InVivoPlus mouse IgG2a isotype control, unknown specificity

Catalog #BP0085
Product Citations:
16
Clone:
C1.18.4

$781.00 - $5,568.00

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Product Details

The C1.18.4 monoclonal antibody is ideal for use as a non-reactive isotype-matched control for mouse IgG2a antibodies in most in vivo and in vitro applications.

Specifications

Isotype Mouse IgG2a, κ
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin* <1EU/mg (<0.001EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Aggregation* <5%
Determined by SEC
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 μM filtered
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_1107771
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Murine Pathogen Tests* Ectromelia/Mousepox Virus: Negative
Hantavirus: Negative
K Virus: Negative
Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus: Negative
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus: Negative
Mouse Adenovirus: Negative
Mouse Cytomegalovirus: Negative
Mouse Hepatitis Virus: Negative
Mouse Minute Virus: Negative
Mouse Norovirus: Negative
Mouse Parvovirus: Negative
Mouse Rotavirus: Negative
Mycoplasma Pulmonis: Negative
Pneumonia Virus of Mice: Negative
Polyoma Virus: Negative
Reovirus Screen: Negative
Sendai Virus: Negative
Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis: Negative
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
* Additional quality control measures for our InVivoPlus™ products include advanced binding validation, murine pathogen screening, protein aggregation screening, and ultra-low endotoxin levels. The superior quality of our InVivoPlus™ products will meet and exceed the strict demands and rigorous standards required for in vivo research. Learn more about the InVivoPlus™ difference here.

Additional Formats

Carmi, Y., et al. (2015). "Allogeneic IgG combined with dendritic cell stimuli induce antitumour T-cell immunity" Nature 521(7550): 99-104. PubMed

Whereas cancers grow within host tissues and evade host immunity through immune-editing and immunosuppression, tumours are rarely transmissible between individuals. Much like transplanted allogeneic organs, allogeneic tumours are reliably rejected by host T cells, even when the tumour and host share the same major histocompatibility complex alleles, the most potent determinants of transplant rejection. How such tumour-eradicating immunity is initiated remains unknown, although elucidating this process could provide the basis for inducing similar responses against naturally arising tumours. Here we find that allogeneic tumour rejection is initiated in mice by naturally occurring tumour-binding IgG antibodies, which enable dendritic cells (DCs) to internalize tumour antigens and subsequently activate tumour-reactive T cells. We exploited this mechanism to treat autologous and autochthonous tumours successfully. Either systemic administration of DCs loaded with allogeneic-IgG-coated tumour cells or intratumoral injection of allogeneic IgG in combination with DC stimuli induced potent T-cell-mediated antitumour immune responses, resulting in tumour eradication in mouse models of melanoma, pancreas, lung and breast cancer. Moreover, this strategy led to eradication of distant tumours and metastases, as well as the injected primary tumours. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we studied antibodies and cells from patients with lung cancer. T cells from these patients responded vigorously to autologous tumour antigens after culture with allogeneic-IgG-loaded DCs, recapitulating our findings in mice. These results reveal that tumour-binding allogeneic IgG can induce powerful antitumour immunity that can be exploited for cancer immunotherapy.

Nakatsukasa, H., et al. (2015). "The DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 regulates IL-9 production in CD4(+) T cells" Nat Immunol 16(10): 1077-1084. PubMed

The molecular mechanisms by which signaling via transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) control the differentiation of CD4(+) IL-9-producing helper T cells (TH9 cells) remain incompletely understood. We found here that the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 regulated TH9 differentiation, as deletion of Id3 increased IL-9 production from CD4(+) T cells. Mechanistically, TGF-beta1 and IL-4 downregulated Id3 expression, and this process required the kinase TAK1. A reduction in Id3 expression enhanced binding of the transcription factors E2A and GATA-3 to the Il9 promoter region, which promoted Il9 transcription. Notably, Id3-mediated control of TH9 differentiation regulated anti-tumor immunity in an experimental melanoma-bearing model in vivo and also in human CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Thus, our study reveals a previously unrecognized TAK1-Id3-E2A-GATA-3 pathway that regulates TH9 differentiation.

