InVivoMAb anti-mouse TIM-3 (CD366)

Catalog #BE0115
Product Citations:
41
Clone:
RMT3-23
Reactivities:
Mouse

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Product Details

The RMT3-23 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse TIM-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3) also known as CD366. TIM-3 is a 60 kDa member of the TIM family of immune checkpoint receptors and exists as a type I transmembrane glycoprotein with a mucin-like domain in its extracellular portion and a tyrosine phosphorylation motif in its cytoplasmic portion. TIM-3 is specifically expressed at high levels on the surface of Th1 lymphocytes whereas Th2 lymphocytes express TIM-1 and TIM-2. TIM-3 activation occurs via binding to the cell-associated C-type lectin galectin-9. Upon binding TIM-3 induces apoptosis of Th1 cells. Inhibition of TIM-3 signaling in mice has been shown to exacerbate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, promote IFNγ production and Th1 cell proliferation. Tim-3 has also been shown to be required for the induction of tolerance, as both TIM-3 knockout animals and mice treated with TIM-3-Ig fusion protein display defects in the induction of antigen-specific tolerance. Additionally, TIM-3 signaling is currently being explored as a cancer immunotherapy target as CD8 T cells which express both TIM-3 and PD-1 exhibit greater defects in both cell-cycle progression and effector cytokine production than cells that express PD-1 alone. The RMT3-23 antibody acts as a TIM-3 receptor antagonist and has been shown to have functional activity including suppressing tumor cell growth in a murine sarcoma model.

Specifications

Isotype Rat IgG2a, κ
Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoMAb rat IgG2a isotype control, anti-trinitrophenol
Recommended Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer
Conjugation This product is unconjugated. Conjugation is available via our Antibody Conjugation Services.
Immunogen Recombinant mouse TIM-3
Reported Applications in vivo TIM-3 neutralization
in vitro TIM-3 blocking
Flow cytometry
Formulation PBS, pH 7.0
Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity >95%
Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 µm filtration
Production Purified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
Purification Protein G
RRID AB_10949464
Molecular Weight 150 kDa
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.

Additional Formats

in vivo TIM-3 neutralization
Liu, J. F., et al. (2018). "Blockade of TIM3 relieves immunosuppression through reducing regulatory T cells in head and neck cancer" J Exp Clin Cancer Res 37(1): 44. PubMed

BACKGROUND: T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM3) is a negative immune checkpoint and plays a crucial part in tumor-induced immune suppression. However, the mechanism of TIM3 in regulating immunosuppression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) was still not quite clear. METHODS: We carried out the immunohistochemistry staining of HNSCC tissue microarrays. Through quantification of the histoscore, we performed the correlation analysis among the TIM3, Galectin-9, Foxp3, CD68 and CD163. The effects of TIM3 on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and macrophages were detected by utilizing the Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO HNSCC mouse model. Flow cytometry were used to analysis the percent of Tregs, macrophages and IFN-gamma. RESULTS: We demonstrated the close association among TIM3/Galectin-9 pathway, regulatory T cell marker (Foxp3) and macrophage marker (CD68, CD163) in human HNSCC. In the transgenic HNSCC mouse model, blockade of TIM3 by the anti-TIM3 monoclonal antibody induced a reduction of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs. Meanwhile, the population of TIM3(+) Tregs was also decreased. However, the population of CD206(+) macrophages was not significantly declined. The increased IFN-gamma production on CD8(+) T cells in anti-TIM3 treatment mice showed that the antitumor immune response was enhanced through suppression of these negative immune factors. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that TIM3 was associated with the immunosuppression in HNSCC. And targeting TIM3 can enhance anti-tumor immune response by decreasing Tregs in HNSCC.

in vivo TIM-3 neutralization
Ngiow, S. F., et al. (2015). "A Threshold Level of Intratumor CD8+ T-cell PD1 Expression Dictates Therapeutic Response to Anti-PD1" Cancer Res 75(18): 3800-3811. PubMed

Despite successes, thus far, a significant proportion of the patients treated with anti-PD1 antibodies have failed to respond. We use mouse tumor models of anti-PD1 sensitivity and resistance and flow cytometry to assess tumor-infiltrating immune cells immediately after therapy. We demonstrate that the expression levels of T-cell PD1 (PD1(lo)), myeloid, and T-cell PDL1 (PDL1(hi)) in the tumor microenvironment inversely correlate and dictate the efficacy of anti-PD1 mAb and function of intratumor CD8(+) T cells. In sensitive tumors, we reveal a threshold for PD1 downregulation on tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells below which the release of adaptive immune resistance is achieved. In contrast, PD1(hi) T cells in resistant tumors fail to be rescued by anti-PD1 therapy and remain dysfunctional unless intratumor PDL1(lo) immune cells are targeted. Intratumor Tregs are partly responsible for the development of anti-PD1-resistant tumors and PD1(hi) CD8(+) T cells. Our analyses provide a framework to interrogate intratumor CD8(+) T-cell PD1 and immune PDL1 levels and response in human cancer. Cancer Res; 75(18); 3800-11. (c)2015 AACR.

in vivo TIM-3 neutralization
Tripathi, S., et al. (2015). "Effect of TIM-3 Blockade on the Immunophenotype and Cytokine Profile of Murine Uterine NK Cells" PLoS One 10(4): e0123439. PubMed

NK cells are the most abundant lymphocyte population in the feto-maternal interface during gestation. The uterine NK cells (uNK) are transient, have a unique immunophenotype and produce a number of cytokines. These cytokines play an important role in establishment and maintenance of vascular remodeling and tolerance associated with successful pregnancy. The uNK cells also express TIM-3 during gestation and blockade of TIM-3 expression results in fetal loss in mice. In this study we determined the effect of TIM-3 blockade on uNK cells. Specifically we observed surface receptor phenotype and cytokine production by uNK cells following TIM-3 blockade. Our results show that TIM-3 plays a role in regulating the uNK cells and contributes to the maintenance of tolerance at the feto-maternal interface.

