19 May 2023 by Rastogi, I. & McNeel, D. G.

    PubMed

    DNA vaccines have been an attractive approach for treating cancer patients, however have demonstrated modest immunogenicity in human clinical trials. Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to cross-present DNA-encoded antigens expressed in bystander cells. However, we have previously reported that B cells, and not DCs, serve as primary antigen-presenting cells (APCs) following passive uptake of plasmid DNA. Here we sought to understand the requirements for B cells to present DNA-encoded antigens, to ultimately increase the immunogenicity of plasmid DNA vaccines. Using ovalbumin-specific OT-1 CD8+ T cells and isolated APC populations, we demonstrated that following passive uptake of plasmid DNA, B cells but not DC, can translate the encoded antigen. However, CD8 T cells were only activated by B cells when they were co-cultured with DCs. We found that a cell-cell contact is required between B cells and DCs. Using MHCI KO and re-purification studies, we demonstrated that B cells were the primary APCs and DCs serve to license this function. We further identified that the gene expression profiles of B cells that have been licensed by DCs, compared to the B cells that have not, are vastly different and have signatures similar to B cells activated with a TLR7/8 agonist. Our data demonstrate that B cells transcribe and translate antigens encoded by plasmid DNA following passive uptake, however require licensing by live DC to present antigen to CD8 T cells. Further study of the role of B cells as APCs will be important to improve the immunological efficacy of DNA vaccines. © 2023 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    The dual role of CD70 in B-cell lymphomagenesis.

    In Clinical and Translational Medicine on 1 December 2022 by Nie, M., Ren, W., et al.

    PubMed

    CD70 is a costimulatory molecule that is transiently expressed on a small set of activated lymphocytes and is involved in T-cell-mediated immunity. However, the role of CD70 in B-cell malignancies remains controversial. We investigated the clinical relevance of CD70 genetic alterations and its protein expression in two diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cohorts with different ethnic backgrounds. We also performed transcriptomic analysis to explore the role of CD70 alterations in tumour microenvironment. We further tested the blockade of CD70 in combination with PD-L1 inhibitor in a murine lymphoma model. We showed that CD70 genetic aberrations occurred more frequently in the Chinese DLBCL cohort (56/233, 24.0%) than in the Swedish cohort (9/84, 10.8%), especially in those with concomitant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The CD70 genetic changes in DLBCL resulted in a reduction/loss of protein expression and/or CD27 binding, which might impair T cell priming and were independently associated with poor overall survival. Paradoxically, we observed that over-expression of CD70 protein was also associated with a poor treatment response, as well as an advanced disease stage and EBV infection. More exhausted CD8+ T cells were furthermore identified in CD70 high-expression DLBCLs. Finally, in a murine lymphoma model, we demonstrated that blocking the CD70/CD27 and/or PD1/PD-L1 interactions could reduce CD70+ lymphoma growth in vivo, by directly impairing the tumour cell proliferation and rescuing the exhausted T cells. Our findings suggest that CD70 can play a role in either tumour suppression or oncogenesis in DLBCL, likely via distinct immune evasion mechanisms, that is, impairing T cell priming or inducing T cell exhaustion. Characterisation of specific dysfunction of CD70 in DLBCL may thus provide opportunities for the development of novel targeted immuno-therapeutic strategies. © 2022 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Shanghai Institute of Clinical Bioinformatics.

    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    Frontline Science: Late CD27 stimulation promotes IL-7Rα transcriptional re-expression and memory T cell qualities in effector CD8+ T cells.

    In Journal of Leukocyte Biology on 1 November 2019 by Dong, H., Buckner, A., et al.