Bulliard, Y., et al. (2013). "Activating Fc gamma receptors contribute to the antitumor activities of immunoregulatory receptor-targeting antibodies" J Exp Med 210(9): 1685-1693. PubMed

Fc gamma receptor (FcgammaR) coengagement can facilitate antibody-mediated receptor activation in target cells. In particular, agonistic antibodies that target tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members have shown dependence on expression of the inhibitory FcgammaR, FcgammaRIIB. It remains unclear if engagement of FcgammaRIIB also extends to the activities of antibodies targeting immunoregulatory TNFRs expressed by T cells. We have explored the requirement for activating and inhibitory FcgammaRs for the antitumor effects of antibodies targeting the TNFR glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR; TNFRSF18; CD357) expressed on activated and regulatory T cells (T reg cells). We found that although FcgammaRIIB was dispensable for the in vivo efficacy of anti-GITR antibodies, in contrast, activating FcgammaRs were essential. Surprisingly, the dependence on activating FcgammaRs extended to an antibody targeting the non-TNFR receptor CTLA-4 (CD152) that acts as a negative regulator of T cell immunity. We define a common mechanism that correlated with tumor efficacy, whereby antibodies that coengaged activating FcgammaRs expressed by tumor-associated leukocytes facilitated the selective elimination of intratumoral T cell populations, particularly T reg cells. These findings may have broad implications for antibody engineering efforts aimed at enhancing the therapeutic activity of immunomodulatory antibodies.

Kerzerho, J., et al. (2013). "Programmed cell death ligand 2 regulates TH9 differentiation and induction of chronic airway hyperreactivity" J Allergy Clin Immunol 131(4): 1048-1057, 1057 e1041-1042. PubMed

BACKGROUND: Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways; however, the underlying physiologic and immunologic processes are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether TH9 cells develop in vivo in a model of chronic airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and what factors control this development. METHOD: We have developed a novel chronic allergen exposure model using the clinically relevant antigen Aspergillus fumigatus to determine the time kinetics of TH9 development in vivo. RESULTS: TH9 cells were detectable in the lungs after chronic allergen exposure. The number of TH9 cells directly correlated with the severity of AHR, and anti-IL-9 treatment decreased airway inflammation. Moreover, we have identified programmed cell death ligand (PD-L) 2 as a negative regulator of TH9 cell differentiation. Lack of PD-L2 was associated with significantly increased TGF-beta and IL-1alpha levels in the lungs, enhanced pulmonary TH9 differentiation, and higher morbidity in the sensitized mice. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that PD-L2 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of TH9 cell development in chronic AHR, providing novel strategies for modulating adaptive immunity during chronic allergic responses.

Licona-Limon, P., et al. (2013). "Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection" Immunity 39(4): 744-757. PubMed

Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial, and the importance of IL-9- versus IL-4-producing CD4(+) effector T cells in type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9-deficient and IL-9-fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas T helper 9 (Th9) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells, caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia, and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection.

Rayamajhi, M., et al. (2012). "Lung B cells promote early pathogen dissemination and hasten death from inhalation anthrax" Mucosal Immunol 5(4): 444-454. PubMed

Sampling of mucosal antigens regulates immune responses but may also promote dissemination of mucosal pathogens. Lung dendritic cells (LDCs) capture antigens and traffic them to lung-draining lymph nodes (LDLNs) dependent on the chemokine receptor CCR7 (chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7). LDCs also capture lung pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis (BA). However, we show here that the initial traffic of BA spores from lungs to LDLNs is largely independent of LDCs and CCR7, occurring instead in association with B cells. BA spores rapidly bound B cells in lungs and cultured mouse and human B cells. Binding was independent of the B-cell receptor (BCR). B cells instilled in the lungs trafficked to LDLNs and BA spore traffic to LDLNs was impaired by B-cell deficiency. Depletion of B cells also delayed death of mice receiving a lethal BA infection. These results suggest that mucosal B cells traffic BA, and possibly other antigens, from lungs to LDLNs.