in vivo TIM-3 neutralization
Kurtulus, S., et al. (2015). "TIGIT predominantly regulates the immune response via regulatory T cells" J Clin Invest. doi : 10.1172/JCI81187. PubMed

Coinhibitory receptors are critical for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Upregulation of these receptors on effector T cells terminates T cell responses, while their expression on Tregs promotes their suppressor function. Understanding the function of coinhibitory receptors in effector T cells and Tregs is crucial, as therapies that target coinhibitory receptors are currently at the forefront of treatment strategies for cancer and other chronic diseases. T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is a recently identified coinhibitory receptor that is found on the surface of a variety of lymphoid cells, and its role in immune regulation is just beginning to be elucidated. We examined TIGIT-mediated immune regulation in different murine cancer models and determined that TIGIT marks the most dysfunctional subset of CD8+ T cells in tumor tissue as well as tumor-tissue Tregs with a highly active and suppressive phenotype. We demonstrated that TIGIT signaling in Tregs directs their phenotype and that TIGIT primarily suppresses antitumor immunity via Tregs and not CD8+ T cells. Moreover, TIGIT+ Tregs upregulated expression of the coinhibitory receptor TIM-3 in tumor tissue, and TIM-3 and TIGIT synergized to suppress antitumor immune responses. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into how TIGIT regulates immune responses in chronic disease settings.

in vivo TIM-3 neutralization
Mittal, D., et al. (2014). "Antimetastatic effects of blocking PD-1 and the adenosine A2A receptor" Cancer Res 74(14): 3652-3658. PubMed

Adenosine targeting is an attractive new approach to cancer treatment, but no clinical study has yet examined adenosine inhibition in oncology despite the safe clinical profile of adenosine A2A receptor inhibitors (A2ARi) in Parkinson disease. Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and therefore we have studied experimental and spontaneous mouse models of melanoma and breast cancer metastasis to demonstrate the efficacy and mechanism of a combination of A2ARi in combination with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). This combination significantly reduces metastatic burden and prolongs the life of mice compared with either monotherapy alone. Importantly, the combination was only effective when the tumor expressed high levels of CD73, suggesting a tumor biomarker that at a minimum could be used to stratify patients that might receive this combination. The mechanism of the combination therapy was critically dependent on NK cells and IFNgamma, and to a lesser extent, CD8(+) T cells and the effector molecule, perforin. Overall, these results provide a strong rationale to use A2ARi with anti-PD-1 mAb for the treatment of minimal residual and metastatic disease.

in vivo TIM-3 neutralization
McGray, A. J., et al. (2014). "Immunotherapy-induced CD8+ T cells instigate immune suppression in the tumor" Mol Ther 22(1): 206-218. PubMed

Despite clear evidence of immunogenicity, cancer vaccines only provide a modest clinical benefit. To evaluate the mechanisms that limit tumor regression following vaccination, we have investigated the weak efficacy of a highly immunogenic experimental vaccine using a murine melanoma model. We discovered that the tumor adapts rapidly to the immune attack instigated by tumor-specific CD8+ T cells in the first few days following vaccination, resulting in the upregulation of a complex set of biological networks, including multiple immunosuppressive processes. This rapid adaptation acts to prevent sustained local immune attack, despite continued infiltration by increasing numbers of tumor-specific T cells. Combining vaccination with adoptive transfer of tumor-specific T cells produced complete regression of the treated tumors but did not prevent the adaptive immunosuppression. In fact, the adaptive immunosuppressive pathways were more highly induced in regressing tumors, commensurate with the enhanced level of immune attack. Examination of tumor infiltrating T-cell functionality revealed that the adaptive immunosuppression leads to a progressive loss in T-cell function, even in tumors that are regressing. These novel observations that T cells produced by therapeutic intervention can instigate a rapid adaptive immunosuppressive response within the tumor have important implications for clinical implementation of immunotherapies.

in vivo TIM-3 neutralization
Dolina, J. S., et al. (2014). "Liver-primed CD8+ T cells suppress antiviral adaptive immunity through galectin-9-independent T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin 3 engagement of high-mobility group box 1 in mice" Hepatology 59(4): 1351-1365. PubMed

The liver is a tolerogenic environment exploited by persistent infections, such as hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses. In a murine model of intravenous hepatotropic adenovirus infection, liver-primed antiviral CD8(+) T cells fail to produce proinflammatory cytokines and do not display cytolytic activity characteristic of effector CD8(+) T cells generated by infection at an extrahepatic, that is, subcutaneous, site. Importantly, liver-generated CD8(+) T cells also appear to have a T-regulatory (Treg) cell function exemplified by their ability to limit proliferation of antigen-specific T-effector (Teff ) cells in vitro and in vivo via T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin 3 (Tim-3) expressed by the CD8(+) Treg cells. Regulatory activity did not require recognition of the canonical Tim-3 ligand, galectin-9, but was dependent on CD8(+) Treg cell-surface Tim-3 binding to the alarmin, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1). CONCLUSION: Virus-specific Tim-3(+) CD8(+) T cells operating through HMGB-1 recognition in the setting of acute and chronic viral infections of the liver may act to dampen hepatic T-cell responses in the liver microenvironment and, as a consequence, limit immune-mediated tissue injury or promote the establishment of persistent infections.

in vitro TIM-3 blocking, Flow Cytometry
Erickson, J. J., et al. (2014). "Programmed death-1 impairs secondary effector lung CD8(+) T cells during respiratory virus reinfection" J Immunol 193(10): 5108-5117. PubMed

