InVivoMAb anti-rat Kappa Immunoglobulin Light Chain

Catalog #BE0122
Product Citations:
19
Clone:
MAR 18.5
Reactivities:
Rat

$164.00 - $4,280.00

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Product Details

The MAR 18.5 monoclonal antibody reacts with the kappa chain of the rat immunoglobulin light chain. The κ chain is one of two types of polypeptide subunits which make up the immunoglobulin light chain. A typical antibody is composed of two immunoglobulin heavy chains and two immunoglobulin light chains. The κ chain is coded for by V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant) genes. These genes undergo V(D)J recombination to generate a diverse repertoire of immunoglobulins. This antibody is used in combination with rat anti-mouse CD19 and CD22 (clones 1D3 and Cγ34.1) to deplete B cells in vivo.

Specifications

Isotype Mouse IgG2a, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb mouse IgG2a isotype control, unknown specificity
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen Soluble rat immunoglobulin
Reported Applications in vivo B cell depletion in combination with anti-CD19 (clone 1D3) and anti-CD22 (clone Cy34.1)
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_10951292
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
in vivo B cell depletion in combination with anti-CD19 (clone 1D3) and anti-CD22 (clone Cy34.1)
Sawen, P., et al. (2016). "Mitotic History Reveals Distinct Stem Cell Populations and Their Contributions to Hematopoiesis" Cell Rep 14(12): 2809-2818. PubMed

Homeostasis of short-lived blood cells is dependent on rapid proliferation of immature precursors. Using a conditional histone 2B-mCherry-labeling mouse model, we characterize hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and progenitor proliferation dynamics in steady state and following several types of induced stress. HSC proliferation following HSC transplantation into lethally irradiated mice is fundamentally different not only from native hematopoiesis but also from other stress contexts. Whereas transplantation promoted sustained, long-term proliferation of HSCs, both cytokine-induced mobilization and acute depletion of selected blood cell lineages elicited very limited recruitment of HSCs to the proliferative pool. By coupling mCherry-based analysis of proliferation history with multiplex gene expression analyses on single cells, we have found that HSCs can be stratified into four distinct subtypes. These subtypes have distinct molecular signatures and differ significantly in their reconstitution potentials, showcasing the power of tracking proliferation history when resolving functional heterogeneity of HSCs.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    The Efficacy of Nanoparticle Delivery to Hypoxic Solid Tumors by ciRGD Co-Administration Depends on Neuropilin-1 and Neutrophil Levels.

    In Advanced Healthcare Materials on 1 September 2023 by Izci, M., Maksoudian, C., et al.

    PubMed

    The ability to improve nanoparticle delivery to solid tumors is an actively studied domain, where various mechanisms are looked into. In previous work, the authors have looked into nanoparticle size, tumor vessel normalization, and disintegration, and here it is aimed to continue this work by performing an in-depth mechanistic study on the use of ciRGD peptide co-administration. Using a multiparametric approach, it is observed that ciRGD can improve nanoparticle delivery to the tumor itself, but also to tumor cells specifically better than vessel normalization strategies. The effect depends on the level of tumor perfusion, hypoxia, neutrophil levels, and vessel permeability. This work shows that upon characterizing tumors for these parameters, conditions can be selected that can optimally benefit from ciRGD co-administration as a means to improve NP delivery to solid tumors. © 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Cholesterol sulfate limits neutrophil recruitment and gut inflammation during mucosal injury.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 4 April 2023 by Morino, K., Kunimura, K., et al.