Schafer, H., et al. (2012). "Myofibroblast-induced tumorigenicity of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells is L1CAM dependent" Carcinogenesis 33(1): 84-93. PubMed

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and chronic pancreatitis, representing one risk factor for PDAC, are characterized by a marked desmoplasia enriched of pancreatic myofibroblasts (PMFs). Thus, PMFs are thought to essentially promote pancreatic tumorigenesis. We recently demonstrated that the adhesion molecule L1CAM is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of PMF-cocultured H6c7 human ductal epithelial cells and that L1CAM is expressed already in ductal structures of chronic pancreatitis with even higher elevation in primary tumors and metastases of PDAC patients. This study aimed at investigating whether PMFs and L1CAM drive malignant transformation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells by enhancing their tumorigenic potential. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that in the presence of PMFs, H6c7 cells exhibit a profound resistance against death ligand-induced apoptosis. This apoptosis protection was similarly observed in H6c7 cells stably overexpressing L1CAM. Intrapancreatic inoculation of H6c7 cells together with PMFs (H6c7co) resulted in tumor formation in 7/8 and liver metastases in 6/8 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, whereas no tumors and metastases were detectable after inoculation of H6c7 cells alone. Likewise, tumor outgrowth and metastases resulted from inoculation of L1CAM-overexpressing H6c7 cells in 5/7 and 3/7 SCID mice, respectively, but not from inoculation of mock-transfected H6c7 cells. Treatment of H6c7co tumor-bearing mice with the L1CAM antibody L1-9.3/2a inhibited tumor formation and liver metastasis in 100 and 50%, respectively, of the treated animals. Overall, these data provide new insights into the mechanisms of how PMFs and L1CAM contribute to malignant transformation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells in early stages of pancreatic tumorigenesis.

Libbey, J. E., et al. (2011). "Interleukin-6, produced by resident cells of the central nervous system and infiltrating cells, contributes to the development of seizures following viral infection" J Virol 85(14): 6913-6922. PubMed

Cells that can participate in an innate immune response within the central nervous system (CNS) include infiltrating cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes , macrophages, and natural killer cells) and resident cells (microglia and sometimes astrocytes). The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced by all of these cells and has been implicated in the development of behavioral seizures in the Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced seizure model. The assessment, via PCR arrays, of the mRNA expression levels of a large number of chemokines (ligands and receptors) in TMEV-infected and mock-infected C57BL/6 mice both with and without seizures did not clearly demonstrate the involvement of PMNs, monocytes/macrophages, or NK cells in the development of seizures, possibly due to overlapping function of the chemokines. Additionally, C57BL/6 mice unable to recruit or depleted of infiltrating PMNs and NK cells had seizure rates comparable to those of controls following TMEV infection, and therefore PMNs and NK cells do not significantly contribute to seizure development. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice treated with minocycline, which affects monocytes/macrophages, microglial cells, and PMNs, had significantly fewer seizures than controls following TMEV infection, indicating monocytes/macrophages and resident microglial cells are important in seizure development. Irradiated bone marrow chimeric mice that were either IL-6-deficient mice reconstituted with wild-type bone marrow cells or wild-type mice reconstituted with IL-6-deficient bone marrow cells developed significantly fewer behavioral seizures following TMEV infection. Therefore, both resident CNS cells and infiltrating cells are necessary for seizure development.

Lamere, M. W., et al. (2011). "Regulation of antinucleoprotein IgG by systemic vaccination and its effect on influenza virus clearance" J Virol 85(10): 5027-5035. PubMed

Seasonal influenza epidemics recur due to antigenic drift of envelope glycoprotein antigens and immune evasion of circulating viruses. Additionally, antigenic shift can lead to influenza pandemics. Thus, a universal vaccine that protects against multiple influenza virus strains could alleviate the continuing impact of this virus on human health. In mice, accelerated clearance of a new viral strain (cross-protection) can be elicited by prior infection (heterosubtypic immunity) or by immunization with the highly conserved internal nucleoprotein (NP). Both heterosubtypic immunity and NP-immune protection require antibody production. Here, we show that systemic immunization with NP readily accelerated clearance of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus isolate in an antibody-dependent manner. However, human immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine (TIV) only rarely and modestly boosted existing levels of anti-NP IgG. Similar results were observed in mice, although the reaction could be enhanced with adjuvants, by adjusting the stoichiometry among NP and other vaccine components, and by increasing the interval between TIV prime and boost. Importantly, mouse heterosubtypic immunity that had waned over several months could be enhanced by injecting purified anti-NP IgG or by boosting with NP protein, correlating with a long-lived increase in anti-NP antibody titers. Thus, current immunization strategies poorly induce NP-immune antibody that is nonetheless capable of contributing to long-lived cross-protection. The high conservation of NP antigen and the known longevity of antibody responses suggest that the antiviral activity of anti-NP IgG may provide a critically needed component of a universal influenza vaccine.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Antitumor Immune Mechanisms of the Anti-Complement Factor H Antibody GT103.