Reinfections with respiratory viruses are common and cause significant clinical illness, yet precise mechanisms governing this susceptibility are ill defined. Lung Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells (T(CD8)) are impaired during acute viral lower respiratory infection by the inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1). To determine whether PD-1 contributes to recurrent infection, we first established a model of reinfection by challenging B cell-deficient mice with human metapneumovirus (HMPV) several weeks after primary infection, and found that HMPV replicated to high titers in the lungs. A robust secondary effector lung TCD8 response was generated during reinfection, but these cells were more impaired and more highly expressed the inhibitory receptors PD-1, LAG-3, and 2B4 than primary T(CD8). In vitro blockade demonstrated that PD-1 was the dominant inhibitory receptor early after reinfection. In vivo therapeutic PD-1 blockade during HMPV reinfection restored lung T(CD8) effector functions (i.e., degranulation and cytokine production) and enhanced viral clearance. PD-1 also limited the protective efficacy of HMPV epitope-specific peptide vaccination and impaired lung T(CD8) during heterotypic influenza virus challenge infection. Our results indicate that PD-1 signaling may contribute to respiratory virus reinfection and evasion of vaccine-elicited immune responses. These results have important implications for the design of effective vaccines against respiratory viruses.

in vivo TIM-3 neutralization
Dietze, K. K., et al. (2013). "Combining regulatory T cell depletion and inhibitory receptor blockade improves reactivation of exhausted virus-specific CD8+ T cells and efficiently reduces chronic retroviral loads" PLoS Pathog 9(12): e1003798. PubMed

Chronic infections with human viruses, such as HIV and HCV, or mouse viruses, such as LCMV or Friend Virus (FV), result in functional exhaustion of CD8(+) T cells. Two main mechanisms have been described that mediate this exhaustion: expression of inhibitory receptors on CD8(+) T cells and expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress CD8(+) T cell activity. Several studies show that blockage of one of these pathways results in reactivation of CD8(+) T cells and partial reduction in chronic viral loads. Using blocking antibodies against PD-1 ligand and Tim-3 and transgenic mice in which Tregs can be selectively ablated, we compared these two treatment strategies and combined them for the first time in a model of chronic retrovirus infection. Blocking inhibitory receptors was more efficient than transient depletion of Tregs in reactivating exhausted CD8(+) T cells and reducing viral set points. However, a combination therapy was superior to any single treatment and further augmented CD8(+) T cell responses and resulted in a sustained reduction in chronic viral loads. These results demonstrate that Tregs and inhibitory receptors are non-overlapping factors in the maintenance of chronic viral infections and that immunotherapies targeting both pathways may be a promising strategy to treat chronic infectious diseases.

in vivo TIM-3 neutralization
Zelinskyy, G., et al. (2011). "Virus-specific CD8+ T cells upregulate programmed death-1 expression during acute friend retrovirus infection but are highly cytotoxic and control virus replication" J Immunol 187(7): 3730-3737. PubMed

It was recently reported that inhibitory molecules such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) were upregulated on CD8(+) T cells during acute Friend retrovirus infection and that the cells were prematurely exhausted and dysfunctional in vitro. The current study confirms that most activated CD8(+) T cells upregulated expression of PD-1 during acute infection and revealed a dichotomy of function between PD-1(hi) and PD-1(lo) subsets. More PD-1(lo) cells produced antiviral cytokines such as IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, whereas more PD-1(hi) cells displayed characteristics of cytotoxic effectors such as production of granzymes and surface expression of CD107a. Importantly, CD8(+) T cells mediated rapid in vivo cytotoxicity and were critical for control of acute Friend virus replication. Thus, direct ex vivo analyses and in vivo experiments revealed high CD8(+) T cell functionality and indicate that PD-1 expression during acute infection is not a marker of T cell exhaustion.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Combining toll-like receptor agonists with immune checkpoint blockade affects antitumor vaccine efficacy.

    In Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer on 3 May 2024 by Jeon, D., Hill, E., et al.

    PubMed

    T cell checkpoint receptors are expressed when T cells are activated, and modulation of the expression or signaling of these receptors can alter the function of T cells and their antitumor efficacy. We previously found that T cells activated with cognate antigen had increases in the expression of PD-1, and this was attenuated in the presence of multiple toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, notably TLR3 plus TLR9. In the current report, we sought to investigate whether combining TLR agonists with immune checkpoint blockade can further augment vaccine-mediated T cell antitumor immunity in murine tumor models. TLR agonists (TLR3 plus TLR9) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (antibodies targeting PD-1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, TIM-3 or VISTA) were combined and delivered with vaccines or vaccine-activated CD8+T cells to E.G7-OVA or MyC-CaP tumor-bearing mice. Tumors were assessed for growth and then collected and analyzed by flow cytometry. Immunization of E.G7-OVA tumor-bearing mice with SIINFEKL peptide vaccine, coadministered with TLR agonists and αCTLA-4, demonstrated greater antitumor efficacy than immunization with TLR agonists or αCTLA-4 alone. Conversely, the antitumor efficacy was abrogated when vaccine and TLR agonists were combined with αPD-1. TLR agonists suppressed PD-1 expression on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and activated this population. Depletion of Tregs in tumor-bearing mice led to greater antitumor efficacy of this combination therapy, even in the presence of αPD-1. Combining vaccination with TLR agonists and αCTLA-4 or αLAG-3 showed greater antitumor than with combinations with αTIM-3 or αVISTA. The combination of TLR agonists and αCTLA-4 or αLAG-3 can further improve the efficacy of a cancer vaccine, an effect not observed using αPD-1 due to activation of Tregs when αPD-1 was combined with TLR3 and TLR9 agonists. These data suggest that optimal combinations of TLR agonists and immune checkpoint blockade may improve the efficacy of human anticancer vaccines. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2024. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Neuroscience
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    TIM-3 blockade in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma models promotes tumor regression and antitumor immune memory.