    PubMed

    We previously demonstrated that CD27 co-stimulation during a primary CD8+ T-cell response was critical for the expression of IL-7Rα on acute effector CD8+ T cells, providing an essential element in the generation of CD8+ T-cell memory to infectious pathogens. IL-7 plays a critical role in the generation and maintenance of memory CD8+ T cells, and IL-7Rα has been regarded as a functional marker of long-lived memory precursor effector cells. While IL-7Rα is downregulated acutely upon TCR stimulation, the regulation of the emergence of IL-7Rα expressing cells around the peak of primary CD8+ responses is less clear. Re-expression could be a default outcome after withdrawal of TCR stimulation. Alternatively, specific stimuli could actively antagonize the downregulation or promote the recovery of IL-7Rα in Ag-activated CD8+ T cells. By utilizing agonistic mAb and transgenic models, here we show: (1) CD27 stimulation acts directly on CD8+ T cells to enhance IL-7Rα-expressing effectors; (2) CD27 stimulation neither alleviates the downregulation of IL-7Rα upon TCR signaling nor promotes the expansion/survival of IL-7Rα-expressing effectors, but facilitates IL-7Rα re-expression; (3) CD27 stimulation regulates Il7ra mRNA abundance but not protein distribution. Importantly, CD27 stimulation promotes not only IL-7Rα, but also the common γ chain of the receptor and the downstream signaling mediated by pSTAT5. Our results demonstrate a previously unappreciated role of CD27 stimulation as a positive regulator of IL-7Rα during CD8 T-cell responses, provide insights into the mechanistic basis by which CD27 stimulation influences CD8+ T-cell memory differentiation, and highlight the potential of targeting CD27-CD70 axis to enhance IL-7 signaling for antiviral/antitumor immunotherapy. ©2019 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    CD70 encoded by modified vaccinia virus Ankara enhances CD8 T-cell-dependent protective immunity in MHC class II-deficient mice.

    In Immunology on 1 June 2018 by Bathke, B., Pätzold, J., et al.

    PubMed

    The immunological outcome of infections and vaccinations is largely determined during the initial first days in which antigen-presenting cells instruct T cells to expand and differentiate into effector and memory cells. Besides the essential stimulation of the T-cell receptor complex a plethora of co-stimulatory signals not only ensures a proper T-cell activation but also instils phenotypic and functional characteristics in the T cells appropriate to fight off the invading pathogen. The tumour necrosis factor receptor/ligand pair CD27/CD70 gained a lot of attention because of its key role in regulating T-cell activation, survival, differentiation and maintenance, especially in the course of viral infections and cancer. We sought to investigate the role of CD70 co-stimulation for immune responses induced by the vaccine vector modified vaccinia virus Ankara-Bavarian Nordic® (MVA-BN® ). Short-term blockade of CD70 diminished systemic CD8 T-cell effector and memory responses in mice. The dependence on CD70 became even more apparent in the lungs of MHC class II-deficient mice. Importantly, genetically encoded CD70 in MVA-BN® not only increased CD8 T-cell responses in wild-type mice but also substituted for CD4 T-cell help. MHC class II-deficient mice that were immunized with recombinant MVA-CD70 were fully protected against a lethal virus infection, whereas MVA-BN® -immunized mice failed to control the virus. These data are in line with CD70 playing an important role for vaccine-induced CD8 T-cell responses and prove the potency of integrating co-stimulatory molecules into the MVA-BN® backbone. © 2017 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Costimulation via the tumor-necrosis factor receptor superfamily couples TCR signal strength to the thymic differentiation of regulatory T cells.

    In Nature Immunology on 1 May 2014 by Mahmud, S. A., Manlove, L. S., et al.

    PubMed

    Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) express members of the tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), but the role of those receptors in the thymic development of Treg cells is undefined. We found here that Treg cell progenitors had high expression of the TNFRSF members GITR, OX40 and TNFR2. Expression of those receptors correlated directly with the signal strength of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and required the coreceptor CD28 and the kinase TAK1. The neutralization of ligands that are members of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF) diminished the development of Treg cells. Conversely, TNFRSF agonists enhanced the differentiation of Treg cell progenitors by augmenting responsiveness of the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) and transcription factor STAT5. Costimulation with the ligand of GITR elicited dose-dependent enrichment for cells of lower TCR affinity in the Treg cell repertoire. In vivo, combined inhibition of GITR, OX40 and TNFR2 abrogated the development of Treg cells. Thus, expression of members of the TNFRSF on Treg cell progenitors translated strong TCR signals into molecular parameters that specifically promoted the development of Treg cells and shaped the Treg cell repertoire.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    CD27 signaling increases the frequency of regulatory T cells and promotes tumor growth.

    In Cancer Research on 15 July 2012 by Claus, C., Riether, C., et al.

