InVivoMAb anti-human pan-Glypican

Catalog #BE0412

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Product Details

The HS20 monoclonal antibody reacts with a highly conserved interaction site between the C-terminal glypican (GPC) core fragment and the heparan sulfate side chains of the GPC proteins. Heparan sulfate is a highly sulphated polysaccharide and in mammalian tissues, and it is distributed on the cell surfaces and basement membranes. The HS20 antibody was originally developed and extensively validated for analyzing the biological roles of heparan sulfate chains in glypican-3 (GPC3) but subsequent studies showed that this antibody also binds heparan sulphate structures on all of the other members of the glypican family i.e. glypican-1 (GPC1), glypican-2 (GPC-2), glypican-4 (GPC4), glypican-5 (GPC5), and glypican-6 (GPC6). The HS20 antibody recognizes both the sulfated and non-sulfated portions of GPC heparan sulfate chains. This antibody has been shown to neutralize the heparan sulfate chains on GPC3 thereby disrupting the Wnt3a -GPC3 interactions leading to blockade of the Wnt3a/β-catenin signaling. The HS20 antibody was shown to inhibit the Wnt3a-dependent cell proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro and it also depicted potent anti-tumor activity in experimental model of HCC xenograft growth in nude mice.


Isotype Human IgG1, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) RecombiMAb human IgG1 isotype control, anti-hen egg lysozyme
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen Not available or unknown
Reported Applications in vivo blocking of Wnt signaling
in vitro blocking of Wnt signaling
Functional assays
Flow cytometry
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein A
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.
Flow Cytometry
Luo Y, Hao H, Wang Z, Ong C, Dutcher R, Xu Y, Liu J, Pedersen LC, Xu D. (2023). "Heparan sulfate promotes TRAIL-induced tumor cell apoptosis" bioRxiv . PubMed

TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a potent inducer of tumor cell apoptosis through TRAIL receptors. While it has been previously pursued as a potential anti-tumor therapy, the enthusiasm subsided due to unsuccessful clinical trials and the fact that many tumors are resistant to TRAIL. In this report we identified heparan sulfate (HS) as an important regulator of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. TRAIL binds HS with high affinity (KD = 73 nM) and HS induces TRAIL to form higher-order oligomers. The HS-binding site of TRAIL is located at the N-terminus of soluble TRAIL, which includes three basic residues. Binding to cell surface HS plays an essential role in promoting the apoptotic activity of TRAIL in both breast cancer and myeloma cells, and this promoting effect can be blocked by heparin, which is commonly administered to cancer patients. We also quantified HS content in several lines of myeloma cells and found that the cell line showing the most resistance to TRAIL has the least expression of HS, which suggests that HS expression in tumor cells could play a role in regulating sensitivity towards TRAIL. We also discovered that death receptor 5 (DR5), TRAIL and HS can form a ternary complex and that cell surface HS plays an active role in promoting TRAIL-induced cellular internalization of DR5. Combined, our study suggests that TRAIL-HS interactions could play multiple roles in regulating the apoptotic potency of TRAIL and might be an important point of consideration when designing future TRAIL-based anti-tumor therapy.

Functional Assays
Cui XY, Tjønnfjord GE, Kanse SM, Dahm AEA, Iversen N, Myklebust CF, Sun L, Jiang ZX, Ueland T, Campbell JJ, Ho M, Sandset PM. (2021). "Tissue factor pathway inhibitor upregulates CXCR7 expression and enhances CXCL12-mediated migration in chronic lymphocytic leukemia" Sci Rep 11(1):5127. PubMed