    In Cancer Cell on 13 November 2023 by Ausejo-Mauleon, I., Labiano, S., et al.

    PubMed

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive brain stem tumor and the leading cause of pediatric cancer-related death. To date, these tumors remain incurable, underscoring the need for efficacious therapies. In this study, we demonstrate that the immune checkpoint TIM-3 (HAVCR2) is highly expressed in both tumor cells and microenvironmental cells, mainly microglia and macrophages, in DIPG. We show that inhibition of TIM-3 in syngeneic models of DIPG prolongs survival and produces long-term survivors free of disease that harbor immune memory. This antitumor effect is driven by the direct effect of TIM-3 inhibition in tumor cells, the coordinated action of several immune cell populations, and the secretion of chemokines/cytokines that create a proinflammatory tumor microenvironment favoring a potent antitumor immune response. This work uncovers TIM-3 as a bona fide target in DIPG and supports its clinical translation. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Interactions of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing LAMP3+ dendritic cells with CD4+ regulatory T cells and CD8+ exhausted T cells: synergistically remodeling of the immunosuppressive microenvironment in cervical cancer and therapeutic implication

    In Cancer Communications (London, England) on 1 November 2023 by Qu, X., Wang, Y., et al.

    PubMed

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Although immunotherapy has been applied in clinical practice, its therapeutic efficacy remains far from satisfactory, necessitating further investigation of the mechanism of CC immune remodeling and exploration of novel treatment targets. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of CC immune remodeling and explore potential therapeutic targets. We conducted single-cell RNA sequencing on a total of 17 clinical specimens, including normal cervical tissues, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and CC tissues. To validate our findings, we conducted multicolor immunohistochemical staining of CC tissues and constructed a subcutaneous tumorigenesis model in C57BL/6 mice using murine CC cell lines (TC1) to evaluate the effectiveness of combination therapy involving indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibition and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). We used the unpaired two-tailed Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney test, or Kruskal-Wallis test to compare continuous data between two groups and one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test to compare data between multiple groups. Malignant cervical epithelial cells did not manifest noticeable signs of tumor escape, whereas lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3-positive (LAMP3+ ) dendritic cells (DCs) in a mature state with immunoregulatory roles were found to express IDO1 and affect tryptophan metabolism. These cells interacted with both tumor-reactive exhausted CD8+ T cells and CD4+ regulatory T cells, synergistically forming a vicious immunosuppressive cycle and mediating CC immune escape. Further validation through multicolor immunohistochemical staining showed co-localization of neoantigen-reactive T cells (CD3+ , CD4+ /CD8+ , and PD-1+ ) and LAMP3+ DCs (CD80+ and PD-L1+ ). Additionally, a combination of the IDO1 inhibitor with an ICB agent significantly reduced tumor volume in the mouse model of CC compared with an ICB agent alone. Our study suggested that a combination treatment consisting of targeting IDO1 and ICB agent could improve the therapeutic efficacy of current CC immunotherapies. Additionally, our results provided crucial insights for designing drugs and conducting future clinical trials for CC. © 2023 The Authors. Cancer Communications published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of SUN YAT-SEN UNIVERSITY CANCER CENTER.

    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    TIM-3 increases the abundance of type-2 dendritic cells during Leishmania donovani infection by enhancing IL-10 production via STAT3.

    In Cell Death & Disease on 18 May 2023 by Mishra, M., Yadav, M., et al.

    PubMed

    The outcome of the disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania donovani (LD), largely relies on the relative dominance of host-protective type-1 T helper (Th1) cell response versus disease-promoting type-2 T helper (Th2) cell response. The Th1 and Th2 responses, in turn, are believed to be elicited by type-1 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1) and type-2 conventional DCs (cDC2), respectively. However, it is still unknown which DC subtype (cDC1 or cDC2) predominates during chronic LD infection and the molecular mechanism governing such occurrence. Here we report that in chronically infected mice, the splenic cDC1-cDC2 balance shifted toward the cDC2 subtype and that the receptor T cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein-3 (TIM-3) expressed by DCs played a key role in mediating this effect. Transfer of TIM-3-silenced DCs in fact prevented the predominance of the cDC2 subtype in mice with chronic LD infection. We also found that LD actually upregulated TIM-3 expression on DCs by triggering a TIM-3-mediated signaling pathway STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3)→interleukin (IL)-10→c-Src→transcription factors Ets1, Ets2, USF1, and USF2. Notably, TIM-3 promoted STAT3 activation via a non-receptor tyrosine kinase Btk. Adoptive transfer experiments further demonstrated a critical role for STAT3-driven TIM-3 upregulation on DCs in increasing cDC2 abundance in chronically infected mice, which ultimately aided disease pathogenesis by augmenting Th2 responses. These findings document a new immunoregulatory mechanism contributing to disease pathology during LD infection and define TIM-3 as a key mediator of this process. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Orthogonal cytokine engineering enables novel synthetic effector states escaping canonical exhaustion in tumor-rejecting CD8+ T cells.

    In Nature Immunology on 1 May 2023 by Corria-Osorio, J., Carmona, S. J., et al.

    PubMed

    To date, no immunotherapy approaches have managed to fully overcome T-cell exhaustion, which remains a mandatory fate for chronically activated effector cells and a major therapeutic challenge. Understanding how to reprogram CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes away from exhausted effector states remains an elusive goal. Our work provides evidence that orthogonal gene engineering of T cells to secrete an interleukin (IL)-2 variant binding the IL-2Rβγ receptor and the alarmin IL-33 reprogrammed adoptively transferred T cells to acquire a novel, synthetic effector state, which deviated from canonical exhaustion and displayed superior effector functions. These cells successfully overcame homeostatic barriers in the host and led-in the absence of lymphodepletion or exogenous cytokine support-to high levels of engraftment and tumor regression. Our work unlocks a new opportunity of rationally engineering synthetic CD8+ T-cell states endowed with the ability to avoid exhaustion and control advanced solid tumors. © 2023. The Author(s).

