InVivoMAb anti-mouse CD22

Catalog #BE0011
Product Citations:
5
Clone:
Cy34.1
Reactivities:
Mouse

$164.00 - $4,280.00

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Product Details

The Cy34.1 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD22, a member of the SIGLEC family of lectins. CD22 is expressed at high levels on the surface of mature follicular and marginal zone B lymphocytes, B-1 cells, and plasma cells and associates with the B-cell antigen receptor. CD22 mediates B cell adhesion to ligands on endothelial cells in the bone marrow. Additionally, CD22 negatively regulates B cell activation and prevents the development of autoimmune diseases. The Cy34.1 antibody has been shown to augment B cell proliferation in response to LPS or anti-mouse Ig µ chain.

Specifications

Isotype Mouse IgG1, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb mouse IgG1 isotype control, unknown specificity
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen B10.D2 mouse splenocytes
Reported Applications in vivo B cell depletion in combination with anti-CD19 (clone 1D3) and anti-rat κ Light Chain (clone MAR 18.5)
Flow cytometry
Immunoprecipitation
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107613
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vivo B cell depletion in combination with anti-CD19 (clone 1D3) and anti-rat κ Light Chain (clone MAR 18.5)
Sawen, P., et al. (2016). "Mitotic History Reveals Distinct Stem Cell Populations and Their Contributions to Hematopoiesis" Cell Rep 14(12): 2809-2818. PubMed

Homeostasis of short-lived blood cells is dependent on rapid proliferation of immature precursors. Using a conditional histone 2B-mCherry-labeling mouse model, we characterize hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and progenitor proliferation dynamics in steady state and following several types of induced stress. HSC proliferation following HSC transplantation into lethally irradiated mice is fundamentally different not only from native hematopoiesis but also from other stress contexts. Whereas transplantation promoted sustained, long-term proliferation of HSCs, both cytokine-induced mobilization and acute depletion of selected blood cell lineages elicited very limited recruitment of HSCs to the proliferative pool. By coupling mCherry-based analysis of proliferation history with multiplex gene expression analyses on single cells, we have found that HSCs can be stratified into four distinct subtypes. These subtypes have distinct molecular signatures and differ significantly in their reconstitution potentials, showcasing the power of tracking proliferation history when resolving functional heterogeneity of HSCs.

Flow Cytometry, Proximity Ligation Assay
Muller, J., et al. (2013). "CD22 ligand-binding and signaling domains reciprocally regulate B-cell Ca2+ signaling" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(30): 12402-12407. PubMed

A high proportion of human B cells carry B-cell receptors (BCRs) that are autoreactive. Inhibitory receptors such as CD22 can downmodulate autoreactive BCR responses. With its extracellular domain, CD22 binds to sialic acids in alpha2,6 linkages in cis, on the surface of the same B cell or in trans, on other cells. Sialic acids are self ligands, as they are abundant in vertebrates, but are usually not expressed by pathogens. We show that cis-ligand binding of CD22 is crucial for the regulation of B-cell Ca(2+) signaling by controlling the CD22 association to the BCR. Mice with a mutated CD22 ligand-binding domain of CD22 showed strongly reduced Ca(2+) signaling. In contrast, mice with mutated CD22 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs have increased B-cell Ca(2+) responses, increased B-cell turnover, and impaired survival of the B cells. Thus, the CD22 ligand-binding domain has a crucial function in regulating BCR signaling, which is relevant for controlling autoimmunity.

Flow Cytometry
Wohner, M., et al. (2012). "Human CD22 cannot fully substitute murine CD22 functions in vivo, as shown in a new knockin mouse model" Eur J Immunol 42(11): 3009-3018. PubMed

CD22, an inhibitory co-receptor of the B-cell receptor, shows a B-cell-specific expression pattern and is expressed on most B-cell lymphomas. The anti-CD22 antibody Epratuzumab is in clinical trials for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic lupus erythematosus, but shows a mostly unknown mode of action. We generated a new mouse model that expresses human CD22 instead of murine CD22 (Huki CD22 mice), in which human CD22 can be targeted. Expression of human CD22 on the B cells of Huki CD22 mice does not generally interfere with B-cell development. However, Huki CD22 mice show a reduction of the population of mature recirculating B cells in the bone marrow and reduced transitional and marginal zone B cells in the spleen, phenotypes resembling that of CD22-deficient mice. Similarly, enhanced BCR-induced Ca(2+) signalling is observed in Huki CD22 mice, which also mount normal immune responses toward different classes of antigens. Huki CD22 B cells show a normal anti-hCD22 antibody-mediated endocytosis. In conclusion, human CD22 cannot fully substitute for murine CD22 functions, possibly due to the changed intracellular tail of the protein or due to lower expression levels. Huki CD22 mice are a valuable new model for both antibody- and immunotoxin-mediated targeting of human CD22.