    PubMed

    During mucosal injury, intestinal immune cells play a crucial role in eliminating invading bacteria. However, as the excessive accumulation of immune cells promotes inflammation and delays tissue repair, it is essential to identify the mechanism that limits the infiltration of immune cells to the mucosal-luminal interface. Cholesterol sulfate (CS) is the lipid product of the sulfotransferase SULT2B1 and suppresses immune reactions by inhibiting DOCK2-mediated Rac activation. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the physiological role of CS in the intestinal tract. We found that, in the small intestine and colon, CS is predominantly produced in the epithelial cells close to the lumen. While dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was exacerbated in Sult2b1-deficient mice with increased prevalence of neutrophils, the elimination of either neutrophils or intestinal bacteria in Sult2b1-deficient mice attenuated disease development. Similar results were obtained when the Dock2 was genetically deleted in Sult2b1-deficient mice. In addition, we also show that indomethacin-induced ulcer formation in the small intestine was exacerbated in Sult2b1-deficient mice and was ameliorated by CS administration. Thus, our results uncover that CS acts on inflammatory neutrophils, and prevents excessive gut inflammation by inhibiting the Rac activator DOCK2. The administration of CS may be a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced ulcers. Copyright © 2023 Morino, Kunimura, Sugiura, Izumi, Matsubara, Akiyoshi, Maeda, Hirotani, Sakata, Mizuno, Takahashi, Bamba, Uruno and Fukui.

    • Cancer Research
    Tumour Extracellular Vesicles Induce Neutrophil Extracellular Traps To Promote Lymph Node Metastasis

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 14 March 2023 by Su, X., Brassard, A., et al.

    PubMed

    Lymph nodes (LNs) are frequently the first sites of metastasis. Currently, the only prognostic LN assessment is determining metastasis status. However, there is evidence suggesting that LN metastasis is facilitated by a pre-metastatic niche induced by tumour derived extracellular vehicles (EVs). Therefore, it is important to detect and modify the LN environmental changes. We have previously reported that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can sequester and promote distant metastasis. Here, we first confirmed that LN NETs are associated with reduced patient survival. Next, we demonstrated that NETs deposition precedes LN metastasis and NETs inhibition abolishes LN metastases in animal mode. Furthermore, we discovered that EVs are essential to the formation of LN NETs. Lymphatic endothelial cells secrete CXCL8/2 in response to EVs inducing NETs formation and the promotion of LN metastasis. Our findings are the first to reveal the role of EV induced NETs in LN metastasis and provide potential immunotherapeutic vulnerabilities. Graphic Abstract Illustrative demonstration of the LNs premetastatic niche formation induced by EVs and NETs. Primary tumour constantly secretes EVs, which were actively uptaken by LECs. LECs subsequently secretes CXCL8 or CXCL2 upon EV reception. CXCL8 and CXCL2 are both neutrophil chemoattractants and potent NETs inducers. The following neutrophil recruitment and NETs formation lead to increased LN metastasis burden.

    • FC/FACS
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    GZMKhigh CD8+ T effector memory cells are associated with CD15high neutrophil abundance in non-metastatic colorectal tumors and predict poor clinical outcome.

    In Nature Communications on 8 November 2022 by Tiberti, S., Catozzi, C., et al.

    PubMed

    CD8+ T cells are a major prognostic determinant in solid tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, understanding how the interplay between different immune cells impacts on clinical outcome is still in its infancy. Here, we describe that the interaction of tumor infiltrating neutrophils expressing high levels of CD15 with CD8+ T effector memory cells (TEM) correlates with tumor progression. Mechanistically, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12/SDF-1) promotes the retention of neutrophils within tumors, increasing the crosstalk with CD8+ T cells. As a consequence of the contact-mediated interaction with neutrophils, CD8+ T cells are skewed to produce high levels of GZMK, which in turn decreases E-cadherin on the intestinal epithelium and favors tumor progression. Overall, our results highlight the emergence of GZMKhigh CD8+ TEM in non-metastatic CRC tumors as a hallmark driven by the interaction with neutrophils, which could implement current patient stratification and be targeted by novel therapeutics. © 2022. The Author(s).

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    GPR55 in B cells limits atherosclerosis development and regulates plasma cell maturation.

    In Nat Cardiovasc Res on 1 November 2022 by Guillamat-Prats, R., Hering, D., et al.