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Multiagent Intratumoral Immunotherapy Can Be Effective in A20 Lymphoma Clearance and Generation of Systemic T Cell Immunity.

    In Cancers on 24 March 2023 by Gilman, K. E., Matiatos, A. P., et al.

    PubMed

    The use of immunotherapies has shown promise against selective human cancers. Identifying novel combinations of innate and adaptive immune cell-activating agents that can work synergistically to suppress tumor growth and provide additional protection against resistance or recurrence is critical. The A20 murine lymphoma model was used to evaluate the effect of various combination immunotherapies administered intratumorally. We show that single-modality treatment with Poly(I:C) or GM-CSF-secreting allogeneic cells only modestly controls tumor growth, whereas when given together there is an improved benefit, with 50% of animals clearing tumors and surviving long-term. Neither heat nor irradiation of GM-CSF-secreting cells enhanced the response over use of live cells. The use of a TIM-3 inhibitory antibody and an OX40 agonist in combination with Poly(I:C) allowed for improved tumor control, with 90% of animals clearing tumors with or without a combination of GM-CSF-secreting cells. Across all treatment groups, mice rejecting their primary A20 tumors were immune to subsequent challenge with A20, and this longstanding immunity was T-cell dependent. The results herein support the use of combinations of innate and adaptive immune activating agents for immunotherapy against lymphoma and should be investigated in other cancer types.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Targeting T cell checkpoints 41BB and LAG3 and myeloid cell CXCR1/CXCR2 results in antitumor immunity and durable response in pancreatic cancer.

    In Nature Cancer on 1 January 2023 by Gulhati, P., Schalck, A., et al.

    PubMed

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is considered non-immunogenic, with trials showing its recalcitrance to PD1 and CTLA4 immune checkpoint therapies (ICTs). Here, we sought to systematically characterize the mechanisms underlying de novo ICT resistance and to identify effective therapeutic options for PDAC. We report that agonist 41BB and antagonist LAG3 ICT alone and in combination, increased survival and antitumor immunity, characterized by modulating T cell subsets with antitumor activity, increased T cell clonality and diversification, decreased immunosuppressive myeloid cells and increased antigen presentation/decreased immunosuppressive capability of myeloid cells. Translational analyses confirmed the expression of 41BB and LAG3 in human PDAC. Since single and dual ICTs were not curative, T cell-activating ICTs were combined with a CXCR1/2 inhibitor targeting immunosuppressive myeloid cells. Triple therapy resulted in durable complete responses. Given similar profiles in human PDAC and the availability of these agents for clinical testing, our findings provide a testable hypothesis for this lethal disease. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mass Spec
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Stromal Reprogramming by FAK Inhibition Overcomes Radiation Resistance to Allow for Immune Priming and Response to Checkpoint Blockade.

    In Cancer Discovery on 2 December 2022 by Krisnawan, V. E., Belle, J. I., et al.

    PubMed

    The effects of radiotherapy (RT) on tumor immunity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are not well understood. To better understand if RT can prime antigen-specific T-cell responses, we analyzed human PDAC tissues and mouse models. In both settings, there was little evidence of RT-induced T-cell priming. Using in vitro systems, we found that tumor-stromal components, including fibroblasts and collagen, cooperate to blunt RT efficacy and impair RT-induced interferon signaling. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibition rescued RT efficacy in vitro and in vivo, leading to tumor regression, T-cell priming, and enhanced long-term survival in PDAC mouse models. Based on these data, we initiated a clinical trial of defactinib in combination with stereotactic body RT in patients with PDAC (NCT04331041). Analysis of PDAC tissues from these patients showed stromal reprogramming mirroring our findings in genetically engineered mouse models. Finally, the addition of checkpoint immunotherapy to RT and FAK inhibition in animal models led to complete tumor regression and long-term survival. Checkpoint immunotherapeutics have not been effective in PDAC, even when combined with RT. One possible explanation is that RT fails to prime T-cell responses in PDAC. Here, we show that FAK inhibition allows RT to prime tumor immunity and unlock responsiveness to checkpoint immunotherapy. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 2711. ©2022 American Association for Cancer Research.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    The microbiome-derived metabolite TMAO drives immune activation and boosts responses to immune checkpoint blockade in pancreatic cancer.

    In Science Immunology on 9 September 2022 by Mirji, G., Worth, A., et al.

    PubMed

    The composition of the gut microbiome can control innate and adaptive immunity and has emerged as a key regulator of tumor growth, especially in the context of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. However, the underlying mechanisms for how the microbiome affects tumor growth remain unclear. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tends to be refractory to therapy, including ICB. Using a nontargeted, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomic screen, we identified the gut microbe-derived metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which enhanced antitumor immunity to PDAC. Delivery of TMAO intraperitoneally or via a dietary choline supplement to orthotopic PDAC-bearing mice reduced tumor growth, associated with an immunostimulatory tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) phenotype, and activated effector T cell response in the tumor microenvironment. Mechanistically, TMAO potentiated the type I interferon (IFN) pathway and conferred antitumor effects in a type I IFN-dependent manner. Delivering TMAO-primed macrophages intravenously produced similar antitumor effects. Combining TMAO with ICB (anti-PD1 and/or anti-Tim3) in a mouse model of PDAC significantly reduced tumor burden and improved survival beyond TMAO or ICB alone. Last, the levels of bacteria containing CutC (an enzyme that generates trimethylamine, the TMAO precursor) correlated with long-term survival in patients with PDAC and improved response to anti-PD1 in patients with melanoma. Together, our study identifies the gut microbial metabolite TMAO as a driver of antitumor immunity and lays the groundwork for potential therapeutic strategies targeting TMAO.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    Leishmania donovani Impedes Antileishmanial Immunity by Suppressing Dendritic Cells via the TIM-3 Receptor.