    In Molecular Cancer Therapeutics on 1 June 2023 by Bushey, R. T., Saxena, R., et al.

    PubMed

    Development of novel therapeutic antibodies that not only kill tumor cells but modulate the adaptive immune response has the potential to produce long term anticancer immunity and a durable clinical response. We previously reported the discovery of anti-complement factor H (CFH) autoantibodies in patients with lung cancer that were associated with early-stage disease and exceptional outcomes. The human mAb GT103, produced from a single CFH autoantibody-expressing B cell of a patient with lung cancer, recognizes a conformationally distinct epitope on tumor cells, kills tumor cells, and inhibits tumor growth in animal studies. Recent experiments have shown that GT103 restructures the tumor microenvironment and initiates a robust antitumoral adaptive immune response. The current study further elucidates several mechanisms by which GT103 kills tumor cells and drives the immune program. Here we show GT103 has specificity for tumor cells without binding to native soluble CFH or normal tissues. GT103 causes complement C3 split product deposition on tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, triggers antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, and increases translocation of the danger-associated molecular pattern molecule calreticulin to the plasma membrane. We also demonstrate that GT103 causes B-cell activation in vitro and in vivo, and that GT103 antitumor activity in vivo is B-cell dependent. The complex mechanism of GT103, a tumor-specific antibody that kills tumor cells and stimulates an immune response, supports further development of this human-derived antibody as a novel therapeutic option for patients with lung cancer. ©2023 American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Macrophages facilitate tumor cell PD-L1 expression via an IL-1β-centered loop to attenuate immune checkpoint blockade.

    In MedComm (2020) on 1 April 2023 by Xu, C., Xia, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play critical roles in reprogramming other immune cells and orchestrating antitumor immunity. However, the interplay between TAMs and tumor cells responsible for enhancing immune evasion remains insufficiently understood. Here, we revealed that interleukin (IL)-1β was among the most abundant cytokines within the in vitro tumor-macrophage coculture system, and enhanced IL-1β expression was associated with impaired cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells in human ovarian cancer, indicating the possibility that IL-1β mediated immunosuppression during tumor-TAMs crosstalk. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that IL-1β significantly boosted programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in tumor cells via the activation of the nuclear factor-κb signaling cascade. Specifically, IL-1β released from TAMs was triggered by lactate, the anaerobic metabolite of tumor cells, in an inflammasome activation-dependent manner. IL-1β sustained and intensified immunosuppression by promoting C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 secretion in tumor cells to fuel TAMs recruitment. Importantly, IL-1β neutralizing antibody significantly curbed tumor growth and displayed synergistic antitumor efficacies with anti-PD-L1 antibody in tumor-bearing mouse models. Together, this study presents an IL-1β-centered immunosuppressive loop between TAMs and tumor cells, highlighting IL-1β as a candidate therapeutic target to reverse immunosuppression and potentiate immune checkpoint blockade. © 2023 The Authors. MedComm published by Sichuan International Medical Exchange Promotion Association (SCIMEA) and John Wiley Sons Australia, Ltd.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Antitumor Immune Mechanisms of the Anti-Complement Factor H Antibody GT103

    Preprint on Research Square on 3 November 2022 by Bushey, R. T., Saxena, R., et al.

    PubMed

    Development of novel therapeutic antibodies that not only kill tumor cells but modulate the adaptive immune response has the potential to produce long term anti-cancer immunity and a durable clinical response. We previously reported the discovery of an anti-complement factor H (CFH) autoantibody in lung cancer patients that were associated with early stage disease and exceptional outcomes. The human monoclonal antibody GT103, produced from a single CFH autoantibody-expressing B cell of a lung cancer patient, recognizes a conformationally distinct epitope on tumor cells, kills tumor cells, and inhibits tumor growth in animal studies. Recent experiments have shown that GT103 restructures the tumor microenvironment and initiates a robust antitumoral adaptive immune response. The current study further elucidates several mechanisms by which GT103 kills tumor cells and drives the immune program. Here we show GT103 has specificity for tumor cells without binding to native soluble CFH or normal tissues. GT103 causes complement C3 split product deposition on tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, triggers antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, and increases translocation of the danger associated molecular pattern molecule calreticulin to the plasma membrane . We also demonstrate that GT103 causes B cell activation and that GT103 antitumor activity in vivo is B cell dependent. The complex mechanism of GT103, a tumor specific antibody that kills tumor cells and stimulates an immune response, supports further development of this human-derived antibody as a novel therapeutic option for patients with lung cancer.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Antitumor efficacy of 90Y-NM600 targeted radionuclide therapy and PD-1 blockade is limited by regulatory T cells in murine prostate tumors.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 1 August 2022 by Potluri, H. K., Ferreira, C. A., et al.