    PubMed

    Dissecting the pathways regulating the adaptive immune response in atherosclerosis is of particular therapeutic interest. Here we report that the lipid G-protein coupled receptor GPR55 is highly expressed by splenic plasma cells (PC), upregulated in mouse spleens during atherogenesis and human unstable or ruptured compared to stable plaques. Gpr55-deficient mice developed larger atherosclerotic plaques with increased necrotic core size compared to their corresponding controls. Lack of GPR55 hyperactivated B cells, disturbed PC maturation and resulted in immunoglobulin (Ig)G overproduction. B cell-specific Gpr55 depletion or adoptive transfer of Gpr55-deficient B cells was sufficient to promote plaque development and elevated IgG titers. In vitro, the endogenous GPR55 ligand lysophsophatidylinositol (LPI) enhanced PC proliferation, whereas GPR55 antagonism blocked PC maturation and increased their mitochondrial content. Collectively, these discoveries provide previously undefined evidence for GPR55 in B cells as a key modulator of the adaptive immune response in atherosclerosis.

    • Neuroscience
    The alarmin interleukin-1α triggers secondary degeneration through reactive astrocytes and endothelium after spinal cord injury.

    In Nature Communications on 2 October 2022 by Bretheau, F., Castellanos-Molina, A., et al.

    PubMed

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers neuroinflammation, and subsequently secondary degeneration and oligodendrocyte (OL) death. We report that the alarmin interleukin (IL)-1α is produced by damaged microglia after SCI. Intra-cisterna magna injection of IL-1α in mice rapidly induces neutrophil infiltration and OL death throughout the spinal cord, mimicking the injury cascade seen in SCI sites. These effects are abolished through co-treatment with the IL-1R1 antagonist anakinra, as well as in IL-1R1-knockout mice which demonstrate enhanced locomotor recovery after SCI. Conditional restoration of IL-1R1 expression in astrocytes or endothelial cells (ECs), but not in OLs or microglia, restores IL-1α-induced effects, while astrocyte- or EC-specific Il1r1 deletion reduces OL loss. Conditioned medium derived from IL-1α-stimulated astrocytes results in toxicity for OLs; further, IL-1α-stimulated astrocytes generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and blocking ROS production in IL-1α-treated or SCI mice prevented OL loss. Thus, after SCI, microglia release IL-1α, inducing astrocyte- and EC-mediated OL degeneration. © 2022. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    Immuno-genomic profiling of biopsy specimens predicts neoadjuvant chemotherapy response in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    In Cell Reports Medicine on 16 August 2022 by Sasagawa, S., Kato, H., et al.

    PubMed

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most aggressive cancers and is primarily treated with platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Some ESCCs respond well to NAC. However, biomarkers to predict NAC sensitivity and their response mechanism in ESCC remain unclear. We perform whole-genome sequencing and RNA sequencing analysis of 141 ESCC biopsy specimens before NAC treatment to generate a machine-learning-based diagnostic model to predict NAC reactivity in ESCC and analyzed the association between immunogenomic features and NAC response. Neutrophil infiltration may play an important role in ESCC response to NAC. We also demonstrate that specific copy-number alterations and copy-number signatures in the ESCC genome are significantly associated with NAC response. The interactions between the tumor genome and immune features of ESCC are likely to be a good indicator of therapeutic capability and a therapeutic target for ESCC, and machine learning prediction for NAC response is useful. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Mycoplasmoides pneumoniae (Mycoplasma pneumoniae)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Vaccination with Mycoplasma pneumoniae membrane lipoproteins induces IL-17A driven neutrophilia that mediates Vaccine-Enhanced Disease.

    In NPJ Vaccines on 29 July 2022 by Mara, A. B., Gavitt, T. D., et al.

    PubMed

    Bacterial lipoproteins are an often-underappreciated class of microbe-associated molecular patterns with potent immunomodulatory activity. We previously reported that vaccination of BALB/c mice with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) resulted in lipoprotein-dependent vaccine enhanced disease after challenge with virulent Mp, though the immune responses underpinning this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Herein, we report that lipoprotein-induced VED in a mouse model is associated with elevated inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and KC in lung lavage fluid and with suppurative pneumonia marked by exuberant neutrophilia in the pulmonary parenchyma. Whole-lung-digest flow cytometry and RNAScope analysis identified multiple cellular sources for IL-17A, and the numbers of IL-17A producing cells were increased in LAMPs-vaccinated/Mp-challenged animals compared to controls. Specific IL-17A or neutrophil depletion reduced disease severity in our VED model-indicating that Mp lipoproteins induce VED in an IL-17A-dependent manner and through exuberant neutrophil recruitment. IL-17A neutralization reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and KC, indicating that IL-17A preceded other inflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, we found that IL-17A neutralization impaired bacterial clearance, while neutrophil depletion improved it-indicating that, while IL-17A appears to confer both maladaptive and protective responses, neutrophils play an entirely maladaptive role in VED. Given that lipoproteins are found in virtually all bacteria, the potential for lipoprotein-mediated maladaptive inflammatory responses should be taken into consideration when developing vaccines against bacterial pathogens. © 2022. The Author(s).