    In mBio on 30 August 2022 by Akhtar, M. N., Kumar, S., et al.

    PubMed

    An immunological hallmark of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania donovani, is profound immunosuppression. However, the molecular basis for this immune dysfunction has remained ill defined. Since dendritic cells (DCs) normally initiate antileishmanial immune responses, we investigated whether DCs are dysregulated during L. donovani infection and assessed its role in immunosuppression. Accordingly, we determined the regulatory effect of L. donovani on DCs. Notably, it is still unclear whether L. donovani activates or suppresses DCs. In addition, the molecular mechanism and the relevant receptor (or receptors) mediating the immunoregulatory effect of L. donovani on DCs are largely undefined. Here, we report that L. donovani inhibited DC activation/maturation by transmitting inhibitory signals through the T cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein-3 (TIM-3) receptor and thereby suppressed antileishmanial immune responses. L. donovani in fact triggered TIM-3 phosphorylation in DCs, which in turn recruited and activated a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Btk. Btk then inhibited DC activation/maturation by suppressing the NF-κB pathway in an interleukin-10 (IL-10)-dependent manner. Treatment with TIM-3-specific blocking antibody or suppressed expression of TIM-3 or downstream effector Btk made DCs resistant to the inhibitory effects of L. donovani. Adoptive transfer experiments further demonstrated that TIM-3-mediated L. donovani-induced inhibition of DCs plays a crucial role in the suppression of the antileishmanial immune response in vivo. These findings identify TIM-3 as a new regulator of the antileishmanial immune response and demonstrate a unique mechanism for host immunosuppression associated with L. donovani infection. IMPORTANCE Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a poverty-related disease caused by Leishmania donovani, is ranked by the World Health Organization as the second largest killer parasitic disease in the world. The protective immune response against VL is primarily regulated by dendritic cells (DCs), which upon activation/maturation initiate an antileishmanial immune response. However, it remains obscure whether L. donovani promotes or inhibits DC activation. In addition, the receptor through which L. donovani exerts immunoregulatory effect on DCs is ill defined. Here, we for the first time report that L. donovani inhibits DC activation and maturation via the T cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein-3 (TIM-3) receptor and thereby attenuates the capacity of DCs to trigger antileishmanial immune responses in vivo. In fact, we demonstrate here that suppression of TIM-3 expression in DCs augments antileishmanial immunity. Our study uncovers a unique mechanism by which L. donovani subverts host immune responses and suggests TIM-3 as a potential new target for immunotherapy against VL.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Dapl1 controls NFATc2 activation to regulate CD8+ T cell exhaustion and responses in chronic infection and cancer.

    In Nature Cell Biology on 1 July 2022 by Zhu, L., Zhou, X., et al.

    PubMed

    CD8+ T cells are central mediators of immune responses against infections and cancer. Here we identified Dapl1 as a crucial regulator of CD8+ T cell responses to cancer and infections. Dapl1 deficiency promotes the expansion of tumour-infiltrating effector memory-like CD8+ T cells and prevents their functional exhaustion, coupled with increased antitumour immunity and improved efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. Dapl1 controls activation of NFATc2, a transcription factor required for the effector function of CD8+ T cells. Although NFATc2 mediates induction of the immune checkpoint receptor Tim3, competent NFATc2 activation prevents functional exhaustion of CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, exhausted CD8+ T cells display attenuated NFATc2 activation due to Tim3-mediated feedback inhibition; Dapl1 deletion rescues NFATc2 activation and thereby prevents dysfunction of exhausted CD8+ T cells in chronic infection and cancer. These findings establish Dapl1 as a crucial regulator of CD8+ T cell immunity and a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    TNF-α-Secreting Lung Tumor-Infiltrated Monocytes Play a Pivotal Role During Anti-PD-L1 Immunotherapy.

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 3 May 2022 by De Ridder, K., Locy, H., et al.

    PubMed

    Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) of the PD-1 pathway revolutionized the survival forecast for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Yet, the majority of PD-L1+ NSCLC patients are refractory to anti-PD-L1 therapy. Recent observations indicate a pivotal role for the PD-L1+ tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in therapy failure. As the latter comprise a heterogenous population in the lung tumor microenvironment, we applied an orthotopic Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) model to evaluate 11 different tumor-residing myeloid subsets in response to anti-PD-L1 therapy. While we observed significantly reduced fractions of tumor-infiltrating MHC-IIlow macrophages and monocytes, serological levels of TNF-α restored in lung tumor-bearing mice. Notably, we demonstrated in vivo and in vitro that anti-PD-L1 therapy mediated a monocyte-specific production of, and response to TNF-α, further accompanied by their significant upregulation of CD80, VISTA, LAG-3, SIRP-α and TIM-3. Nevertheless, co-blockade of PD-L1 and TNF-α did not reduce LLC tumor growth. A phenomenon that was partly explained by the observation that monocytes and TNF-α play a Janus-faced role in anti-PD-L1 therapy-mediated CTL stimulation. This was endorsed by the observation that monocytes appeared crucial to effectively boost T cell-mediated LLC killing in vitro upon combined PD-L1 with LAG-3 or SIRP-α blockade. Hence, this study enlightens the biomarker potential of lung tumor-infiltrated monocytes to define more effective ICB combination strategies. Copyright © 2022 De Ridder, Locy, Piccioni, Zuazo, Awad, Verhulst, Van Bulck, De Vlaeminck, Lecocq, Reijmen, De Mey, De Beck, Ertveldt, Pintelon, Timmermans, Escors, Keyaerts, Breckpot and Goyvaerts.