    PubMed

    Systemic radiation treatments that preferentially irradiate cancer cells over normal tissue, known as targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), have shown significant potential for treating metastatic prostate cancer. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to sensitize tumors to T cell checkpoint blockade. Combining TRT approaches with immunotherapy may be more feasible than combining with EBRT to treat widely metastatic disease, however the effects of TRT on the prostate tumor microenvironment alone and in combinfation with checkpoint blockade have not yet been studied. C57BL/6 mice-bearing TRAMP-C1 tumors and FVB/NJ mice-bearing Myc-CaP tumors were treated with a single intravenous administration of either low-dose or high-dose 90Y-NM600 TRT, and with or without anti-PD-1 therapy. Groups of mice were followed for tumor growth while others were used for tissue collection and immunophenotyping of the tumors via flow cytometry. 90Y-NM600 TRT was safe at doses that elicited a moderate antitumor response. TRT had multiple effects on the tumor microenvironment including increasing CD8 +T cell infiltration, increasing checkpoint molecule expression on CD8 +T cells, and increasing PD-L1 expression on myeloid cells. However, PD-1 blockade with TRT treatment did not improve antitumor efficacy. Tregs remained functional up to 1 week following TRT, but CD8 +T cells were not, and the suppressive function of Tregs increased when anti-PD-1 was present in in vitro studies. The combination of anti-PD-1 and TRT was only effective in vivo when Tregs were depleted. Our data suggest that the combination of 90Y-NM600 TRT and PD-1 blockade therapy is ineffective in these prostate cancer models due to the activating effect of anti-PD-1 on Tregs. This finding underscores the importance of thorough understanding of the effects of TRT and immunotherapy combinations on the tumor immune microenvironment prior to clinical investigation. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Type I interferon activates MHC class I-dressed CD11b+ conventional dendritic cells to promote protective anti-tumor CD8+ T cell immunity.

    In Immunity on 8 February 2022 by Duong, E., Fessenden, T. B., et al.

    PubMed

    Tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs) assume varied functional states that impact anti-tumor immunity. To delineate the DC states associated with productive anti-tumor T cell immunity, we compared spontaneously regressing and progressing tumors. Tumor-reactive CD8+ T cell responses in Batf3-/- mice lacking type 1 DCs (DC1s) were lost in progressor tumors but preserved in regressor tumors. Transcriptional profiling of intra-tumoral DCs within regressor tumors revealed an activation state of CD11b+ conventional DCs (DC2s) characterized by expression of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) (ISG+ DCs). ISG+ DC-activated CD8+ T cells ex vivo comparably to DC1. Unlike cross-presenting DC1, ISG+ DCs acquired and presented intact tumor-derived peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) complexes. Constitutive type I IFN production by regressor tumors drove the ISG+ DC state, and activation of MHC class I-dressed ISG+ DCs by exogenous IFN-β rescued anti-tumor immunity against progressor tumors in Batf3-/- mice. The ISG+ DC gene signature is detectable in human tumors. Engaging this functional DC state may present an approach for the treatment of human disease. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Stem Cells and Developmental Biology
    • ,
    • FC/FACS
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    CD276 expression enables squamous cell carcinoma stem cells to evade immune surveillance.