The infiltration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells into lymphoid organs correlates with disease severity. CXCL12 is a key chemotactic factor for the trafficking of CLL. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a serine protease inhibitor and plays a role in CXCL12-mediated hematopoietic stem cell homing. We aim to explore the role of TFPI in CXCL12-mediated migration of CLL cells. In this study, plasma TFPI concentrations were measured by ELISA. CLL cells were isolated from patients and used for trans-endothelial migration (TEM) assays. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of CXCR7, CXCR4 and β-catenin. Immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation was used to detect the binding of TFPI and glypican-3 (GPC3). We found that plasma TFPI levels in CLL patients were higher than in healthy controls, particularly in the patients with advanced disease. TFPI enhanced CXCL12-mediated TEM of CLL cells by increasing the expression of the CXCL12 receptor CXCR7, but not of the CXCL12 receptor CXCR4. The effect of TFPI on TEM was abolished by the CXCR7 inhibitor, CCX771, while the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 strongly increased TEM. TFPI co-localized with GPC3 on the cell surface. An antibody to GPC3, HS20, decreased CXCR7 expression and abolished the effect of TFPI on TEM. TFPI activated β-catenin and the Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor IWP4 repressed the effect of TFPI on CXCR7 expression and TEM. We conclude that TFPI may contribute to organ infiltration in CLL patients.

Dubey R, van Kerkhof P, Jordens I, Malinauskas T, Pusapati GV, McKenna JK, Li D, Carette JE, Ho M, Siebold C, Maurice M, Lebensohn AM, Rohatgi R. (2020). "R-spondins engage heparan sulfate proteoglycans to potentiate WNT signaling" Elife . PubMed

R-spondins (RSPOs) amplify WNT signaling during development and regenerative responses. We previously demonstrated that RSPOs 2 and 3 potentiate WNT/β-catenin signaling in cells lacking leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptors (LGRs) 4, 5 and 6 (Lebensohn and Rohatgi, 2018). We now show that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) act as alternative co-receptors for RSPO3 using a combination of ligand mutagenesis and ligand engineering. Mutations in RSPO3 residues predicted to contact HSPGs impair its signaling capacity. Conversely, the HSPG-binding domains of RSPO3 can be entirely replaced with an antibody that recognizes heparan sulfate (HS) chains attached to multiple HSPGs without diminishing WNT-potentiating activity in cultured cells and intestinal organoids. A genome-wide screen for mediators of RSPO3 signaling in cells lacking LGRs 4, 5 and 6 failed to reveal other receptors. We conclude that HSPGs are RSPO co-receptors that potentiate WNT signaling in the presence and absence of LGRs.

in vitro blocking of Wnt signaling, ELISA
Gao W, Xu Y, Liu J, Ho M. (2016). "Epitope mapping by a Wnt-blocking antibody: evidence of the Wnt binding domain in heparan sulfate" Sci Rep . PubMed

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide known to modulate many important biological processes, including Wnt signaling. However, the biochemical interaction between HS and Wnt molecules is not well characterized largely due to the lack of suitable methods. To determine the Wnt binding domain in HS, we used a Wnt signaling-inhibitory antibody (HS20) and a panel of synthetic HS oligosaccharides with distinct lengths and sulfation modifications. We found that the binding of HS20 to heparan sulfate required sulfation at both the C2 position (2-O-sulfation) and C6 position (6-O-sulfation). The oligosaccharides with the greatest competitive effect for HS20 binding were between six and eight saccharide residues in length. Additionally, a four residue-long oligosaccharide could also be recognized by HS20 if an additional 3-O-sulfation modification was present. Furthermore, similar oligosaccharides with 2-O, 6-O and 3-O-sulfations showed inhibition for Wnt activation. These results have revealed that HS20 and Wnt recognize a HS structure containing IdoA2S and GlcNS6S, and that the 3-O-sulfation in GlcNS6S3S significantly enhances the binding of both HS20 and Wnt. This study provides the evidence for identifying the Wnt binding domain in HS and suggests a therapeutic approach to target the interaction of Wnt and HS in cancer and other diseases.

in vivo blocking of Wnt signaling, Functional Assays
Gao W, Kim H, Ho M. (2015). "Human Monoclonal Antibody Targeting the Heparan Sulfate Chains of Glypican-3 Inhibits HGF-Mediated Migration and Motility of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells" PLoS One 10(9):e0137664. PubMed