Flow Cytometry
Efanov, A., et al. (2010). "CD5+CD23+ leukemic cell populations in TCL1 transgenic mice show significantly increased proliferation and Akt phosphorylation" Leukemia 24(5): 970-975. PubMed

B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is the most common adult leukemia. Deregulation of the T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 (TCL1) oncogene in mouse B cells causes a CD5-positive leukemia similar to aggressive human B-CLLs. We recently reported that levels of TCL1 expression in B-CLL are regulated by miR-29 and miR-181 that target 3′ UTR of TCL1. To determine whether treatment with microRNAs targeting TCL1 can inhibit B-CLL in mice, we generated TCL1 transgenic mice using a construct containing the 3′ and 5′ UTRs of TCL1 under B-cell-specific Emicro promoter (Emicro-TCL1FL). At the age of 16-20 months, these mice showed B-CLL-like disease. Immunophenotyping revealed accumulation of CD5+CD23+B220+ population in spleens and lymph nodes. Our results show that CD5+CD23+ B-cell populations from Emicro-TCL1FL mice actively proliferate and show significantly increased levels of phospho-Akt. Emicro-TCL1FL mice showed immunological abnormalities similar to human B-CLL, including hypoimmunoglobulinemia, abnormal levels of cytokines and impaired immune response. These findings revealed biochemical and immunological similarities between Tcl1-driven B-CLL in mice and human B-CLL.

Immunoprecipitation
Duong, B. H., et al. (2010). "Decoration of T-independent antigen with ligands for CD22 and Siglec-G can suppress immunity and induce B cell tolerance in vivo" J Exp Med 207(1): 173-187. PubMed

Autoreactive B lymphocytes first encountering self-antigens in peripheral tissues are normally regulated by induction of anergy or apoptosis. According to the “two-signal” model, antigen recognition alone should render B cells tolerant unless T cell help or inflammatory signals such as lipopolysaccharide are provided. However, no such signals seem necessary for responses to T-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens, which are multimeric antigens lacking T cell epitopes and Toll-like receptor ligands. How then do mature B cells avoid making a TI-2-like response to multimeric self-antigens? We present evidence that TI-2 antigens decorated with ligands of inhibitory sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins (siglecs) are poorly immunogenic and can induce tolerance to subsequent challenge with immunogenic antigen. Two siglecs, CD22 and Siglec-G, contributed to tolerance induction, preventing plasma cell differentiation or survival. Although mutations in CD22 and its signaling machinery have been associated with dysregulated B cell development and autoantibody production, previous analyses failed to identify a tolerance defect in antigen-specific mutant B cells. Our results support a role for siglecs in B cell self-/nonself-discrimination, namely suppressing responses to self-associated antigens while permitting rapid “missing self”-responses to unsialylated multimeric antigens. The results suggest use of siglec ligand antigen constructs as an approach for inducing tolerance.

Flow Cytometry
Gross, A. J., et al. (2009). "Developmental acquisition of the Lyn-CD22-SHP-1 inhibitory pathway promotes B cell tolerance" J Immunol 182(9): 5382-5392. PubMed

To better understand whether autoimmunity in Lyn-deficient mice arises from compromised central or peripheral B cell tolerance, we examined BCR signaling properties of wild-type and Lyn-deficient B cells at different stages of development. Wild-type mature follicular B cells were less sensitive to BCR stimulation than were immature transitional stage 1 B cells with regard to BCR-induced calcium elevation and ERK MAPK activation. In the absence of Lyn, mature B cell signaling was greatly enhanced, whereas immature B cell signaling was minimally affected. Correspondingly, Lyn deficiency substantially enhanced the sensitivity of mature B cells to activation via the BCR, but minimally affected events associated with tolerance induction at the immature stage. The effects of CD22 deficiency on BCR signaling were very similar in B cells at different stages of maturation. These results indicate that the Lyn-CD22-Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 inhibitory pathway largely becomes operational as B cell mature, and sets a threshold for activation that appears to be critical for the maintenance of tolerance in the B cell compartment.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    GPR55 in B cells limits atherosclerosis development and regulates plasma cell maturation.