    • Cardiovascular biology
    Neutrophils incite and macrophages avert electrical storm after myocardial infarction.

    In Nat Cardiovasc Res on 1 July 2022 by Grune, J., Lewis, A. J. M., et al.

    PubMed

    Sudden cardiac death, arising from abnormal electrical conduction, occurs frequently in patients with coronary heart disease. Myocardial ischemia simultaneously induces arrhythmia and massive myocardial leukocyte changes. In this study, we optimized a mouse model in which hypokalemia combined with myocardial infarction triggered spontaneous ventricular tachycardia in ambulatory mice, and we showed that major leukocyte subsets have opposing effects on cardiac conduction. Neutrophils increased ventricular tachycardia via lipocalin-2 in mice, whereas neutrophilia associated with ventricular tachycardia in patients. In contrast, macrophages protected against arrhythmia. Depleting recruited macrophages in Ccr2 -/- mice or all macrophage subsets with Csf1 receptor inhibition increased both ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Higher arrhythmia burden and mortality in Cd36 -/- and Mertk -/- mice, viewed together with reduced mitochondrial integrity and accelerated cardiomyocyte death in the absence of macrophages, indicated that receptor-mediated phagocytosis protects against lethal electrical storm. Thus, modulation of leukocyte function provides a potential therapeutic pathway for reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death.

    • Cardiovascular biology
    Neutrophil extracellular traps regulate ischemic stroke brain injury.

    In The Journal of Clinical Investigation on 16 May 2022 by Denorme, F., Portier, I., et al.

    PubMed

    Ischemic stroke prompts a strong inflammatory response, which is associated with exacerbated outcomes. In this study, we investigated mechanistic regulators of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in stroke and whether they contribute to stroke outcomes. NET-forming neutrophils were found throughout brain tissue of ischemic stroke patients, and elevated plasma NET biomarkers correlated with worse stroke outcomes. Additionally, we observed increased plasma and platelet surface-expressed high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in stroke patients. Mechanistically, platelets were identified as the critical source of HMGB1 that caused NETs in the acute phase of stroke. Depletion of platelets or platelet-specific knockout of HMGB1 significantly reduced plasma HMGB1 and NET levels after stroke, and greatly improved stroke outcomes. We subsequently investigated the therapeutic potential of neonatal NET-inhibitory factor (nNIF) in stroke. Mice treated with nNIF had smaller brain infarcts, improved long-term neurological and motor function, and enhanced survival after stroke. nNIF specifically blocked NET formation without affecting neutrophil recruitment after stroke. Importantly, nNIF also improved stroke outcomes in diabetic and aged mice and was still effective when given 1 hour after stroke onset. These results support a pathological role for NETs in ischemic stroke and warrant further investigation of nNIF for stroke therapy.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    GPR55 in B cells limits atherosclerosis development and regulates plasma cell maturation

    Preprint on Research Square on 12 January 2022 by Guillamat-Prats, R., Hering, D., et al.