    In Cell Stem Cell on 2 September 2021 by Wang, C., Li, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Immunosurveillance is a critical mechanism guarding against tumor development and progression. Checkpoint inhibitors have shown significant success in cancer treatment, but expression of key factors such as PD-L1 in putative cancer stem cell (CSC) populations in squamous cell carcinoma has been inconclusive, suggesting that CSCs may have developed other mechanisms to escape immune surveillance. Here we show that CSCs upregulate the immune checkpoint molecule CD276 (B7-H3) to evade host immune responses. CD276 is highly expressed by CSCs in mouse and human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and can be used to prospectively isolate tumorigenic CSCs. Anti-CD276 antibodies eliminate CSCs in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner, inhibiting tumor growth and lymph node metastases in a mouse HNSCC model. Single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) showed that CD276 blockade remodels SCC heterogeneity and reduces epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These results show that CSCs utilize CD276 for immune escape and suggest that targeting CD276 may reduce CSCs in HNSCC. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Intestinal microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids regulation of immune cell IL-22 production and gut immunity.

    In Nature Communications on 8 September 2020 by Yang, W., Yu, T., et al.

    PubMed

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and CD4+ T cells produce IL-22, which is critical for intestinal immunity. The microbiota is central to IL-22 production in the intestines; however, the factors that regulate IL-22 production by CD4+ T cells and ILCs are not clear. Here, we show that microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) promote IL-22 production by CD4+ T cells and ILCs through G-protein receptor 41 (GPR41) and inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC). SCFAs upregulate IL-22 production by promoting aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) expression, which are differentially regulated by mTOR and Stat3. HIF1α binds directly to the Il22 promoter, and SCFAs increase HIF1α binding to the Il22 promoter through histone modification. SCFA supplementation enhances IL-22 production, which protects intestines from inflammation. SCFAs promote human CD4+ T cell IL-22 production. These findings establish the roles of SCFAs in inducing IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells and ILCs to maintain intestinal homeostasis.

    Biological and structural characterization of murine TRALI antibody reveals increased Fc-mediated complement activation.

    In Blood Advances on 25 August 2020 by Zeeuw van der Laan, E. A. N., van der Velden, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) remains a leading cause of transfusion-related deaths. In most cases, anti-leukocyte antibodies in the transfusion product trigger TRALI, but not all anti-leukocyte antibodies cause TRALI. It has been shown that the anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antibody 34-1-2S (anti-H-2Kd) causes TRALI in BALB/c mice (MHC class I haplotype H-2Kd), whereas SF1.1.10 (anti-H-2Kd) does not. In C57BL/6 mice (MHC class I haplotype H-2Kb), TRALI only occurs when anti-MHC class I antibody AF6-88.5.5.3 (anti-H-2Kb) is administered together with a high dose of 34-1-2S. It remains unknown which specific antibody characteristics are responsible for eliciting TRALI. We therefore investigated several biological and structural features of 34-1-2S compared with other anti-MHC class I antibodies, which on their own do not cause TRALI: SF1.1.10 and AF6-88.5.5.3. No substantial differences were observed between the TRALI-causing 34-1-2S and the TRALI-resistant SF1.1.10 regarding binding affinity to H-2Kd. Regarding binding affinity to H-2Kb, only AF6-88.5.5.3 potently bound to H-2Kb, whereas 34-1-2S exhibited weak but significant cross-reactivity. Furthermore, the binding affinity to FcγRs as well as the Fc glycan composition seemed to be similar for all antibodies. Similar Fc glycosylation profiles were also observed for human TRALI-causing donor anti-HLA antibodies compared with human anti-HLA antibodies from control donors. 34-1-2S, however, displayed superior complement activation capacity, which was fully Fc dependent and not significantly dependent on Fc glycosylation. We conclude that TRALI induction is not correlated with Fab- and Fc-binding affinities for antigen and FcγRs, respectively, nor with the composition of Fc glycans; but increased Fc-mediated complement activation is correlated with TRALI induction. © 2020 by The American Society of Hematology.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    MOSPD2 is a therapeutic target for the treatment of CNS inflammation.

    In Clinical and Experimental Immunology on 1 August 2020 by Yacov, N., Kafri, P., et al.