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) participate in many processes related to tumor development, including tumorigenesis and metastasis. HSPGs contain one or more heparan sulfate (HS) chains that are covalently linked to a core protein. Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a cell surface-associated HSPG that is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). GPC3 is involved in Wnt3a-dependent HCC cell proliferation. Our previous study reported that HS20, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the HS chains on GPC3, inhibited Wnt3a/β-catenin activation. In the current study, we showed that the HS chains of GPC3 could mediate HCC cells' migration and motility. Knocking down GPC3 or targeting the HS chains by HS20 inhibited HCC cell migration and motility. However, HS20 had no effect on GPC3 knockdown cells or GPC3 negative cells. In addition, an antibody that recognizes the core protein of GPC3 did not change the rate of cell motility. HCC cell migration and motility did not respond to either canonical or non-canonical Wnt induction, but did increase under hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) treatment. HS20-treated HCC cells exhibited less ability for HGF-mediated migration and motility. Furthermore, HS20 inhibited in vitro HCC spheroid formation and liver tumor growth in mice. GPC3 interacted with HGF; however, a mutant GPC3 lacking the HS chain showed less interaction with HGF. Blocking the HS chains on GPC3 with HS20 reduced c-Met activation in HGF-treated HCC cells and 3D-cultured spheroids. Taken together, our study suggests that GPC3 is involved in HCC cell migration and motility through HS chain-mediated cooperation with the HGF/Met pathway, showing how HS targeting has potential therapeutic implications for liver cancer.

Gao W, Tang Z, Zhang YF, Feng M, Qian M, Dimitrov DS, Ho M. (2015). "Immunotoxin targeting glypican-3 regresses liver cancer via dual inhibition of Wnt signalling and protein synthesis" Nat Commun . PubMed

Glypican-3 is a cell surface glycoprotein that associates with Wnt in liver cancer. We develop two antibodies targeting glypican-3, HN3 and YP7. The first antibody recognizes a functional epitope and inhibits Wnt signalling, whereas the second antibody recognizes a C-terminal epitope but does not inhibit Wnt signalling. Both are fused to a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38) to create immunotoxins. Interestingly, the immunotoxin based on HN3 (HN3-PE38) has superior antitumor activity as compared with YP7 (YP7-PE38) both in vitro and in vivo. Intravenous administration of HN3-PE38 alone, or in combination with chemotherapy, induces regression of Hep3B and HepG2 liver tumour xenografts in mice. This study establishes glypican-3 as a promising candidate for immunotoxin-based liver cancer therapy. Our results demonstrate immunotoxin-induced tumour regression via dual mechanisms: inactivation of cancer signalling via the antibody and inhibition of protein synthesis via the toxin.

in vivo blocking of Wnt signaling, in vitro blocking of Wnt signaling, Functional Assays, Flow Cytometry, ELISA
Gao W, Kim H, Feng M, Phung Y, Xavier CP, Rubin JS, Ho M. (2014). "Inactivation of Wnt signaling by a human antibody that recognizes the heparan sulfate chains of glypican-3 for liver cancer therapy" Hepatology 60(2):576-87. PubMed

Wnt signaling is important for cancer pathogenesis and is often up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) function as coreceptors or modulators of Wnt activation. Glypican-3 (GPC3) is an HSPG that is highly expressed in HCC, where it can attract Wnt proteins to the cell surface and promote cell proliferation. Thus, GPC3 has emerged as a candidate therapeutic target in liver cancer. While monoclonal antibodies to GPC3 are currently being evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies, none have shown an effect on Wnt signaling. Here, we first document the expression of Wnt3a, multiple Wnt receptors, and GPC3 in several HCC cell lines, and demonstrate that GPC3 enhanced the activity of Wnt3a/β-catenin signaling in these cells. Then we report the identification of HS20, a human monoclonal antibody against GPC3, which preferentially recognized the heparan sulfate chains of GPC3, both the sulfated and nonsulfated portions. HS20 disrupted the interaction of Wnt3a and GPC3 and blocked Wnt3a/β-catenin signaling. Moreover, HS20 inhibited Wnt3a-dependent cell proliferation in vitro and HCC xenograft growth in nude mice. In addition, HS20 had no detectable undesired toxicity in mice. Taken together, our results show that a monoclonal antibody primarily targeting the heparin sulfate chains of GPC3 inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling in HCC cells and had potent antitumor activity in vivo. Conclusion: An antibody directed against the heparan sulfate of a proteoglycan shows efficacy in blocking Wnt signaling and HCC growth, suggesting a novel strategy for liver cancer therapy.