    PubMed

    Identifying novel pathways regulating the adaptive immune response in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis is of particular interest in view of developing new therapeutic drugs. Here we report that the lipid receptor GPR55 is highly expressed by splenic B cells and inversely correlates with atheroma plaque size in mice. In human carotid endarterectomy specimen, GPR55 transcript levels were significantly lower in unstable compared to stable carotid plaques. To study the impact of GPR55 deficiency in atherosclerosis, we crossed Gpr55 knockout mice with apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice and subjected the mice to Western diet for 4 to 16 weeks. Compared to ApoE-/- controls, ApoE-/-Gpr55-/- mice developed larger plaques with increased necrotic core size, associated with elevated circulating and aortic leukocyte counts. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and RNA-sequencing analysis of splenic B cells in these mice revealed a hyperactivated B cell phenotype with disturbed plasma cell maturation and immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody overproduction. The specific contribution of B cell GPR55 in atherosclerosis was further studied in mixed Gpr55-/-/µMT bone marrow chimeras on low density receptor deficiency (Ldlr-/-) background, revealing that B-cell specific depletion of Gpr55 was sufficient to promote plaque development. Conversely, adoptive transfer of wildtype B cells into ApoE-/-Gpr55-/- mice blunted the proatherogenic phenotype. In vitro stimulation of splenocytes with the endogenous GPR55 ligand LPI promoted plasma cell proliferation and enhanced B cell activation marker expression, which was inhibited by the GPR55 antagonist CID16020046. Collectively, these discoveries provide new evidence for GPR55 as key modulator of the adaptive immune response in atherosclerosis. Targeting GPR55 could be useful to limit inflammation and plaque progression in patients suffering from atherosclerosis.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    The scaffold-dependent function of RIPK1 in dendritic cells promotes injury-induced colitis.

    In Mucosal Immunology on 1 January 2022 by Moriwaki, K., Park, C., et al.

    PubMed

    Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a cytosolic multidomain protein that controls cell life and death. While RIPK1 promotes cell death through its kinase activity, it also functions as a scaffold protein to promote cell survival by inhibiting FADD-caspase 8-dependent apoptosis and RIPK3-MLKL-dependent necroptosis. This pro-survival function is highlighted by excess cell death and perinatal lethality in Ripk1-/- mice. Recently, loss of function mutation of RIPK1 was found in patients with immunodeficiency and inflammatory bowel diseases. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation restored not only immunodeficiency but also intestinal inflammatory pathology, indicating that RIPK1 in hematopoietic cells is critical to maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. Here, we generated dendritic cell (DC)-specific Ripk1-/- mice in a genetic background with loss of RIPK1 kinase activity and found that the mice developed spontaneous colonic inflammation characterized by increased neutrophil and Ly6C+ monocytes. In addition, these mice were highly resistant to injury-induced colitis. The increased colonic inflammation and the resistance to colitis were restored by dual inactivation of RIPK3 and FADD, but not by inhibition of RIPK3, MLKL, or ZBP1 alone. Altogether, these results reveal a scaffold activity-dependent role of RIPK1 in DC-mediated maintenance of colonic immune homeostasis. © 2021. The Author(s).

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    GPR55 in B cells limits atherosclerosis development and regulates plasma cell maturation

    Preprint on BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology on 21 December 2021 by Guillamat-Prats, R., Hering, D., et al.

    PubMed

    Identifying novel pathways regulating the adaptive immune response in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis is of particular interest in view of developing new therapeutic drugs. Here we report that the lipid receptor GPR55 is highly expressed by splenic B cells and inversely correlates with atheroma plaque size in mice. In human carotid endarterectomy specimen, GPR55 transcript levels were significantly lower in unstable compared to stable carotid plaques. To study the impact of GPR55 deficiency in atherosclerosis, we crossed Gpr55 knockout mice with apolipoprotein E ( ApoE ) knockout mice and subjected the mice to Western diet for 4 to 16 weeks. Compared to ApoE -/- controls, ApoE -/- Gpr55 -/- mice developed larger plaques with increased necrotic core size, associated with elevated circulating and aortic leukocyte counts. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and RNA-sequencing analysis of splenic B cells in these mice revealed a hyperactivated B cell phenotype with disturbed plasma cell maturation and immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody overproduction. The specific contribution of B cell GPR55 in atherosclerosis was further studied in mixed Gpr55 -/- / µMT bone marrow chimeras on low density receptor deficiency ( Ldlr -/- ) background, revealing that B-cell specific depletion of Gpr55 was sufficient to promote plaque development. Conversely, adoptive transfer of wildtype B cells into ApoE -/- Gpr55 -/- mice blunted the proatherogenic phenotype. In vitro stimulation of splenocytes with the endogenous GPR55 ligand LPI promoted plasma cell proliferation and enhanced B cell activation marker expression, which was inhibited by the GPR55 antagonist CID16020046. Collectively, these discoveries provide new evidence for GPR55 as key modulator of the adaptive immune response in atherosclerosis. Targeting GPR55 could be useful to limit inflammation and plaque progression in patients suffering from atherosclerosis.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    IL-17 mediates protective immunity against nasal infection with Bordetella pertussis by mobilizing neutrophils, especially Siglec-F+ neutrophils.

