InVivoMAb anti-mouse CD3

Catalog #BE0002

$150.00 - $3,920.00

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Product Details

The 17A2 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD3, a transmembrane cell-surface protein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD3 associates with TCR α/β or γ/δ chains to form the TCR complex. CD3 is expressed on T lymphocytes, NK-T cells, and to varying degrees on developing thymocytes. CD3 plays roles in TCR signaling, T lymphocyte activation, and antigen recognition. The 145-2C11 antibody has been shown to block the binding of the 17A2 antibody suggesting that the 17A2 antibody recognizes an epitope of the CD3ε chain. Treatment with the 17A2 antibody in vivo has been reported to partially deplete T lymphocytes and temporarily down-modulate CD3 expression on T cells.


Isotype Rat IgG2b, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb rat IgG2b isotype control, anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Immunogen γδ TCR-positive T-T hybridoma D1
Reported Applications in vitro T cell stimulation/activation
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 μM filtered
Production Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107630
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vitro T cell stimulation/activation
Shen, P. X., et al. (2021). "Urolithin A ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by targeting aryl hydrocarbon receptor" EBioMedicine 64: 103227. PubMed

BACKGROUND: Urolithin A (URA) is an intestinal microbiota metabolic product from ellagitannin-containing foods with multiple biological activities. However, its role in autoimmune diseases is largely unknown. Here, for first time, we demonstrate the therapeutic effect of URA in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model. METHODS: Therapeutic effect was evaluated via an active and passive EAE animal model in vivo. The function of URA on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), T cells, and microglia were tested in vitro. FINDINGS: Oral URA (25 mg/kg/d) suppressed disease progression at prevention, induction, and effector phases of preclinical EAE. Histological evaluation showed that significantly fewer inflammatory cells, decreased demyelination, lower numbers of M1-type microglia and activated DCs, as well as reduced infiltrating Th1/Th17 cells were present in the central nervous system (CNS) of the URA-treated group. URA treatment at 25 μM inhibited the activation of BM-DCs in vitro, restrained Th17 cell differentiation in T cell polarization conditions, and in a DC-CD4(+) T cell co-culture system. Moreover, we confirmed URA inhibited pathogenicity of Th17 cells in adoptive EAE. Mechanism of URA action was directly targeting Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and modulating the signaling pathways. INTERPRETATION: Collectively, our study offers new evidence that URA, as a human microbial metabolite, is valuable to use as a prospective therapeutic candidate for autoimmune diseases.

in vitro T cell stimulation/activation
Edwards-Hicks, J., et al. (2020). "Metabolic Dynamics of In Vitro CD8+ T Cell Activation" Metabolites 11(1). PubMed

CD8+ T cells detect and kill infected or cancerous cells. When activated from their naïve state, T cells undergo a complex transition, including major metabolic reprogramming. Detailed resolution of metabolic dynamics is needed to advance the field of immunometabolism. Here, we outline methodologies that when utilized in parallel achieve broad coverage of the metabolome. Specifically, we used a combination of 2 flow injection analysis (FIA) and 3 liquid chromatography (LC) methods in combination with positive and negative mode high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) to study the transition from naïve to effector T cells with fine-grained time resolution. Depending on the method, between 54% and 98% of measured metabolic features change in a time-dependent manner, with the major changes in both polar metabolites and lipids occurring in the first 48 h. The statistical analysis highlighted the remodeling of the polyamine biosynthesis pathway, with marked differences in the dynamics of precursors, intermediates, and cofactors. Moreover, phosphatidylcholines, the major class of membrane lipids, underwent a drastic shift in acyl chain composition with polyunsaturated species decreasing from 60% to 25% of the total pool and specifically depleting species containing a 20:4 fatty acid. We hope that this data set with a total of over 11,000 features recorded with multiple MS methodologies for 9 time points will be a useful resource for future work.

in vitro T cell stimulation/activation
Nance, J. P., et al. (2015). "Bcl6 middle domain repressor function is required for T follicular helper cell differentiation and utilizes the corepressor MTA3" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. pii : 201507312. PubMed

T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential providers of help to B cells. The transcription factor B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) is a lineage-defining regulator of Tfh cells and germinal center B cells. In B cells, Bcl6 has the potential to recruit distinct transcriptional corepressors through its BTB domain or its poorly characterized middle domain (also known as RDII), but in Tfh cells the roles of the Bcl6 middle domain have yet to be clarified. Mimicked acetylation of the Bcl6 middle domain (K379Q) in CD4 T cells results in significant reductions in Tfh differentiation in vivo. Blimp1 (Prdm1) is a potent inhibitor of Tfh cell differentiation. Although Bcl6 K379Q still bound to the Prdm1 cis-regulatory elements in Tfh cells, Prdm1 expression was derepressed. This was a result of the failure of Bcl6 K379Q to recruit metastasis-associated protein 3 (MTA3). The loss of Bcl6 function in Bcl6 K379Q-expressing CD4 T cells could be partially rescued by abrogating Prdm1 expression. In addition to Prdm1, we found that Bcl6 recruits MTA3 to multiple genes involved in Tfh cell biology, including genes important for cell migration, cell survival, and alternative differentiation pathways. Thus, Bcl6 middle domain mediated repression is a major mechanism of action by which Bcl6 controls CD4 T-cell fate and function.