    PubMed

    Signaling of the TNF receptor superfamily member CD27 activates costimulatory pathways to elicit T- and B-cell responses. CD27 signaling is regulated by the expression of its ligand CD70 on subsets of dendritic cells and lymphocytes. Here, we analyzed the role of the CD27-CD70 interaction in the immunologic control of solid tumors in Cd27-deficient mice. In tumor-bearing wild-type mice, the CD27-CD70 interaction increased the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs), reduced tumor-specific T-cell responses, increased angiogenesis, and promoted tumor growth. CD27 signaling reduced apoptosis of Tregs in vivo and induced CD4(+) effector T cells (Teffs) to produce interleukin-2, a key survival factor for Tregs. Consequently, the frequency of Tregs and growth of solid tumors were reduced in Cd27-deficient mice or in wild-type mice treated with monoclonal antibody to block CD27 signaling. Our findings, therefore, provide a novel mechanism by which the adaptive immune system enhances tumor growth and may offer an attractive strategy to treat solid tumors.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Stem Cells and Developmental Biology
    CD27 signaling on chronic myelogenous leukemia stem cells activates Wnt target genes and promotes disease progression.

    In The Journal of Clinical Investigation on 1 February 2012 by Schürch, C., Riether, C., et al.

    PubMed

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) results from a chromosomal translocation in hematopoietic stem or early progenitor cells that gives rise to the oncogenic BCR/ABL fusion protein. Clinically, CML has a chronic phase that eventually evolves into an accelerated stage and blast crisis. A CML-specific immune response is thought to contribute to the control of disease. Whether the immune system can also promote disease progression is not known. In the present study, we investigated the possibility that the TNF receptor family member CD27 is present on leukemia stem cells (LSCs) and mediates effects of the immune system on CML. In a mouse model of CML, BCR/ABL+ LSCs and leukemia progenitor cells were found to express CD27. Binding of CD27 by its ligand, CD70, increased expression of Wnt target genes in LSCs by enhancing nuclear localization of active β-catenin and TRAF2- and NCK-interacting kinase (TNIK). This resulted in increased proliferation and differentiation of LSCs. Blocking CD27 signaling in LSCs delayed disease progression and prolonged survival. Furthermore, CD27 was expressed on CML stem/progenitor cells in the bone marrow of CML patients, and CD27 signaling promoted growth of BCR/ABL+ human leukemia cells by activating the Wnt pathway. Since expression of CD70 is limited to activated lymphocytes and dendritic cells, our results reveal a mechanism by which adaptive immunity contributes to leukemia progression. In addition, targeting CD27 on LSCs may represent an attractive therapeutic approach to blocking the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in CML.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cardiovascular biology
    Intermittent antibody-based combination therapy removes alloantibodies and achieves indefinite heart transplant survival in presensitized recipients.

    In Transplantation on 15 August 2010 by Shariff, H., Tanriver, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    It is well established that primed/memory T cells play a critical role in heart transplant rejection. This contributes to the challenges faced in the transplant clinic because current treatments that are efficient in controlling naïve T cell alloresponses have limited efficacy on primed T cell responders. Fully MHC-mismatched heart transplantation was performed from BALB/c to C57BL/6 mice presensitized with BALB/c splenocytes 14 days pretransplantation. A combination therapy comprising CD70-, CD154-, and CD8-specific antibodies (Abs) was administered at day 0 and 4 posttransplantation with rapamycin on days 0 to 4. The Ab combination therapy extended heart transplant survival in presensitized recipients from median survival time 8 days (MST) to MST 78 days. A decrease in the number of splenic interferon-gamma-secreting cells measured by ELISpot assay was seen in the treated group compared with the untreated controls. However, graft-infiltrating CD8+ and CD4+ T cells persisted despite treatment and the number of intragraft CD4+ T cells increased at day 30 posttransplantation. When an additional "rescue therapy" comprising the same Abs was readministered at days 30, 60, and 90 posttransplantation, T cell infiltration was reduced and indefinite graft survival was observed. Furthermore, rescue therapy resulted in gradual decrease in titer and, by day 90 posttransplantation, the complete loss of the preexisting, donor-specific Abs. We conclude that our Ab combination therapy extends allograft survival in presensitized recipients. When combined with intermittent Ab-mediated rescue therapy, this results in indefinite allograft survival and a loss of the preexisting, donor-specific Abs from the circulation.