    In Mucosal Immunology on 1 September 2021 by Borkner, L., Curham, L. M., et al.

    PubMed

    Understanding the mechanism of protective immunity in the nasal mucosae is central to the design of more effective vaccines that prevent nasal infection and transmission of Bordetella pertussis. We found significant infiltration of IL-17-secreting CD4+ tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells and Siglec-F+ neutrophils into the nasal tissue during primary infection with B. pertussis. Il17A-/- mice had significantly higher bacterial load in the nasal mucosae, associated with significantly reduced infiltration of Siglec-F+ neutrophils. Re-infected convalescent mice rapidly cleared B. pertussis from the nasal cavity and this was associated with local expansion of IL-17-producing CD4+ TRM cells. Depletion of CD4 T cells from the nasal tissue during primary infection or after re-challenge of convalescent mice significantly delayed clearance of bacteria from the nasal mucosae. Protection was lost in Il17A-/- mice and this was associated with significantly less infiltration of Siglec-F+ neutrophils and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production. Finally, depletion of neutrophils reduced the clearance of B. pertussis following re-challenge of convalescent mice. Our findings demonstrate that IL-17 plays a critical role in natural and acquired immunity to B. pertussis in the nasal mucosae and this effect is mediated by mobilizing neutrophils, especially Siglec-F+ neutrophils, which have high neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) activity. © 2021. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Gain-of-function p53R172H mutation drives accumulation of neutrophils in pancreatic tumors, promoting resistance to immunotherapy.

    In Cell Reports on 24 August 2021 by Siolas, D., Vucic, E., et al.

    PubMed

    Tumor genotype can influence the immune microenvironment, which plays a critical role in cancer development and therapy resistance. However, the immune effects of gain-of-function Trp53 mutations have not been defined in pancreatic cancer. We compare the immune profiles generated by KrasG12D-mutated mouse pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDECs) engineered genetically to express the Trp53R172H mutation with their p53 wild-type control. KrasG12D/+;Trp53R172H/+ tumors have a distinct immune profile characterized by an influx of CD11b+Ly6G+ neutrophils and concomitant decreases in CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD4+ T helper 1 cells. Knockdown of CXCL2, a neutrophil chemokine, in the tumor epithelial compartment of CRISPR KrasG12D/+;Trp53R172H/+ PDEC tumors reverses the neutrophil phenotype. Neutrophil depletion of mice bearing CRISPR KrasG12D/+;Trp53R172H/+ tumors augments sensitivity to combined CD40 immunotherapy and chemotherapy. These data link Trp53R172H to the presence of intratumoral neutrophils in pancreatic cancer and suggest that tumor genotypes could inform selection of affected individuals for immunotherapy. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    IL1β Promotes Immune Suppression in the Tumor Microenvironment Independent of the Inflammasome and Gasdermin D.

    In Cancer Immunology Research on 1 March 2021 by Kiss, M., Vande Walle, L., et al.

    PubMed

    IL1β is a central mediator of inflammation. Secretion of IL1β typically requires proteolytic maturation by the inflammasome and formation of membrane pores by gasdermin D (GSDMD). Emerging evidence suggests an important role for IL1β in promoting cancer progression in patients, but the underlying mechanisms are ill-defined. Here, we have shown a key role for IL1β in driving tumor progression in two distinct mouse tumor models. Notably, activation of the inflammasome, caspase-8, as well as the pore-forming proteins GSDMD and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein in the host were dispensable for the release of intratumoral bioactive IL1β. Inflammasome-independent IL1β release promoted systemic neutrophil expansion and fostered accumulation of T-cell-suppressive neutrophils in the tumor. Moreover, IL1β was essential for neutrophil infiltration triggered by antiangiogenic therapy, thereby contributing to treatment-induced immunosuppression. Deletion of IL1β allowed intratumoral accumulation of CD8+ effector T cells that subsequently activated tumor-associated macrophages. Depletion of either CD8+ T cells or macrophages abolished tumor growth inhibition in IL1β-deficient mice, demonstrating a crucial role for CD8+ T-cell-macrophage cross-talk in the antitumor immune response. Overall, these results support a tumor-promoting role for IL1β through establishing an immunosuppressive microenvironment and show that inflammasome activation is not essential for release of this cytokine in tumors. ©2020 American Association for Cancer Research.