    In Nat Cardiovasc Res on 1 November 2022 by Guillamat-Prats, R., Hering, D., et al.

    PubMed

    Dissecting the pathways regulating the adaptive immune response in atherosclerosis is of particular therapeutic interest. Here we report that the lipid G-protein coupled receptor GPR55 is highly expressed by splenic plasma cells (PC), upregulated in mouse spleens during atherogenesis and human unstable or ruptured compared to stable plaques. Gpr55-deficient mice developed larger atherosclerotic plaques with increased necrotic core size compared to their corresponding controls. Lack of GPR55 hyperactivated B cells, disturbed PC maturation and resulted in immunoglobulin (Ig)G overproduction. B cell-specific Gpr55 depletion or adoptive transfer of Gpr55-deficient B cells was sufficient to promote plaque development and elevated IgG titers. In vitro, the endogenous GPR55 ligand lysophsophatidylinositol (LPI) enhanced PC proliferation, whereas GPR55 antagonism blocked PC maturation and increased their mitochondrial content. Collectively, these discoveries provide previously undefined evidence for GPR55 in B cells as a key modulator of the adaptive immune response in atherosclerosis.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    GPR55 in B cells limits atherosclerosis development and regulates plasma cell maturation

    Preprint on Research Square on 12 January 2022 by Guillamat-Prats, R., Hering, D., et al.

    PubMed

    Identifying novel pathways regulating the adaptive immune response in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis is of particular interest in view of developing new therapeutic drugs. Here we report that the lipid receptor GPR55 is highly expressed by splenic B cells and inversely correlates with atheroma plaque size in mice. In human carotid endarterectomy specimen, GPR55 transcript levels were significantly lower in unstable compared to stable carotid plaques. To study the impact of GPR55 deficiency in atherosclerosis, we crossed Gpr55 knockout mice with apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice and subjected the mice to Western diet for 4 to 16 weeks. Compared to ApoE-/- controls, ApoE-/-Gpr55-/- mice developed larger plaques with increased necrotic core size, associated with elevated circulating and aortic leukocyte counts. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and RNA-sequencing analysis of splenic B cells in these mice revealed a hyperactivated B cell phenotype with disturbed plasma cell maturation and immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody overproduction. The specific contribution of B cell GPR55 in atherosclerosis was further studied in mixed Gpr55-/-/µMT bone marrow chimeras on low density receptor deficiency (Ldlr-/-) background, revealing that B-cell specific depletion of Gpr55 was sufficient to promote plaque development. Conversely, adoptive transfer of wildtype B cells into ApoE-/-Gpr55-/- mice blunted the proatherogenic phenotype. In vitro stimulation of splenocytes with the endogenous GPR55 ligand LPI promoted plasma cell proliferation and enhanced B cell activation marker expression, which was inhibited by the GPR55 antagonist CID16020046. Collectively, these discoveries provide new evidence for GPR55 as key modulator of the adaptive immune response in atherosclerosis. Targeting GPR55 could be useful to limit inflammation and plaque progression in patients suffering from atherosclerosis.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    GPR55 in B cells limits atherosclerosis development and regulates plasma cell maturation

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 21 December 2021 by Guillamat-Prats, R., Hering, D., et al.