    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Biochemistry and Molecular biology
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    In Vivo Evaluation of Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probe for TIM3 Targeting in Mouse Glioma.

    In Molecular Imaging and Biology : MIB : the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging on 1 April 2022 by Zhang, M., Zhou, Q., et al.

    PubMed

    Current checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy strategies in glioblastoma are challenged by mechanisms of resistance including an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain 3 (TIM3) is a late-phase checkpoint receptor traditionally associated with T cell exhaustion. We apply fluorescent imaging techniques to explore feasibility of in vivo visualization of the immune state in a glioblastoma mouse model. TIM3 monoclonal antibody was conjugated to a near-infrared fluorescent dye, IRDye-800CW (800CW). The TIM3 experimental conjugate and isotype control were assessed for specificity with immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry in murine cell lines (GL261 glioma and RAW264.7 macrophages). C57BL/6 mice with orthotopically implanted GL261 cells were imaged in vivo over 4 days after intravenous TIM3-800CW injection to assess tumor-specific uptake. Cell-specific uptake was then assessed on histologic sections. The experimental TIM3-800CW, but not its isotype control, bound to RAW264.7 macrophages in vitro. Specificity to RAW264.7 macrophages and not GL261 tumor cells was quantitatively confirmed with the corresponding clone of TIM3 on flow cytometry. In vivo fluorescence imaging of the 800CW signal was localized to the intracranial tumor and significantly higher for the TIM3-800CW cohort, relative to non-targeting isotype control, immediately after tail vein injection and for up to 48 h after injection. Resected organs of tumor bearing mice showed significantly higher uptake in the liver and spleen. TIM3-800CW was seen to co-stain with CD3 (13%), CD11b (29%), and CD206 (26%). We propose fluorescent imaging of immune cell imaging as a potential strategy for monitoring and localizing immunologically relevant foci in the setting of brain tumors. Alternative markers and target validation will further clarify the temporal relationship of immunosuppressive effector cells throughout glioma resistance. © 2021. World Molecular Imaging Society.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Cell Biology
    • ,
    • Genetics
    Adenosine 2A receptor and TIM3 suppress cytolytic killing of tumor cells via cytoskeletal polarization.

    In Communications Biology on 10 January 2022 by Edmunds, G. L., Wong, C. C. W., et al.

    PubMed

    Tumors generate an immune-suppressive environment that prevents effective killing of tumor cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTL). It remains largely unclear upon which cell type and at which stage of the anti-tumor response mediators of suppression act. We have combined an in vivo tumor model with a matching in vitro reconstruction of the tumor microenvironment based on tumor spheroids to identify suppressors of anti-tumor immunity that directly act on interaction between CTL and tumor cells and to determine mechanisms of action. An adenosine 2A receptor antagonist, as enhanced by blockade of TIM3, slowed tumor growth in vivo. Engagement of the adenosine 2A receptor and TIM3 reduced tumor cell killing in spheroids, impaired CTL cytoskeletal polarization ex vivo and in vitro and inhibited CTL infiltration into tumors and spheroids. With this role in CTL killing, blocking A2AR and TIM3 may complement therapies that enhance T cell priming, e.g. anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4. © 2022. The Author(s).

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Elimination of acquired resistance to PD-1 blockade via the concurrent depletion of tumour cells and immunosuppressive cells.

    In Nature Biomedical Engineering on 1 November 2021 by Xue, G., Wang, Z., et al.

    PubMed

    Antigen release resulting from the death of tumour cells induced by chemotherapies and targeted therapies can augment the antitumour responses induced by immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). However, tumours responding to ICB therapies often become resistant to them. Here we show that the specific targeting of tumour cells promotes the growth of tumour-cell variants that are resistant to ICB, and that the acquired resistance can be overcome via the concurrent depletion of tumour cells and of major types of immunosuppressive cell via a monoclonal antibody binding the enzyme CD73, which we identified as highly expressed on tumour cells and on regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumour-associated macrophages, but not on cytolytic T lymphocytes, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. In mice with murine tumours, the systemic administration of anti-PD1 antibodies and anti-CD73 antibodies conjugated to a near-infrared dye prevented near-infrared-irradiated tumours from acquiring resistance to ICB and resulted in the eradication of advanced tumours. The elimination of immunosuppressive cells may overcome acquired resistance to ICB across a range of tumour types and combination therapies. © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Regulation of Th1 T Cell Differentiation by Iron via Upregulation of T Cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Containing Protein-3 (TIM-3).

    In Frontiers in Immunology on 11 June 2021 by Pfeifhofer-Obermair, C., Tymoszuk, P., et al.

    PubMed

    Iron plays an important role in host-pathogen interactions, in being an essential element for both pathogen and host metabolism, but also by impacting immune cell differentiation and anti-microbial effector pathways. Iron has been implicated to affect the differentiation of T lymphocytes during inflammation, however, so far the underlying mechanism remained elusive. In order to study the role of iron in T cell differentiation we here investigated how dietary iron supplementation affects T cell function and outcome in a model of chronic infection with the intracellular bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Iron loading prior to infection fostered bacterial burden and, unexpectedly, reduced differentiation of CD4+ T helper cells type 1 (Th1) and expression of interferon-gamma (IFNγ), a key cytokine to control infections with intracellular pathogens. This effect could be traced back to iron-mediated induction of the negative immune checkpoint regulator T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3), expressed on the surface of this T cell subset. In vitro experiments demonstrated that iron supplementation specifically upregulated mRNA and protein expression of TIM-3 in naïve Th cells in a dose-depdendent manner and hindered priming of those T cells towards Th1 differentiation. Importantly, administration of TIM-3 blocking antibodies to iron-loaded mice infected with S. Typhimurium virtually restored Th1 cell differentiation and significantly improved bacterial control. Our data uncover a novel mechanism by which iron modulates CD4+ cell differentiation and functionality and hence impacts infection control with intracellular pathogens. Specifically, iron inhibits the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells to protective IFNγ producing Th1 lymphocytes via stimulation of TIM-3 expression. Finally, TIM-3 may serve as a novel drug target for the treatment of chronic infections with intracellular pathogens, specifically in iron loading diseases. Copyright © 2021 Pfeifhofer-Obermair, Tymoszuk, Nairz, Schroll, Klais, Demetz, Engl, Brigo and Weiss.

