InVivoMAb anti-Dengue virus type 4 E protein DIII

Catalog #BE0437

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Product Details

The DV4-E88 monoclonal antibody reacts with the DIII domain on the E protein of dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4). This serotype-specific antibody does not cross-react with DENV-1, DENV-2, or DENV-3, i.e., the other serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). DENV is an Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that causes over 100 million annual infections in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Mild dengue illness is characterized by fever, headache, and myalgia, while severe dengue disease can lead to hemorrhagic and capillary leak syndrome, i.e., dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Structurally, DENV is a single-stranded positive-polarity RNA virus, with its envelop (E) protein having three domains. The DV4-E88 monoclonal antibody binds (conformationally) to the lateral ridge (LR) of Domain III (DIII) on DENV-4 (quaternary epitope on the E dimer). This antibody does not recognize yeast surface expressed or isolated DENV-4 E protein DIII. The DIII-LR region contains host cell surface receptor recognition sites, and it is involved in the induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In in vitro studies, the DV4-E88 monoclonal antibody neutralized 1036, TVP-376, and TVP-986 genotype II strains of DENV-4. In experiments involving AG129 mice, a single in vivo injection of DV4-E88 monoclonal antibody (100–500 µg/mouse) prior to viral infection provided modest to significant protection against DENV-4 strains H-241 and TVP-376.


Isotype Mouse IgG2c, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb polyclonal mouse IgG
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Immunogen DENV-4 1036, DENV-4 H-241, and DENV-4 DIII
Reported Applications in vivo neutralization of DENV-4
in vitro neutralization of DENV-4
Focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT)
Flow cytometry
Western blot
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
Focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT)
Chen RE, Smith BK, Errico JM, Gordon DN, Winkler ES, VanBlargan LA, Desai C, Handley SA, Dowd KA, Amaro-Carambot E, Cardosa MJ, Sariol CA, Kallas EG, Sékaly RP, Vasilakis N, Fremont DH, Whitehead SS, Pierson TC, Diamond MS. (2021). "Implications of a highly divergent dengue virus strain for cross-neutralization, protection, and vaccine immunity" Cell Host Microbe 10.1016/j.chom.2021.09.006. PubMed

Although divergent dengue viruses (DENVs) have been isolated in insects, nonhuman primates, and humans, their relationships to the four canonical serotypes (DENV 1-4) are poorly understood. One virus isolated from a dengue patient, DKE-121, falls between genotype and serotype levels of sequence divergence to DENV-4. To examine its antigenic relationship to DENV-4, we assessed serum neutralizing and protective activity. Whereas DENV-4-immune mouse sera neutralize DKE-121 infection, DKE-121-immune sera inhibit DENV-4 less efficiently. Passive transfer of DENV-4 or DKE-121-immune sera protects mice against homologous, but not heterologous, DENV-4 or DKE-121 challenge. Antigenic cartography suggests that DENV-4 and DKE-121 are related but antigenically distinct. However, DENV-4 vaccination confers protection against DKE-121 in nonhuman primates, and serum from humans immunized with a tetravalent vaccine neutralize DENV-4 and DKE-121 infection equivalently. As divergent DENV strains, such as DKE-121, may meet criteria for serotype distinction, monitoring their capacity to impact dengue disease and vaccine efficacy appears warranted.

ELISA, Western Blot
Khetarpal N, Shukla R, Rajpoot RK, Poddar A, Pal M, Swaminathan S, Arora U, Khanna N. (2017). "Recombinant Dengue Virus 4 Envelope Glycoprotein Virus-Like Particles Derived from Pichia pastoris are Capable of Eliciting Homotypic Domain III-Directed Neutralizing Antibodies" Am J Trop Med Hyg 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0503. PubMed

Dengue is a viral pandemic caused by four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1, 2, 3, and 4) transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Reportedly, there has been a 2-fold increase in dengue cases every decade. An efficacious tetravalent vaccine, which can provide long-term immunity against all four serotypes in all target populations, is still unavailable. Despite the progress being made in the live virus-based dengue vaccines, the World Health Organization strongly recommends the development of alternative approaches for safe, affordable, and efficacious dengue vaccine candidates. We have explored virus-like particles (VLPs)-based nonreplicating subunit vaccine approach and have developed recombinant envelope ectodomains of DENV-1, 2, and 3 expressed in Pichia pastoris These self-assembled into VLPs without pre-membrane (prM) protein, which limits the generation of enhancing antibodies, and elicited type-specific neutralizing antibodies against the respective serotype. Encouraged by these results, we have extended this work further by developing P. pastoris-expressed DENV-4 ectodomain (DENV-4 E) in this study, which was found to be glycosylated and assembled into spherical VLPs without prM, and displayed critical neutralizing epitopes on its surface. These VLPs were found to be immunogenic in mice and elicited DENV-4-specific neutralizing antibodies, which were predominantly directed against envelope domain III, implicated in host-receptor recognition and virus entry. These observations underscore the potential of VLP-based nonreplicative vaccine approach as a means to develop a safe, efficacious, and tetravalent dengue subunit vaccine. This work paves the way for the evaluation of a DENV E-based tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate, as an alternative to live virus-based dengue vaccines.

Focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT), ELISA
Gallichotte EN, Widman DG, Yount BL, Wahala WM, Durbin A, Whitehead S, Sariol CA, Crowe JE, de Silva AM, Baric RS. (2015). "A new quaternary structure epitope on dengue virus serotype 2 is the target of durable type-specific neutralizing antibodies" mBio 10.1128/mBio.01461-15. PubMed

Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) is widespread and responsible for severe epidemics. While primary DENV2 infections stimulate serotype-specific protective responses, a leading vaccine failed to induce a similar protective response. Using human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) isolated from dengue cases and structure-guided design of a chimeric DENV, here we describe the major site on the DENV2 envelope (E) protein targeted by neutralizing antibodies. DENV2-specific neutralizing hMAb 2D22 binds to a quaternary structure epitope. We engineered and recovered a recombinant DENV4 that displayed the 2D22 epitope. DENV2 neutralizing antibodies in people exposed to infection or a live vaccine tracked with the 2D22 epitope on the DENV4/2 chimera. The chimera remained sensitive to DENV4 antibodies, indicating that the major neutralizing epitopes on DENV2 and -4 are at different sites. The ability to transplant a complex epitope between DENV serotypes demonstrates a hitherto underappreciated structural flexibility in flaviviruses, which could be harnessed to develop new vaccines and diagnostics. Importance: Dengue virus causes fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue serotype 2 (DENV2) is widespread and frequently responsible for severe epidemics. Natural DENV2 infections stimulate serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies, but a leading DENV vaccine did not induce a similar protective response. While groups have identified epitopes of single monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), the molecular basis of DENV2 neutralization by polyclonal human immune sera is unknown. Using a recombinant DENV displaying serotype 2 epitopes, here we map the main target of DENV2 polyclonal neutralizing antibodies induced by natural infection and a live DENV2 vaccine candidate. Proper display of the epitope required the assembly of viral envelope proteins into higher-order structures present on intact virions. Despite the complexity of the epitope, it was possible to transplant the epitope between DENV serotypes. Our findings have immediate implications for evaluating dengue vaccines in the pipeline as well as designing next-generation vaccines.

in vivo neutralization of DENV-4, in vitro neutralization of DENV-4, Flow Cytometry, Focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT)
Sukupolvi-Petty S, Brien JD, Austin SK, Shrestha B, Swayne S, Kahle K, Doranz BJ, Johnson S, Pierson TC, Fremont DH, Diamond MS. (2013). "Functional analysis of antibodies against dengue virus type 4 reveals strain-dependent epitope exposure that impacts neutralization and protection" J Virol 10.1128/JVI.01314-13. PubMed

Although prior studies have characterized the neutralizing activities of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1, 2, and 3 (DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3), few reports have assessed the activity of MAbs against DENV-4. Here, we evaluated the inhibitory activity of 81 new mouse anti-DENV-4 MAbs. We observed strain- and genotype-dependent differences in neutralization of DENV-4 by MAbs mapping to epitopes on domain II (DII) and DIII of the envelope (E) protein. Several anti-DENV-4 MAbs inefficiently inhibited at least one strain and/or genotype, suggesting that the exposure or sequence of neutralizing epitopes varies within isolates of this serotype. Remarkably, flavivirus cross-reactive MAbs, which bound to the highly conserved fusion loop in DII and inhibited infection of DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3, more weakly neutralized five different DENV-4 strains encompassing the genetic diversity of the serotype after preincubation at 37°C. However, increasing the time of preincubation at 37°C or raising the temperature to 40°C enhanced the potency of DII fusion loop-specific MAbs and some DIII-specific MAbs against DENV-4 strains. Prophylaxis studies in two new DENV-4 mouse models showed that neutralization titers of MAbs after preincubation at 37°C correlated with activity in vivo. Our studies establish the complexity of MAb recognition against DENV-4 and suggest that differences in epitope exposure relative to other DENV serotypes affect antibody neutralization and protective activity.