    Neutrophil-to-hepatocyte communication via LDLR-dependent miR-223-enriched extracellular vesicle transfer ameliorates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    In The Journal of Clinical Investigation on 1 February 2021 by He, Y., Rodrigues, R. M., et al.

    PubMed

    Neutrophil infiltration around lipotoxic hepatocytes is a hallmark of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); however, how these 2 types of cells communicate remains obscure. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophil-specific microRNA-223 (miR-223) is elevated in hepatocytes to limit NASH progression in obese mice. Here, we demonstrated that this elevation of miR-223 in hepatocytes was due to preferential uptake of miR-223-enriched extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from neutrophils as well other types of cells, albeit to a lesser extent. This selective uptake was dependent on the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) on hepatocytes and apolipoprotein E (APOE) on neutrophil-derived EVs, which was enhanced by free fatty acids. Once internalized by hepatocytes, the EV-derived miR-223 acted to inhibit hepatic inflammatory and fibrogenic gene expression. In the absence of this LDLR- and APOE-dependent uptake of miR-223-enriched EVs, the progression of steatosis to NASH was accelerated. In contrast, augmentation of this transfer by treatment with an inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, a drug used to lower blood cholesterol by upregulating LDLR, ameliorated NASH in mice. This specific role of LDLR and APOE in the selective control of miR-223-enriched EV transfer from neutrophils to hepatocytes may serve as a potential therapeutic target for NASH.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Durable and controlled depletion of neutrophils in mice.

    In Nature Communications on 2 June 2020 by Boivin, G., Faget, J., et al.

    PubMed

    Neutrophils are an essential part of the innate immune system. To study their importance, experimental studies often aim to deplete these cells, generally by injecting anti-Ly6G or anti-Gr1 antibodies. However, these approaches are only partially effective, transient or lack specificity. Here we report that neutrophils remaining after anti-Ly6G treatment are newly derived from the bone marrow, instead of depletion escapees. Mechanistically, newly generated, circulating neutrophils have lower Ly6G membrane expression, and consequently reduced targets for anti-Ly6G-mediated depletion. To overcome this limitation, we develop a double antibody-based depletion strategy that enhances neutrophil elimination by anti-Ly6G treatment. This approach achieves specific, durable and controlled reduction of neutrophils in vivo, and may be suitable for studying neutrophil function in experimental models.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Complement Signals Determine Opposite Effects of B Cells in Chemotherapy-Induced Immunity.

    In Cell on 19 March 2020 by Lu, Y., Zhao, Q., et al.

    PubMed

    Understanding molecular mechanisms that dictate B cell diversity is important for targeting B cells as anti-cancer treatment. Through the single-cell dissection of B cell heterogeneity in longitudinal samples of patients with breast cancer before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we revealed that an ICOSL+ B cell subset emerges after chemotherapy. Using three immunocompetent mouse models, we recapitulated the subset switch of human tumor-infiltrating B cells during chemotherapy. By employing B-cell-specific deletion mice, we showed that ICOSL in B cells boosts anti-tumor immunity by enhancing the effector to regulatory T cell ratio. The signature of ICOSL+ B cells is imprinted by complement-CR2 signaling, which is triggered by immunogenic cell death. Moreover, we identified that CD55, a complement inhibitory protein, determines the opposite roles of B cells in chemotherapy. Collectively, we demonstrated a critical role of the B cell subset switch in chemotherapy response, which has implications in designing novel anti-cancer therapies. VIDEO ABSTRACT.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.