in vitro T cell stimulation/activation
Choi, Y. S., et al. (2015). "LEF-1 and TCF-1 orchestrate TFH differentiation by regulating differentiation circuits upstream of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6" Nat Immunol 16(9): 980-990. PubMed

Follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) are specialized effector CD4(+) T cells that help B cells develop germinal centers (GCs) and memory. However, the transcription factors that regulate the differentiation of TFH cells remain incompletely understood. Here we report that selective loss of Lef1 or Tcf7 (which encode the transcription factor LEF-1 or TCF-1, respectively) resulted in TFH cell defects, while deletion of both Lef1 and Tcf7 severely impaired the differentiation of TFH cells and the formation of GCs. Forced expression of LEF-1 enhanced TFH differentiation. LEF-1 and TCF-1 coordinated such differentiation by two general mechanisms. First, they established the responsiveness of naive CD4(+) T cells to TFH cell signals. Second, they promoted early TFH differentiation via the multipronged approach of sustaining expression of the cytokine receptors IL-6Ralpha and gp130, enhancing expression of the costimulatory receptor ICOS and promoting expression of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6.

in vitro T cell stimulation/activation
Hu, S., et al. (2014). "Activated CD8+ T lymphocytes inhibit neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation: role of interferon-gamma" PLoS One 9(8): e105219. PubMed

The ability of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) to self-renew, migrate to damaged sites, and differentiate into neurons has renewed interest in using them in therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. Neurological diseases, including viral infections of the brain, are often accompanied by chronic inflammation, whose impact on NSC function remains unexplored. We have previously shown that chronic neuroinflammation, a hallmark of experimental herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in mice, is dominated by brain-infiltrating activated CD8 T-cells. In the present study, activated CD8 lymphocytes were found to suppress NSC proliferation profoundly. Luciferase positive (luc+) NSCs co-cultured with activated, MHC-matched, CD8+ lymphocytes (luc-) showed two- to five-fold lower luminescence than co-cultures with un-stimulated lymphocytes. On the other hand, similarly activated CD4+ lymphocytes did not suppress NSC growth. This differential lymphocyte effect on proliferation was confirmed by decreased BrdU uptake by NSC cultured with activated CD8 T-cells. Interestingly, neutralizing antibodies to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) reversed the impact of CD8 lymphocytes on NSCs. Antibodies specific to the IFN-gamma receptor-1 subunit complex abrogated the inhibitory effects of both CD8 lymphocytes and IFN-gamma, indicating that the inhibitory effect of these cells was mediated by IFN-gamma in a receptor-specific manner. In addition, activated CD8 lymphocytes decreased levels of nestin and Sox2 expression in NSCs while increasing GFAP expression, suggesting possible induction of an altered differentiation state. Furthermore, NSCs obtained from IFN-gamma receptor-1 knock-out embryos were refractory to the inhibitory effects of activated CD8+ T lymphocytes on cell proliferation and Sox2 expression. Taken together, the studies presented here demonstrate a role for activated CD8 T-cells in regulating NSC function mediated through the production of IFN-gamma. This cytokine may influence neuro-restorative processes and ultimately contribute to the long-term sequelae commonly seen following herpes encephalitis.

in vitro T cell stimulation/activation
Choi, Y. S., et al. (2013). "Bcl6 expressing follicular helper CD4 T cells are fate committed early and have the capacity to form memory" J Immunol 190(8): 4014-4026. PubMed

Follicular helper CD4 T (Tfh) cells are a distinct type of differentiated CD4 T cells uniquely specialized for B cell help. In this study, we examined Tfh cell fate commitment, including distinguishing features of Tfh versus Th1 proliferation and survival. Using cell transfer approaches at early time points after an acute viral infection, we demonstrate that early Tfh cells and Th1 cells are already strongly cell fate committed by day 3. Nevertheless, Tfh cell proliferation was tightly regulated in a TCR-dependent manner. The Tfh cells still depend on extrinsic cell fate cues from B cells in their physiological in vivo environment. Unexpectedly, we found that Tfh cells share a number of phenotypic parallels with memory precursor CD8 T cells, including selective upregulation of IL-7Ralpha and a collection of coregulated genes. As a consequence, the early Tfh cells can progress to robustly form memory cells. These data support the hypothesis that CD4 and CD8 T cells share core aspects of a memory cell precursor gene expression program involving Bcl6, and a strong relationship exists between Tfh cells and memory CD4 T cell development.