    • In Vivo
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Genetics
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    The inhibitory receptor TIM-3 limits activation of the cGAS-STING pathway in intra-tumoral dendritic cells by suppressing extracellular DNA uptake.

    In Immunity on 8 June 2021 by de Mingo Pulido, A., Hänggi, K., et al.

    PubMed

    Blockade of the inhibitory receptor TIM-3 shows efficacy in cancer immunotherapy clinical trials. TIM-3 inhibits production of the chemokine CXCL9 by XCR1+ classical dendritic cells (cDC1), thereby limiting antitumor immunity in mammary carcinomas. We found that increased CXCL9 expression by splenic cDC1s upon TIM-3 blockade required type I interferons and extracellular DNA. Chemokine expression as well as combinatorial efficacy of TIM-3 blockade and paclitaxel chemotherapy were impaired by deletion of Cgas and Sting. TIM-3 blockade increased uptake of extracellular DNA by cDC1 through an endocytic process that resulted in cytoplasmic localization. DNA uptake and efficacy of TIM-3 blockade required DNA binding by HMGB1, while galectin-9-induced cell surface clustering of TIM-3 was necessary for its suppressive function. Human peripheral blood cDC1s also took up extracellular DNA upon TIM-3 blockade. Thus, TIM-3 regulates endocytosis of extracellular DNA and activation of the cytoplasmic DNA sensing cGAS-STING pathway in cDC1s, with implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying TIM-3 immunotherapy. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cancer Research
    • ,
    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Reshaping the Immune Microenvironment by Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus in Murine Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

    In Molecular Therapy on 3 February 2021 by Zhang, L., Wang, W., et al.

    PubMed

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the major type of pancreatic malignancy with very poor prognosis. Despite the promising results of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in some solid tumors, immunotherapy is less effective for PDAC due to its immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). In this report, we established an immunocompetent syngeneic PDAC model and investigated the effect of oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (oHSV) on the composition of TME immune cells. The oHSV treatment significantly reduced tumor burden and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Further, by single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, we demonstrated that oHSV administration downregulated tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), especially the anti-inflammatory macrophages, and increased the percentage of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, including activated cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and T helper (Th)1 cells. Besides, the combination of oHSV and immune checkpoint modulators extended the lifespan of the tumor-bearing mice. Overall, our data suggested that oHSV reshapes the TME of PDAC by boosting the immune activity and leads to improved responsiveness of PDAC to immunotherapy. Copyright © 2020 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Cell Culture
    • ,
    • Mus musculus (House mouse)
    • ,
    • Cancer Research
    Oxysophocarpine suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth and sensitizes the therapeutic blockade of anti-Lag-3 via reducing FGL1 expression.

    In Cancer Medicine on 1 October 2020 by Wang, J., Wei, W., et al.

    PubMed

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy with limited effective treatments and ranks as the second most lethal tumor. Immunotherapy has brought great hope for HCC treatment. Oxysophocarpine is a bioactive alkaloid which poses various pharmacological functions including neuroprotective, anti-virus, anti-convulsant, and anti-nociception. However, there is little systematic study of Oxysophocarpine against HCC and its underlying potential and mechanism combined with immunotherapy in HCC treatment remain poorly unknown. This study was aimed to investigate whether Oxysophocarpine can distinctly suppress HCC cells and sensitize the immunotherapy of CD8+ T cells against HCC. We used HepG2, Hepa1-6, and primary CD8+ T cells to perform in vitro assays and Hepa1-6 subcutaneous tumor to conduct in vivo assay. Oxysophocarpine inhibited the proliferation and increased the apoptosis of HepG2 and Hepa1-6 cells, meanwhile suppressed the migration of HepG2 and Hepa1-6 cells. Oxysophocarpine sensitized the Lag-3 immunotherapy effect of CD8+ T cells against HCC in vivo and in vitro by decreasing Fibrinogen-like protein 1 (FGL1) expression through downregulating IL-6-mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling, whereas Oxysophocarpine treatment had a little effect of CD8+ T cells cytotoxicity function against HCC with PD-1, Tim-3, or TIGIT blockade. Our studies provided preclinical basis for clinical application of Oxysophocarpine. © 2020 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley Sons Ltd.

    • Immunology and Microbiology
    Oncolytic virus-derived type I interferon restricts CAR T cell therapy.

    In Nature Communications on 24 June 2020 by Evgin, L., Huff, A. L., et al.

    PubMed

    The application of adoptive T cell therapies, including those using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells, to solid tumors requires combinatorial strategies to overcome immune suppression associated with the tumor microenvironment. Here we test whether the inflammatory nature of oncolytic viruses and their ability to remodel the tumor microenvironment may help to recruit and potentiate the functionality of CAR T cells. Contrary to our hypothesis, VSVmIFNβ infection is associated with attrition of murine EGFRvIII CAR T cells in a B16EGFRvIII model, despite inducing a robust proinflammatory shift in the chemokine profile. Mechanistically, type I interferon (IFN) expressed following infection promotes apoptosis, activation, and inhibitory receptor expression, and interferon-insensitive CAR T cells enable combinatorial therapy with VSVmIFNβ. Our study uncovers an unexpected mechanism of therapeutic interference, and prompts further investigation into the interaction between CAR T cells and oncolytic viruses to optimize combination therapy.

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