    PubMed

    In multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), myeloid cells comprise a major part of the inflammatory infiltrate in the central nervous system (CNS). We previously described that motile sperm domain-containing protein 2 (MOSPD2) is expressed on human myeloid cells and regulates monocyte migration in vitro. The role of MOSPD2 in EAE pathogenesis was studied by generating MOSPD2 knock-out (KO) mice and monoclonal antibodies directed against MOSPD2. We found that EAE development in MOSPD2 KO mice was significantly suppressed. While frequency representation of leukocyte subsets in lymphoid tissues was comparable, the ratio of inflammatory monocytes in the blood was markedly reduced in MOSPD2 KO mice. In addition, T cells from MOSPD2 KO mice displayed reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and increased production of interleukin (IL)-4. Prophylactic and post-onset treatment using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated against MOSPD2 abrogated development and reduced EAE severity. These results suggest that MOSPD2 is key in regulating migration of inflammatory monocytes, and that anti-MOSPD2 mAbs constitute a potential therapy for the treatment of CNS inflammatory diseases. © 2020 The Authors. Clinical Experimental Immunology published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Immunology.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Cancer-Specific Loss of p53 Leads to a Modulation of Myeloid and T Cell Responses.

    In Cell Reports on 14 January 2020 by Blagih, J., Zani, F., et al.

    PubMed

    Loss of p53 function contributes to the development of many cancers. While cell-autonomous consequences of p53 mutation have been studied extensively, the role of p53 in regulating the anti-tumor immune response is still poorly understood. Here, we show that loss of p53 in cancer cells modulates the tumor-immune landscape to circumvent immune destruction. Deletion of p53 promotes the recruitment and instruction of suppressive myeloid CD11b+ cells, in part through increased expression of CXCR3/CCR2-associated chemokines and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and attenuates the CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1) and CD8+ T cell responses in vivo. p53-null tumors also show an accumulation of suppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells. Finally, we show that two key drivers of tumorigenesis, activation of KRAS and deletion of p53, cooperate to promote immune tolerance. Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Aging Induces an Nlrp3 Inflammasome-Dependent Expansion of Adipose B Cells That Impairs Metabolic Homeostasis.

    In Cell Metabolism on 3 December 2019 by Camell, C. D., Günther, P., et al.

    PubMed

    During aging, visceral adiposity is often associated with alterations in adipose tissue (AT) leukocytes, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction. However, the contribution of AT B cells in immunometabolism during aging is unexplored. Here, we show that aging is associated with an expansion of a unique population of resident non-senescent aged adipose B cells (AABs) found in fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs). AABs are transcriptionally distinct from splenic age-associated B cells (ABCs) and show greater expansion in female mice. Functionally, whole-body B cell depletion restores proper lipolysis and core body temperature maintenance during cold stress. Mechanistically, the age-induced FALC formation, AAB, and splenic ABC expansion is dependent on the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Furthermore, AABs express IL-1R, and inhibition of IL-1 signaling reduces their proliferation and increases lipolysis in aging. These data reveal that inhibiting Nlrp3-dependent B cell accumulation can be targeted to reverse metabolic impairment in aging AT. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • FC/FACS
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Blocking Antibodies Targeting the CD39/CD73 Immunosuppressive Pathway Unleash Immune Responses in Combination Cancer Therapies.

    In Cell Reports on 21 May 2019 by Perrot, I., Michaud, H. A., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized cancer treatment. However, many cancers are resistant to ICIs, and the targeting of additional inhibitory signals is crucial for limiting tumor evasion. The production of adenosine via the sequential activity of CD39 and CD73 ectoenzymes participates to the generation of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. In order to disrupt the adenosine pathway, we generated two antibodies, IPH5201 and IPH5301, targeting human membrane-associated and soluble forms of CD39 and CD73, respectively, and efficiently blocking the hydrolysis of immunogenic ATP into immunosuppressive adenosine. These antibodies promoted antitumor immunity by stimulating dendritic cells and macrophages and by restoring the activation of T cells isolated from cancer patients. In a human CD39 knockin mouse preclinical model, IPH5201 increased the anti-tumor activity of the ATP-inducing chemotherapeutic drug oxaliplatin. These results support the use of anti-CD39 and anti-CD73 monoclonal antibodies and their combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors and chemotherapies in cancer.Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Aging induces Nlrp3 inflammasome dependent adipose B cell expansion to impair metabolic homeostasis

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 13 April 2019 by Camell, C. D., Lee, A., et al.