    PubMed

    Identifying novel pathways regulating the adaptive immune response in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis is of particular interest in view of developing new therapeutic drugs. Here we report that the lipid receptor GPR55 is highly expressed by splenic B cells and inversely correlates with atheroma plaque size in mice. In human carotid endarterectomy specimen, GPR55 transcript levels were significantly lower in unstable compared to stable carotid plaques. To study the impact of GPR55 deficiency in atherosclerosis, we crossed Gpr55 knockout mice with apolipoprotein E ( ApoE ) knockout mice and subjected the mice to Western diet for 4 to 16 weeks. Compared to ApoE -/- controls, ApoE -/- Gpr55 -/- mice developed larger plaques with increased necrotic core size, associated with elevated circulating and aortic leukocyte counts. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and RNA-sequencing analysis of splenic B cells in these mice revealed a hyperactivated B cell phenotype with disturbed plasma cell maturation and immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody overproduction. The specific contribution of B cell GPR55 in atherosclerosis was further studied in mixed Gpr55 -/- / µMT bone marrow chimeras on low density receptor deficiency ( Ldlr -/- ) background, revealing that B-cell specific depletion of Gpr55 was sufficient to promote plaque development. Conversely, adoptive transfer of wildtype B cells into ApoE -/- Gpr55 -/- mice blunted the proatherogenic phenotype. In vitro stimulation of splenocytes with the endogenous GPR55 ligand LPI promoted plasma cell proliferation and enhanced B cell activation marker expression, which was inhibited by the GPR55 antagonist CID16020046. Collectively, these discoveries provide new evidence for GPR55 as key modulator of the adaptive immune response in atherosclerosis. Targeting GPR55 could be useful to limit inflammation and plaque progression in patients suffering from atherosclerosis.

    • In Vitro
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    CD22 Blockage Restores Age-Related Impairments of Microglia Surveillance Capacity.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 19 June 2021 by Aires, V., Coulon-Bainier, C., et al.

    PubMed

    Microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, are essential for maintaining homeostasis by their ramified, highly motile processes and for orchestrating the immune response to pathological stimuli. They are implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. One commonality of these diseases is their strong correlation with aging as the highest risk factor and studying age-related alterations in microglia physiology and associated signaling mechanism is indispensable for a better understanding of age-related pathomechanisms. CD22 has been identified as a modifier of microglia phagocytosis in a recent study, but not much is known about the function of CD22 in microglia. Here we show that CD22 surface levels are upregulated in aged versus adult microglia. Furthermore, in the amyloid mouse model PS2APP, Aβ-containing microglia also exhibit increased CD22 signal. To assess the impact of CD22 blockage on microglia morphology and dynamics, we have established a protocol to image microglia process motility in acutely prepared brain slices from CX3CR1-GFP reporter mice. We observed a significant reduction of microglial ramification and surveillance capacity in brain slices from aged versus adult mice. The age-related decrease in surveillance can be restored by antibody-mediated CD22 blockage in aged mice, whereas surveillance in adult mice is not affected by CD22 inhibition. Moreover to complement the results obtained in mice, we show that human iPSC-derived macrophages exhibit an increased phagocytic capacity upon CD22 blockage. Downstream analysis of antibody-mediated CD22 inhibition revealed an influence on BMP and TGFβ associated gene networks. Our results demonstrate CD22 as a broad age-associated modulator of microglia functionality with potential implications for neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2021 Aires, Coulon-Bainier, Pavlovic, Ebeling, Schmucki, Schweitzer, Kueng, Gutbier and Harde.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Complement Signals Determine Opposite Effects of B Cells in Chemotherapy-Induced Immunity.

    In Cell on 19 March 2020 by Lu, Y., Zhao, Q., et al.

    PubMed

    Understanding molecular mechanisms that dictate B cell diversity is important for targeting B cells as anti-cancer treatment. Through the single-cell dissection of B cell heterogeneity in longitudinal samples of patients with breast cancer before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we revealed that an ICOSL+ B cell subset emerges after chemotherapy. Using three immunocompetent mouse models, we recapitulated the subset switch of human tumor-infiltrating B cells during chemotherapy. By employing B-cell-specific deletion mice, we showed that ICOSL in B cells boosts anti-tumor immunity by enhancing the effector to regulatory T cell ratio. The signature of ICOSL+ B cells is imprinted by complement-CR2 signaling, which is triggered by immunogenic cell death. Moreover, we identified that CD55, a complement inhibitory protein, determines the opposite roles of B cells in chemotherapy. Collectively, we demonstrated a critical role of the B cell subset switch in chemotherapy response, which has implications in designing novel anti-cancer therapies. VIDEO ABSTRACT.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.