    PubMed

    h4>Summary/h4> Visceral adiposity in elderly is associated with alterations in adipose tissue immune cells leading to inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. The Nlrp3 inflammasome is a critical regulator of macrophage activation, inflammation, and immunometabolism in visceral adipose tissue during aging; however, the potential contribution of adipose tissue B cells is unexplored. Here, we show that aging expands adipose-resident B cells and fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) in visceral white adipose tissue. Adipose tissue B cells exhibit a memory-like B cell profile similar to the phenotype of aged B cells that are increased in spleen of old mice. Mechanistically, the age-induced FALC formation and adipose B cell expansion, but not B cell transcriptional program, is dependent on the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Furthermore, B cell depletion in aged mice restores lipolysis and defense against loss of core body temperature during cold stress. These data reveal that inhibiting Nlrp3-dependent B cell accumulation can be targeted to reverse metabolic impairment in aging adipose tissue. h4>Highlights/h4> - Adipose-resident aged B cells are increased in fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALC) - FALC formation and adipose-resident B cell expansion during aging are regulated by the Nlrp3 inflammasome - Nlrp3 and B cell depletion in aging restores lipolysis and improves cold tolerancea

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    STAT1 signaling shields T cells from NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    In Nature Communications on 22 February 2019 by Kang, Y. H., Biswas, A., et al.

    PubMed

    The JAK-STAT pathway critically regulates T-cell differentiation, and STAT1 is postulated to regulate several immune-mediated diseases by inducing proinflammatory subsets. Here we show that STAT1 enables CD4+ T-cell-mediated intestinal inflammation by protecting them from natural killer (NK) cell-mediated elimination. Stat1-/- T cells fail to expand and establish colitis in lymphopenic mice. This defect is not fully recapitulated by the combinatorial loss of type I and II IFN signaling. Mechanistically, Stat1-/- T cells have reduced expression of Nlrc5 and multiple MHC class I molecules that serve to protect cells from NK cell-mediated killing. Consequently, the depletion of NK cells significantly rescues the survival and spontaneous proliferation of Stat1-/- T cells, and restores their ability to induce colitis in adoptive transfer mouse models. Stat1-/- mice however have normal CD4+ T cell numbers as innate STAT1 signaling is required for their elimination. Overall, our findings reveal a critical perspective on JAK-STAT1 signaling that might apply to multiple inflammatory diseases.

    • Cancer Research
    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition leads to NK cell-mediated metastasis-specific immunosurveillance in lung cancer.

    In The Journal of Clinical Investigation on 2 April 2018 by Chockley, P. J., Chen, J., et al.

    PubMed

    During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cancer cells transdifferentiate into highly motile, invasive, mesenchymal-like cells, giving rise to disseminating tumor cells. Few of these disseminated cells successfully metastasize. Immune cells and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment were shown to drive EMT, but few studies investigated the consequences of EMT for tumor immunosurveillance. In addition to initiating metastasis, we demonstrate that EMT confers increased susceptibility to natural killer (NK) cells and contributes, in part, to the inefficiency of the metastatic process. Depletion of NK cells allowed spontaneous metastasis without affecting primary tumor growth. EMT-induced modulation of E-cadherin and cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) mediated increased susceptibility to NK cytotoxicity. Higher CADM1 expression correlates with improved patient survival in 2 lung and 1 breast adenocarcinoma patient cohorts and decreased metastasis. Our observations reveal a novel NK-mediated, metastasis-specific immunosurveillance in lung cancer and present a window of opportunity for preventing metastasis by boosting NK cell activity.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Targeting Interleukin-1β Protects from Aortic Aneurysms Induced by Disrupted Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling.

    In Immunity on 21 November 2017 by Da Ros, F., Carnevale, R., et al.

    PubMed

    Aortic aneurysms are life-threatening conditions with effective treatments mainly limited to emergency surgery or trans-arterial endovascular stent grafts, thus calling for the identification of specific molecular targets. Genetic studies have highlighted controversial roles of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in aneurysm development. Here, we report on aneurysms developing in adult mice after smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific inactivation of Smad4, an intracellular transducer of TGF-β. The results revealed that Smad4 inhibition activated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in SMCs. This danger signal later recruited innate immunity in the adventitia through chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and modified the mechanical properties of the aortic wall, thus favoring vessel dilation. SMC-specific Smad4 deletion in Il1r1- or Ccr2-null mice resulted in milder aortic pathology. A chronic treatment with anti-IL-1β antibody effectively hampered aneurysm development. These findings identify a mechanistic target for controlling the progression of aneurysms with compromised TGF-β signaling, such as those driven by SMAD4 mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.